HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff

picture info

Sniper
A sniper is a military/paramilitary marksman who operates to maintain effective visual contact with the enemy and engage targets from concealed positions or at distances exceeding their detection capabilities.[1] Snipers generally have specialized training and are equipped with high-precision rifles and high-magnification optics, and often feed information back to their units or command headquarters. In addition to marksmanship and long range shooting, military snipers are trained in a variety of tactical techniques: detection, stalking, and target range estimation methods, camouflage, field craft, infiltration, special reconnaissance and observation, surveillance and target acquisition.Contents1 Etymology 2 Modern warfare2.1 Military
[...More...]

picture info

Asthenopia
Eye
Eye
strain, also known as asthenopia, is an eye condition that manifests through nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, pain in or around the eyes, blurred vision, headache, and occasional double vision. Symptoms often occur after reading, computer work, or other close activities that involve tedious visual tasks. When concentrating on a visually intense task, such as continuously focusing on a book or computer monitor, the ciliary muscle tightens. This can cause the eyes to get irritated and uncomfortable. Giving the eyes a chance to focus on a distant object at least once an hour usually alleviates the problem. A CRT computer monitor with a low refresh rate (<70Hz) or a CRT television can cause similar problems because the image has a visible flicker. Aging CRTs also often go slightly out of focus, and this can cause eye strain. LCDs do not go out of focus but are also susceptible to flicker if the backlight for the LCD uses PWM for dimming
[...More...]

picture info

Military Unit
Military organization
Military organization
or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer military capability required by the national defense policy. In some countries paramilitary forces are included in a nation's armed forces, though not considered military. Armed forces
Armed forces
that are not a part of military or paramilitary organizations, such as insurgent forces, often mimic military organizations, or use ad hoc structures. Military organization
Military organization
is hierarchical
[...More...]

picture info

Military Tactics
Military
Military
tactics are the science and art of organizing a military force, and the techniques for combining and using weapons and military units to engage and defeat an enemy in battle.[1] Changes in philosophy and technology have been reflected in changes to military tactics. In contemporary military science, tactics are the lowest of three planning levels: (i) strategic, (ii) operational, and (iii) tactical. The highest level of planning is strategy: how force is translated into political objectives by bridging the means and ends of war. The intermediate level, operational, the conversion of strategy into tactics, deals with formations of units
[...More...]

picture info

Military
A military is a force authorized to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state and some or all of its citizens. It typically consists of an Army, Navy, Air Force, and in certain countries the Marines
Marines
and Coast Guard. The task of the military is usually defined as defence of the state, and its citizens, and the prosecution of war against another state. The military may also have additional sanctioned and non-sanctioned functions within a society, including, the promotion of a political agenda, protecting corporate economic interests, internal population control, construction, emergency services, social ceremonies, and guarding important areas. The military may also function as a discrete subculture within a larger civil society, through the development of separate infrastructures, which may include housing, schools, utilities, logistics, health and medical, law, food production, finance and banking
[...More...]

picture info

War
War
War
is a state of armed conflict between states or societies. It is generally characterized by extreme aggression, destruction, and mortality, using regular or irregular military forces. An absence of war is usually called "peace". Warfare refers to the common activities and characteristics of types of war, or of wars in general.[1] Total war is warfare that is not restricted to purely legitimate military targets, and can result in massive civilian or other non-combatant suffering and casualties. While some scholars see war as a universal and ancestral aspect of human nature,[2] others argue it is a result of specific socio-cultural or ecological circumstances.[3] The deadliest war in history, in terms of the cumulative number of deaths since its start, is World War
War
II, from 1939 to 1945, with 60–85 million deaths, followed by the Mongol conquests[4] at up to 60 million
[...More...]

picture info

Officer (armed Forces)
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. In its broadest sense, the term "officer" includes non-commissioned officers and warrant officers. However, when used without further detail, the term "officer" almost always refers to commissioned officers, the more senior portion of a force who derive their authority from a commission from the head of state of a sovereign nation-state.Contents1 Numbers 2 Legal relevance 3 Terminological details in the U.S. 4 Commissioned officers4.1 United Kingdom 4.2 United States4.2.1 Other U.S. officer commissioning programs, active and discontinued4.3 Commonwealth of Nations5 Non-commissioned officers 6 Warrant officers 7 Officer ranks and accommodation 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksNumbers[edit]An Indonesian army
Indonesian army
officer serving as a ceremonial field commanderThe proportion of officers varies greatly
[...More...]

