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Social Psychology
Social psychology
Social psychology
is the study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others.[1] In this definition, scientific refers to the empirical investigation using the scientific method. The terms thoughts, feelings, and behaviors refer to psychological variables that can be measured in humans. The statement that others' presence may be imagined or implied suggests that humans are malleable to social influences even when alone, such as when watching television or following internalized cultural norms. Social psychologists typically explain human behavior as a result of the interaction of mental states and social situations. Social psychologists examine factors that cause behaviors to unfold in a given way in the presence of others. They study conditions under which certain behavior, actions, and feelings occur
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List Of Psychotherapies
This is an alphabetical list of psychotherapies. See the main article psychotherapy for a description of what psychotherapy is and how it developed (see also counseling, and the list of counseling topics). This list contains some approaches that may not call themselves a psychotherapy but have a similar aim, of improving mental health and well being through talk and other means of communication. In the 20th century, a great number of psychotherapies were created. All of these face continuous change in popularity, methods and effectiveness. Sometimes they are self-administered, either individually, in pairs, small groups or larger groups. However, a professional practitioner will usually use a combination of therapies and approaches, often in a team treatment process that involves reading/talking/reporting to other professional practitioners. The older established therapies usually have a code of ethics, professional associations, training programs, and so on
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Behavioural Genetics
Behavioural genetics
Behavioural genetics
(Commonwealth English) or behavioral genetics (American English), also referred to as behaviour genetics, is a field of scientific research that uses genetic methods to investigate the nature and origins of individual differences in behaviour. While the name "behavioural genetics" connotes a focus on genetic influences, the field broadly investigates genetic and environmental influences, using research designs that allow removal of the confounding of genes and environment. Behavioural genetics
Behavioural genetics
was founded as a scientific discipline by Francis Galton
Francis Galton
in the late 19th century, only to be discredited through association with eugenics movements before and during World War II
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Consumer Behaviour
Consumer behaviour
Consumer behaviour
is the study of individuals, groups, or organizations and all the activities associated with the purchase, use and disposal of goods and services, including the consumer's emotional, mental and behavioural responses that precede or follow these activities. Consumer behaviour
Consumer behaviour
emerged in the 1940s and 50s as a distinct sub-discipline in the marketing area. Consumer behaviour
Consumer behaviour
is an inter-disciplinary social science that blends elements from psychology, sociology, social anthropology, ethnography, marketing and economics, especially behavioural economics. It examines how emotions, attitudes and preferences affect buying behaviour
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Quantitative Psychology
Quantitative psychology
Quantitative psychology
is a field of scientific study that focuses on the mathematical modeling, research design and methodology, and statistical analysis of human or animal psychological processes.[1] Quantitative psychologists develop and analyze a wide variety of research methods, including those of psychometrics, a field concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement.[2] Psychologists have long contributed to statistical and mathematical analysis, and quantitative psychology is now a specialty recognized by the American Psychological Association. Doctoral degrees are awarded in this field in a number of universities in Europe and North America, and quantitative psychologists have been in high demand in industry, government, and academia
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Military Psychology
Military
Military
psychology is the research, design and application of psychological theories and empirical data towards understanding, predicting, and countering behaviours either in friendly or enemy forces or the civilian population that may be undesirable, threatening or potentially dangerous to the conduct of military operations. Military
Military
psychology transforms from sub-branch groups of different psychology disciplines into a tool used by the military, as will all tools of the military, to enable the troops to better survive the stresses of war while using psychological principles to unbalance the enemy forces for easier wins.[1] All stresses and psychological illnesses that military psychology looks at are not specific only to the military. However, soldiers tend to face a specific combination of these otherwise generic stresses
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Applied Behavior Analysis
Applied behavior analysis
Applied behavior analysis
(ABA) is a scientific discipline concerned with applying techniques based upon the principles of learning to change behavior of social significance.[1][2] It is the applied form of behavior analysis; the other two forms are radical behaviorism (or the philosophy of the science) and the experimental analysis of behavior (or experimental research).[1] The name "applied behavior analysis" has replaced behavior modification because the latter approach suggested attempting to change behavior without clarifying the relevant behavior-environment interactions. In contrast, ABA tries to change behavior by first assessing the functional relationship between a targeted behavior and the environment.[3] Further, the approach often seeks to develop socially acceptable alternatives to aberrant behaviors.[3][4][5] ABA has been brought to bear on a wide range of areas and behavioral problems
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School Psychology
School psychology
School psychology
