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Snow Line
The climatic snow line is the boundary between a snow-covered and snow-free surface. The actual snow line may adjust seasonally, and be either significantly higher in elevation, or lower. The permanent snow line is the level above which snow will lie all year.Contents1 Background 2 Snow
Snow
lines of global regions 3 Records 4 Approximate levels 5 See also 6 References 7 FootnotesBackground[edit] Snow
Snow
line is an umbrella term for different interpretations of the boundary between snow-covered surface and snow-free surface. The definitions of the snow line may have different temporal and spatial focus. In many regions the changing snow line reflect seasonal dynamics. The final height of the snow line in a mountain environment at the end of the melting season is subject to climatic variability, and therefore may be different from year to year. The snow line is measured using automatic cameras, aerial photographs, or satellite images
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Frost Line (astrophysics)
In astronomy or planetary science, the frost line, also known as the snow line or ice line, is the particular distance in the solar nebula from the central protostar where it is cold enough for volatile compounds such as water, ammonia, methane, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide to condense into solid ice grains. This condensation temperature depends on the volatile substance and the partial pressure of vapor in the protostar nebula. The actual temperature and distance for the snow line of water ice depend on the physical model used to calculate it and on the theoretical solar nebula model:170 K at 2.7 AU (Hayashi, 1981)[1] 143 K at 3.2 AU to 150 K at 3 AU (Podolak and Zucker, 2010)[2] 3.1 AU (Martin and Livio, 2012)[3] ≈150 K for μm-size grains and ≈200 K for km-size bodies (D'Angelo and Podolak, 2015)[4]The radial position of the condensation/evaporation front varies over time, as the nebula evolves
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Kamchatka
The Kamchatka Peninsula
Peninsula
(Russian: полуо́стров Камча́тка, Poluostrov Kamchatka, IPA: [pəlʊˈostrəf kɐmˈt͡ɕætkə]) is a 1,250-kilometre-long (780 mi) peninsula in the Russian Far East, with an area of about 270,000 km2 (100,000 sq mi).[1] The Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and the Sea of Okhotsk
Sea of Okhotsk
make up the peninsula's eastern and western coastlines, respectively.[2] Immediately offshore along the Pacific coast of the peninsula runs the 10,500-metre (34,400-ft) deep Kuril–Kamchatka Trench. The Kamchatka Peninsula, the Commander Islands, and Karaginsky Island constitute the Kamchatka Krai
Kamchatka Krai
of the Russian Federation
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Solar Irradiance
Solar irradiance
Solar irradiance
is the power per unit area received from the Sun
Sun
in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument. The solar irradiance integrated over time is called solar irradiation, insolation, or solar exposure. However, insolation is often used interchangeably with irradiance in practice. Irradiance may be measured in space or at the Earth's surface
Earth's surface
after atmospheric absorption and scattering
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Ojos Del Salado
Nevado Ojos del Salado
Ojos del Salado
is a stratovolcano located in the Andes mountain range, in the Atacama Region, Chile. The mountain itself lies entirely within Chile, immediately west of Chile's border with Argentina and it's the highest active volcano in the world at 6,893 m (22,615 ft). It is also the second highest mountain in the Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
and Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
and the highest in Chile. It is located about 600 km (370 mi) north of Aconcagua, the highest mountain in the Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
at 6,961 m (22,838 ft). Due to its location near the Atacama Desert, the mountain has very dry conditions with snow usually only remaining on the peak during winter, though heavy storms can cover the surrounding area with a few feet of snow even in summer
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Svalbard
Svalbard
Svalbard
(/ˈsvɑːlbɑːrd/;[3] Norwegian pronunciation: [ˈsʋɑ(ː)lbɑːɾ]; prior to 1925 known by its Dutch name Spitsbergen, meaning "jagged mountains") is a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean. Situated north of mainland Europe, it is about midway between continental Norway
Norway
and the North Pole. The islands of the group range from 74° to 81° north latitude, and from 10° to 35° east longitude. The largest island is Spitsbergen, followed by Nordaustlandet
Nordaustlandet
and Edgeøya. Administratively, the archipelago is not part of any Norwegian county, but forms an unincorporated area administered by a governor appointed by the Norwegian government. Since 2002, Svalbard's main settlement, Longyearbyen, has had an elected local government, somewhat similar to mainland municipalities
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Greenland
Greenland
Greenland
(Greenlandic: Kalaallit
Kalaallit
Nunaat, pronounced [kalaːɬit nunaːt]; Danish: Grønland, pronounced [ˈɡʁɶnˌlanˀ]) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark
Kingdom of Denmark
between the Arctic
Arctic
and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago
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Scandinavia
Scandinavia[a] (/ˌskændɪˈneɪviə/ SKAN-dih-NAY-vee-ə) is a region in Northern Europe, characterized by common ethnocultural North Germanic heritage and mutually intelligible North Germanic languages.[2] The term Scandinavia
Scandinavia
in local usage covers the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, but in English usage, it also sometimes refers to the Scandinavian Peninsula
Scandinavian Peninsula
or to the broader region which includes Finland
Finland
and Iceland.[1] This broader region is usually known locally as the Nordic countries.[3] The remote Norwegian islands of Svalbard
Svalbard
and Jan Mayen
Jan Mayen