Calque
In linguistics, a calque /kælk/ or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation. Used as a verb, "to calque" means to borrow a word or phrase from another language while translating its components so as to create a new lexeme in the target language. "Calque" itself is a loanword from the French noun calque ("tracing; imitation; close copy"); the verb calquer means "to trace; to copy, to imitate closely"; papier calque is "tracing paper".[1] The word "loanword" is itself a calque of the German word Lehnwort, just as "loan translation" is a calque of Lehnübersetzung.[2] Proving that a word is a calque sometimes requires more documentation than does an untranslated loanword because, in some cases, a similar phrase might have arisen in both languages independently
[...More...]

picture info

British India
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India
India
and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent. Collectively, they were called British India. In one form or another, they existed between 1612 and 1947, conventionally divided into three historical periods:During 1612–1757, the East India Company
East India Company
set up "factories" (trading posts) in several locations, mostly in coastal India, with the consent of the Mughal emperors
Mughal emperors
or local rulers. Its rivals were the merchant trading companies of Holland and France. By the mid-18th century, three "Presidency towns": Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta
Calcutta
had grown in size. During the period of Company rule in India, 1757–1858, the Company gradually acquired sovereignty over large parts of India, now called "Presidencies"
[...More...]

picture info

Target Acquisition
Target acquisition
Target acquisition
is the detection, identification, and location of a target in sufficient detail to permit the effective employment of lethal and non-lethal means. The term is used for a broad area of applications. A "target" here is an entity or object considered for possible engagement or other action (see Targeting (warfare)). Targets include a wide array of resources that an enemy commander can use to conduct operations including mobile and stationary units, forces, equipment, capabilities, facilities, persons and functions
[...More...]

picture info

Surveillance
Surveillance
Surveillance
(/sərˈveɪ.əns/ or /sərˈveɪləns/)[1] is the monitoring of behavior, activities, or other changing information for the purpose of influencing, managing, directing, or protecting people.[2] This can include observation from a distance by means of electronic equipment (such as closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras)[3] or interception of electronically transmitted information (such as Internet traffic
Internet traffic
or phone calls). It can also include simple no- or relatively low-technology methods such as human intelligence agents and postal interception
[...More...]

picture info

Observation
Observation
Observation
is the active acquisition of information from a primary source. In living beings, observation employs the senses. In science, observation can also involve the recording of data via the use of scientific instruments. The term may also refer to any data collected during the scientific activity
[...More...]

picture info

Infiltration Tactics
In warfare, infiltration tactics involve small independent light infantry forces advancing into enemy rear areas, bypassing enemy front-line strongpoints, possibly isolating them for attack by follow-up troops with heavier weapons. Soldiers take the initiative to identify enemy weak points and choose their own routes, targets, moments and methods of attack; this requires a high degree of skill and training, and can be supplemented by special equipment and weaponry to give them more local combat options. Forms of these infantry tactics were used by skirmishers and irregulars dating back to classical antiquity, but only as a defensive or secondary tactic; decisive battlefield victories were achieved by shock combat tactics with heavy infantry or heavy cavalry, typically charging en masse against the primary force of the opponent. By the time of early modern warfare, defensive firepower made this tactic increasing costly
[...More...]

picture info

Suppression Fire
In military science, suppressive fire (commonly called covering fire) is "fire that degrades the performance of an enemy force below the level needed to fulfill its mission". "Suppression is usually only effective for the duration of the fire".[1] It is one of three types of fire support, which is defined by NATO
NATO
as "the application of fire, coordinated with the maneuver of forces, to destroy, neutralize or suppress the enemy." Before NATO
NATO
defined the term, the British and Commonwealth armies generally used "neutralization" with the same definition as suppression
[...More...]

Military Doctrine
Military doctrine is the expression of how military forces contribute to campaigns, major operations, battles, and engagements. It is a guide to action, rather than hard and fast rules[1][2]. Doctrine provides a common frame of reference across the military. It helps standardize operations, facilitating readiness by establishing common ways of accomplishing military tasks. Doctrine links theory, history, experimentation, and practice.[3] Its objective is to foster initiative and creative thinking
[...More...]

picture info

Military Intelligence
Military intelligence
Military intelligence
is a military discipline that uses information collection and analysis approaches to provide guidance and direction to assist commanders in their decisions. This aim is achieved by providing an assessment of data from a range of sources, directed towards the commanders' mission requirements or responding to questions as part of operational or campaign planning
[...More...]

.