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Society For Software Quality
Computer software, or simply software, is a part of a computer system that consists of data or computer instructions, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built. In computer science and software engineering, computer software is all information processed by computer systems, programs and data. Computer software includes computer programs, libraries and related non-executable data, such as online documentation or digital media. Computer hardware
Computer hardware
and software require each other and neither can be realistically used on its own. At the lowest level, executable code consists of machine language instructions specific to an individual processor—typically a central processing unit (CPU). A machine language consists of groups of binary values signifying processor instructions that change the state of the computer from its preceding state
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Software (other)
Software
Software
usually refers to instructions for computer hardware to execute. Software
Software
may also refer to:IEEE Software, a magazine Software
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Streaming Media
Streaming media
Streaming media
is multimedia that is constantly received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider. The verb "to stream" refers to the process of delivering or obtaining media in this manner; the term refers to the delivery method of the medium, rather than the medium itself, and is an alternative to file downloading, a process in which the end-user obtains the entire file for the content before watching or listening to it. A client end-user can use their media player to start playing the data file (such as a digital file of a movie or song) before the entire file has been transmitted. Distinguishing delivery method from the media distributed applies specifically to telecommunications networks, as most of the delivery systems are either inherently streaming (e.g. radio, television, streaming apps) or inherently non-streaming (e.g. books, video cassettes, audio CDs)
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Interpreter (computing)
In computer science, an interpreter is a computer program that directly executes, i.e. performs, instructions written in a programming or scripting language, without requiring them previously to have been compiled into a machine language program. An interpreter generally uses one of the following strategies for program execution:parse the source code and perform its behavior directly; translate source code into some efficient intermediate representation and immediately execute this; explicitly execute stored precompiled code[1] made by a compiler which is part of the interpreter system.Early versions of Lisp programming language
Lisp programming language
and Dartmouth BASIC would be examples of the first type. Perl, Python, MATLAB, and Ruby are examples of the second, while UCSD Pascal
UCSD Pascal
is an example of the third type
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Assembly Language
An assembly (or assembler) language,[1] often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language for a computer, or other programmable device, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the language and the architecture's machine code instructions. Each assembly language is specific to a particular computer architecture. In contrast, most high-level programming languages are generally portable across multiple architectures but require interpreting or compiling. Assembly language
Assembly language
may also be called symbolic machine code.[2] Assembly language
Assembly language
is converted into executable machine code by a utility program referred to as an assembler. The conversion process is referred to as assembly, or assembling the source code
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History Of Software
Software
Software
can be defined as programmed instructions stored in the memory of stored-program digital computers for execution by the processor. The design for what would have been the first piece of software was written by Ada Lovelace
Ada Lovelace
in the 19th century but was never implemented. Alan Turing
Alan Turing
is credited with being the first person to come up with a theory for software, which led to the two academic fields of computer science and software engineering. The first generation of software for early stored program digital computers in the late 1940s had its instructions written directly in binary code. Early on, it was very expensive when it was in low quantities, but as it became more popular in the 1980s, prices dropped significantly
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Algorithm
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm (/ˈælɡərɪðəm/ ( listen) AL-gə-ridh-əm) is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems. Algorithms can perform calculation, data processing and automated reasoning tasks. An algorithm is an effective method that can be expressed within a finite amount of space and time[1] and in a well-defined formal language[2] for calculating a function.[3] Starting from an initial state and initial input (perhaps empty),[4] the instructions describe a computation that, when executed, proceeds through a finite[5] number of well-defined successive states, eventually producing "output"[6] and terminating at a final ending state. The transition from one state to the next is not necessarily deterministic; some algorithms, known as randomized algorithms, incorporate random input.[7] The concept of algorithm has existed for centuries and the use of the concept can be ascribed to Greek mathematicians, e.g
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Ada Lovelace
