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Sniper Rifle
A sniper rifle is a high-precision rifle designed for sniper missions. It serves to fulfil the tactical need for long range surveillance, effective anti-personnel and anti-materiel operations with high hit efficiency, and can be used by both military and law enforcement. The modern sniper rifle is a portable shoulder-fired weapon system with a choice between bolt-action or semi-automatic action, fitted with a telescopic sight for extreme accuracy and chambered for a high-performance military centerfire cartridge.Contents1 History 2 Classification2.1 Military 2.2 Law enforcement3 Distinguishing characteristics3.1 Telescopic sight 3.2 Action 3.3 Magazine 3.4 Barrel 3.5 Stock 3.6 Accessories4 Capabilities4.1 Accuracy 4.2 Maximum effective range5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit]The British Whitworth rifle, used extensively during the American Civil War
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World War II
Pacific WarChina Pacific Ocean South-East Asia South West Pacific Japan Manchuria & North Korea Mediterranean and Middle EastNorth Africa East Africa Mediterranean Sea Adriatic Malta Yugoslavia Iraq Syria–Lebanon Iran Italy Dodecanese Southern France Other campaignsAtlantic Arctic Strategic bombing Americas French West Africa Indian Ocean Madagascar Contemporaneous warsSoviet–Japanese border conflicts Franco-Thai War Ecuadorian–Peruvian War Ili Rebellion World War II Alphabetical indices A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 0–9Navigation CampaignsCountriesEquipment TimelineOutlineLists PortalCategoryBibliography vte World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis
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Rifling
In firearms, rifling is the helical groove pattern that is machined into the internal (bore) surface of a gun's barrel, for the purpose of exerting torque and thus imparting a spin to a projectile around its longitudinal axis during shooting. This spin serves to gyroscopically stabilize the projectile by conservation of angular momentum, improving its aerodynamic stability and accuracy over smoothbore designs. Rifling
Rifling
is often described by its twist rate, which indicates the distance the rifling takes to complete one full revolution, such as "1 turn in 10 inches" (1:10 inches), or "1 turn in 254 mm" (1:254 mm)
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Crimean War
223,513  Ottoman Empire 45,400[2] 10,100 killed in action 10,800 died of wounds 24,500 died of disease French Empire 135,485[2] 8,490 killed in action; 11,750 died of wounds; 75,375 died of disease 39,870 wounded  British Empire 40,462[2] 2,755 killed in action 1,847 died of wounds 17,580 died of disease 18,280 wounded  Kingdom of Sardinia 2,166[2] 28 killed in action 2,138 died of disease 530,125[2] 35,671 killed in action 37,454 died of wounds 377,000 died from non-combat causes 80,000 wounded[3][4]v t eCrimean WarBalkansOltenița Sinop Cetate Calafat SilistraCaucasusKurekdere KarsNaval OperationsSuomenlinna Bomarsund PetropavlovskCrimeaAlma Sevastopol Balaclava Inkerman Eupatoria Taganrog Chernaya Malakoff Great Redan Kinburnv t eRusso-Ottoman Wars1568–70 1676–81 1686–1700 1710–11 1735–39 1768–74 1787–92 1806–12 1828–29 1853–56 1877–78 1914–18Russ
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Whitworth Sharpshooters
Whitworth Sharpshooters were the Confederates' answer to the Union sharpshooter regiments, and they used the English Whitworth rifle.[1] These men accompanied regular infantrymen- their occupation was usually eliminating Union artillery gun crews. The rifle[edit] The Whitworth rifle
Whitworth rifle
proved to be an accurate and deadly instrument. Its most remembered act was on May 9, 1864 at the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, where Union General John Sedgwick
John Sedgwick
urged his men to leave a ditch in which they lay in order to cover from the Confederate snipers hidden 800 to 1000 yards away. According to Martin T. McMahon, Brevet Major-General, U.S.V
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John Sedgwick
John Sedgwick
John Sedgwick
(September 13, 1813 – May 9, 1864) was a teacher, a career military officer, and a Union Army
Union Army
general in the American Civil War. He was wounded three times at the Battle of Antietam
Battle of Antietam
while leading his division in an unsuccessful assault, causing him to miss the Battle of Fredericksburg. Under his command, the VI Corps played an important role in the Chancellorsville Campaign by engaging Confederate troops at the Second Battle of Fredericksburg
Battle of Fredericksburg
and the Battle of Salem Church. His corps was the last to arrive at the Battle of Gettysburg, and thus did not see much action. Sedgwick was killed by a sharpshooter at the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House
Battle of Spotsylvania Court House
on May 9, 1864, making him and Major General
Major General
John F
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Battle Of Spotsylvania Court House
Inconclusive (Union offensive continues) [1]Belligerents United States
United States
(Union) CSA (Confederacy)Commanders and leadersUlysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. LeeUnits involvedArmy of the Potomac[2] IX Corps[3] (Army of the Ohio)Army of Northern VirginiaStrength100–110,000[4] 50–63,000[4]Casualties and losses18,399 (2,725 killed,  13,416 wounded,  2,258 captured/missing)[5][6] 12,687 (1,515 killed,  5,414 wounded,  5,758 captured/missing)[6]v t eOverland CampaignWilderness Spotsylvania Court House Yellow Tavern Meadow Bridge North Anna Wilson's Wharf Haw's Shop Totopotomoy Creek Old Church Cold Harbor Trevilian Station Saint Mary's ChurchThe Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, sometimes more simply referred to as the Battle of Spotsylvania (or the 19th-century spelling Spottsylvania), was the second major battle in Lt. Gen