are usually not seen as a part of Scandinavia, nor is Greenland, a constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark
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Polar Circle
A polar circle is either the Arctic Circle or the Antarctic Circle. On Earth, the Arctic Circle is located at a latitude of 66°33′47.1″ N, and the Antarctic Circle is located at a latitude of 66°33′47.1″ S.[1] Areas inside each polar circle and its associated pole (North Pole or South Pole), known geographically as the frigid zones, would theoretically experience at least one 24-hour period when the sun is continuously above the horizon and at least one 24-hour period when the sun is continuously below the horizon annually. However, due to atmospheric refraction and the Sun being an extended object rather than a point source, the continuous daylight area is somewhat extended while the continuous darkness area is somewhat reduced. The latitude of the polar circles is 90 degrees minus the axial tilt of the Earth's axis of daily rotation relative to the ecliptic, the plane of the Earth's orbit. This tilt varies slightly, a phenomenon described as nutation
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Iceland
Iceland
Iceland
(/ˈaɪslənd/ ( listen); Icelandic: Ísland, pronounced [ˈistlant])[7] is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of 348,580 and an area of 103,000 km2 (40,000 sq mi), making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.[8] The capital and largest city is Reykjavík. Reykjavík
Reykjavík
and the surrounding areas in the southwest of the country are home to over two-thirds of the population. Iceland
Iceland
is volcanically and geologically active. The interior consists of a plateau characterised by sand and lava fields, mountains, and glaciers, while many glacial rivers flow to the sea through the lowlands. Iceland
Iceland
is warmed by the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
and has a temperate climate, despite a high latitude just outside the Arctic
Arctic
Circle
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Siberia
Coordinates: 60°0′N 105°0′E / 60.000°N 105.000°E / 60.000; 105.000SiberiaRussian: Сибирь (Sibir)Geographical region       Siberian Federal District        Geographic Russian Siberia        North AsiaCountry  Russia,  KazakhstanRegion North AsiaBorders on West: Ural Mountains North: Arctic
Arctic
Ocean East: Pacific
Pacific
Ocean South: Kazakhstan, Mongolia, ChinaParts West Siberian Plain Central Siberian Plateau others...Highest point Klyuchevskaya Sopka - elevation 4,649 m (15,253 ft)Area 13,100,000 km2 (5,057,938 sq mi)Population 36,000,000 (2017)Density 2.7/km2 (7/sq mi) Siberia
Siberia
(/saɪˈbɪəriə/; Russian: Сиби́рь, tr
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Alaska Panhandle
Southeast Alaska, sometimes referred to as the Alaska
Alaska
Panhandle, is the southeastern portion of the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Alaska, bordered to the east by the northern half of the Canadian province of British Columbia
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Central Alps
The Alps cover a large area. This article describes the delimitation of the Alps as a whole and of subdivisions of the range, follows the course of the main chain of the Alps and discusses the lakes and glaciers found in the region.DEM-based shaded relief/hypsometric image of the Alps with the borders of the countries.The Alps form a large mountain range dominating Central Europe, including parts of Italy, France, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Austria, Slovenia, Germany and possibly Hungary (if one includes the Günser Gebirge or the Ödenburger Gebirge in the Alps). In some areas, such as the edge of the Po Basin, the edge of the range is unambiguous, but where the Alps border on other mountainous or hilly regions, the border may be harder to place
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Cho Oyu
Cho Oyu
Cho Oyu
(Nepali: चोयु; Tibetan: ཇོ་བོ་དབུ་ཡ) is the sixth highest mountain in the world at 8,188 metres (26,864 ft) above sea level. Cho Oyu means " Turquoise
Turquoise
Goddess"[citation needed] in Tibetan. The mountain is the westernmost major peak of the Khumbu
Khumbu
sub-section of the Mahalangur Himalaya 20 km west of Mount Everest. The mountain stands on the China- Nepal
Nepal
border. Just a few kilometres west of Cho Oyu
Cho Oyu
is Nangpa La (5,716m/18,753 ft), a glaciated pass that serves as the main trading route between the Tibetans
Tibetans
and the Khumbu's Sherpas. This pass separates the Khumbu
Khumbu
and Rolwaling Himalayas
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Caucasus Mountains
The Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains[a] are a mountain system in West Asia
West Asia
between the Black Sea
Black Sea
and the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
in the Caucasus
Caucasus
region. The Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains include the Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
in the north and Lesser Caucasus
Caucasus
in the south. The Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
runs west-northwest to east-southeast, from the Caucasian Natural Reserve in the vicinity of Sochi
Sochi
on the northeastern shore of the Black Sea
Black Sea
nearly to Baku
Baku
on the Caspian Sea
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Pyrenees
The Pyrenees
Pyrenees
(/ˈpɪrɪniːz/; Spanish: Pirineos [piɾiˈneos], French: Pyrénées [piʁene], Aragonese: Pirineus, Catalan: Pirineus [piɾiˈnɛus], Occitan: Pirenèus, Basque: Pirinioak [piˈɾinioˌak]) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe
Europe
that forms a natural border between Spain
Spain
and France. Reaching a height of 3,404 metres (11,168 ft) altitude at the peak of Aneto, the range separates the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
from the rest of continental Europe, and extends for about 491 km (305 mi) from the Bay of Biscay (Cap Higuer) to the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
(Cap de Creus). For the most part, the main crest forms a divide between Spain
Spain
and France, with the microstate of Andorra
Andorra
sandwiched in between
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