is a field that applies principles of educational psychology, developmental psychology, clinical psychology, community psychology, and applied behavior analysis to meet children's and adolescents' behavioral health and learning needs in a collaborative manner with educators and parents. School psychologists are educated in psychology, child and adolescent development, child and adolescent psychopathology, education, family and parenting practices, learning theories, and personality theories. They are knowledgeable about effective instruction and effective schools
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Political Psychology
Political psychology
Political psychology
is an interdisciplinary academic field dedicated to understanding politics, politicians and political behavior from a psychological perspective. The relationship between politics and psychology is considered bi-directional, with psychology being used as a lens for understanding politics and politics being used as a lens for understanding psychology. As an interdisciplinary field, political psychology borrows from a wide range of other disciplines, including: anthropology, sociology, international relations, economics, philosophy, media, journalism and history. Political psychology
Political psychology
aims to understand interdependent relationships between individuals and contexts that are influenced by beliefs, motivation, perception, cognition, information processing, learning strategies, socialization and attitude formation
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Sport Psychology
Sport psychology
Sport psychology
is an interdisciplinary science that draws on knowledge from many related fields including biomechanics, physiology, kinesiology and psychology
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Occupational Health Psychology
Occupational health psychology
Occupational health psychology
(OHP) is an interdisciplinary area of psychology that is concerned with the health and safety of workers.[1][2][3] OHP addresses a number of major topic areas including the impact of occupational stressors on physical and mental health, the impact of involuntary unemployment on physical and mental health, work-family balance, workplace violence and other forms of mistreatment, accidents and safety, and interventions designed to improve/protect worker health.[1][2] OHP emerged from two distinct disciplines within applied psychology, na
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Music Psychology
Music
Music
psychology, or the psychology of music, may be regarded as a branch of both psychology and musicology. It aims to explain and understand musical behavior and experience, including the processes through which music is perceived, created, responded to, and incorporated into everyday life.[1][2] Modern music psychology is primarily empirical; its knowledge tends to advance on the basis of interpretations of data collected by systematic observation of and interaction with human participants. Music
Music
psychology is a field of research with practical relevance for many areas, including music performance, composition, education, criticism, and therapy, as well as investigations of human attitude, skill, performance, intelligence, creativity, and social behavior. Music
Music
psychology can shed light on non-psychological aspects of musicology and musical practice
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Traffic Psychology
Traffic psychology
Traffic psychology
is a discipline of psychology that studies the relationship between psychological processes and the behavior of road users. In general, traffic psychology aims to apply theoretical aspects of psychology in order to improve traffic mobility by helping to develop and apply accident countermeasures, as well as by guiding desired behaviors through education and the motivation of road users.[1][2] Behavior is frequently studied in conjunction with accident research in order to assess causes and differences in accident involvement.[1] Traffic psychologists distinguish three motivations of driver behavior: reasoned or planned behavior, impulsive or emotional behavior, and habitual behavior
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Medical Psychology
Medical psychology
Medical psychology
is the application of psychological principles to the practice of medicine, primarily drug-oriented, for both physical and mental disorders. The American Society for the Advancement of Pharmacotherapy defines medical psychology as "that branch of psychology integrating somatic and psychotherapeutic modalities into the management of mental illness and emotional, cognitive, behavioral and substance use disorders". A medical psychologist who holds prescriptive authority for specific psychiatric medications and other pharmaceutical drugs must first obtain specific qualifications in Psy
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Industrial And Organizational Psychology
Industrial and organizational psychology
Industrial and organizational psychology
(I/O psychology), which is also known as occupational psychology, organizational psychology, and work and organizational psychology, is an applied discipline within psychology. I/O psychology is the science of human behaviour relating to work and applies psychological theories and principles to organizations and individuals in their places of work as well as the individual's work-life more generally.[1] I/O psychologists are trained in the scientist–practitioner model. They contribute to an organization's success by improving the performance, motivation, job satisfaction, and occupational safety and health as well as the overall health and well-being of its employees
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Humanistic Psychology
Humanistic
Humanistic
psychology is a psychological perspective that rose to prominence in the mid-20th century in answer to the limitations of Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory and B. F. Skinner's behaviorism.[1] With its roots running from Socrates
Socrates
through the Renaissance, this approach emphasizes individuals' inherent drive towards self-actualization, the process of realizing and expressing one's own capabilities and creativity. It helps the client gain the belief that all people are inherently good.[2] It adopts a holistic approach to human existence and pays special attention to such phenomena as creativity, free will, and positive human potential
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