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Chance Brothers
Chance Brothers
Chance Brothers
and Company was a glassworks originally based in Spon Lane, Smethwick, West Midlands (formerly in Staffordshire), in England. It was a leading glass manufacturer and a pioneer of British glassmaking technology. The Chance family originated in Bromsgrove
Bromsgrove
as farmers and craftsmen before setting up business in Smethwick
Smethwick
in 1824
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Birmingham
Birmingham
Birmingham
(/ˈbɜːrmɪŋəm/ ( listen),[3] locally /ˈbɜːmɪŋ(ɡ)əm/ or /ˈbɜːmɪnəm/) is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands of England, standing on the River Rea
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Breech Loading
A breech-loading gun is a firearm in which the cartridge or shell is inserted or loaded into a chamber integral to the rear portion of a barrel. Modern mass production firearms are breech-loading (though mortars are generally muzzle-loaded), except those which are intended specifically by design to be muzzle-loaders, in order to be legal for certain types of hunting. Early firearms, on the other hand, were almost entirely muzzle-loading. The main advantage of breech-loading is a reduction in reloading time – it is much quicker to load the projectile and the charge into the breech of a gun or cannon than to try to force them down a long tube, especially when the bullet fit is tight and the tube has spiral ridges from rifling
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Boer War
British victory[3][4]Treaty of VereenigingTerritorial changes British administration over The Orange Free State
Orange Free State
and the Transvaal in accordance with the Treaty of VereenigingBelligerents United Kingdom Cape Colony Natal Colony Rhodesia[a] Canada India New Zealand Australia New So
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Magazine (firearms)
A magazine is an ammunition storage and feeding device within or attached to a repeating firearm. Magazines can be removable (detachable) or integral (internal/fixed) to the firearm. The magazine functions by moving the cartridges stored within it into a position where they may be loaded into the barrel chamber by the action of the firearm. The detachable magazine is often colloquially referred to as a clip, although this is technically inaccurate.[1][2][3] Magazines come in many shapes and sizes, from tubular magazines on lever-action rifles that hold only a few rounds,[not in citation given] to detachable box and drum magazines for automatic rifles and machine guns that can hold more than one hundred rounds
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Minute Of Angle
A minute of arc, arcminute (arcmin), arc minute, or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to 1/60 of one degree. Since one degree is 1/360 of a turn (or complete rotation), one minute of arc is 1/7004216000000000000♠21600 of a turn. A minute of arc is π/7004108000000000000♠10800 of a radian. A second of arc, arcsecond (arcsec), or arc second is 1/60 of an arcminute, 1/7003360000000000000♠3600 of a degree, 1/7006129600000000000♠1296000 of a turn, and π/7005648000000000000♠648000 (about 1/7005206265000000000♠206265) of a radian
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Smokeless Powder
Smokeless powder
Smokeless powder
is the name given to a number of propellants used in firearms and artillery that produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the gunpowder or black powder they replaced. The term is unique to the United States and is generally not used in other English-speaking countries,[1] which initially used proprietary names such as "Ballistite" and "Cordite" but gradually shifted to "propellant" as the generic term. The basis of the term smokeless is that the combustion products are mainly gaseous, compared to around 55% solid products (mostly potassium carbonate, potassium sulfate, and potassium sulfide) for black powder.[2] Despite its name, smokeless powder is not completely free of smoke;[3]:44 while there may be little noticeable smoke from small-arms ammunition, smoke from artillery fire can be substantial
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Lee–Metford
The Lee–Metford
Lee–Metford
rifle (a.k.a. Magazine Lee–Metford, abbreviated MLM) was a bolt action British army
British army
service rifle, combining James Paris Lee's rear-locking bolt system and detachable magazine with an innovative seven groove rifled barrel designed by William Ellis Metford. It replaced the Martini–Henry
Martini–Henry
rifle in 1888, following nine years of development and trials, but remained in service for only a short time until replaced by the similar Lee–Enfield.Contents1 Design 2 Replacement 3 Charlton Automatic Rifle 4 Users 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksDesign[edit]Schematic. Image #9 and #10Lee's bolt action mechanism was a great improvement over other designs of the day. The rear-mounted lugs placed the operating handle much closer to the rifleman, over the trigger
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Mauser Model 1895
The Mauser
Mauser
Model 1895 adopted as Fusil Mauser
Mauser
Chileno Mo 1895.[1] by Chilean forces, is a bolt operated magazine fed rifle using the 7×57mm Mauser
7×57mm Mauser
cartridge
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