Augusta Ada King-Noel, Countess of Lovelace (née Byron; 10 December 1815 – 27 November 1852) was an English mathematician and writer, chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage's proposed mechanical general-purpose computer, the Analytical Engine. She was the first to recognise that the machine had applications beyond pure calculation, and published the first algorithm intended to be carried out by such a machine. As a result, she is sometimes regarded as the first to recognise the full potential of a "computing machine" and the first computer programmer.[1][2][3] Ada Lovelace
Ada Lovelace
was the only legitimate child of the poet Lord Byron, and his wife Anne Isabella Milbanke ("Annabella"), Lady Wentworth.[4] All of Byron's other children were born out of wedlock to other women.[5] Byron separated from his wife a month after Ada was born and left England forever four months later
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Analytical Engine
The Analytical Engine
Analytical Engine
was a proposed mechanical general-purpose computer designed by English mathematician and computer pioneer Charles Babbage.[2][3] It was first described in 1837 as the successor to Babbage's difference engine, a design for a mechanical computer.[4] The Analytical Engine
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List Of Software Categories
Software categories are groups of software. They allow software to be understood in terms of those categories instead of the particularities of each package. Different classification schemes consider different aspects of software.Contents1 Categorization approaches1.1 Function 1.2 Copyright
Copyright
status1.2.1 Free software 1.2.2 Open source software 1.2.3 Copylefted software 1.2.4 Non-copylefted free software 1.2.5 Shareware 1.2.6 Freeware2 Microsoft TechNet and AIS Software categories2.1 Vertical applications3 References 4 External linksCategorization approaches[edit] Function[edit] Computer software
Computer software
can be put into categories based on common function, type, or field of use. There are three broad classifications: Application software
Application software
is the general designation of computer programs for performing tasks
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E-commerce
E-commerce
E-commerce
is the activity of buying or selling of products and services online or over the internet. Electronic commerce draws on technologies such as mobile commerce, electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, Internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange (EDI), inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems. Modern electronic commerce typically uses the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
for at least one part of the transaction's life cycle although it may also use other technologies such as e-mail
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Digital Distribution
Digital distribution (also referred to as content delivery, online distribution, or electronic software distribution (ESD), among others) is the delivery or distribution of media content such as audio, video, software and video games.[1] The term is generally used to describe distribution over an online delivery medium, such as the Internet, thus bypassing physical distribution methods, such as paper, compact discs, and VHS
VHS
videocassettes. The term online distribution is typically applied to freestanding products; downloadable add-ons for other products are more commonly known as downloadable content. With the advancement of network bandwidth capabilities, online distribution became prominent in the 21st century. Content distributed online may be streamed or downloaded, and often consists of books, films and television programs, music, software, and video games
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E-book
An electronic book (or e-book) is a book publication made available in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic devices.[1] Although sometimes defined as "an electronic version of a printed book",[2] some e-books exist without a printed equivalent. Commercially produced and sold e-books are usually[dubious – discuss] intended to be read on dedicated e-reader devices. However, almost any sophisticated computer device that features a controllable viewing screen can also be used to read e-books, including desktop computers, laptops, tablets and smartphones. In the 2000s, there was a trend of print and e-book sales moving to the Internet[citation needed], where readers buy traditional paper books and e-books on websites using e-commerce systems
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Online Banking
Online banking, also known as internet banking, it is an electronic payment system that enables customers of a bank or other financial institution to conduct a range of financial transactions through the financial institution's website
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Machine Language
Machine code
Machine code
or machine language is a set of instructions executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU). Each instruction performs a very specific task, such as a load, a jump, or an ALU operation on a unit of data in a CPU register or memory. Every program directly executed by a CPU is made up of a series of such instructions
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DVD-by-mail
DVD-by-mail
DVD-by-mail
is a business model in which customers rent DVDs and Blu-rays of films and television shows, video games and VCDs, among other film media online, for delivery to the customer by mail. Generally, all interaction between the renter and the rental company takes place through the company's website, using an e-commerce model. Typically, a customer chooses from a list of film, show or game titles online and selects the titles she or he most wants to watch. As a customer's requested titles become available, the company sends them out to the customer through the mail
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