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Smithsonian Institution
The Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
(/smɪθˈsoʊniən/ smith-SOH-nee-ən), also known simply as the Smithsonian, is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States. It was founded on August 10, 1846, "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge".[1] The institution is named after its founding donor, British scientist James Smithson.[2] It was originally organized as the "United States National Museum", but that name ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967.[3] Termed "the nation's attic"[4] for its eclectic holdings of 154 million items,[2] the Institution's 19 museums, nine research centers, and zoo include historical and architectural landmarks, mostly located in the District of Columbia.[5] Additional facilities are located in Arizona, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York City, Pittsburgh, Texas, Virginia, and Panama
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Western United States
The Western United States, commonly referred to as the American West, the Far West, or simply the West, traditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost states of the United States. Because European settlement in the U.S. expanded westward after its founding, the meaning of the West has evolved over time. Prior to about 1800, the crest of the Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
was seen as the western frontier. Since then, the frontier generally moved westward and eventually, the lands west of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
came to be referred to as the West.[2] Though no consensus exists, even among experts, for the definition of the West as a region, the U.S
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Panama
Coordinates: 9°N 80°W / 9°N 80°W / 9; -80 Republic
Republic
of Panama República de Panamá  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Pro Mundi Beneficio" "For the Benefit of the World"Anthem: Himno Istmeño  (Spanish) Hymn of the IsthmusCapital and largest city Panama
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South Pacific Ocean
The Pacific Ocean
Ocean
is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
in the north to the Southern Ocean
Southern Ocean
(or, depending on definition, to Antarctica) in the south and is bounded by Asia
Asia
and Australia
Australia
in the west and the Americas
Americas
in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers (63,800,000 square miles) in area (as defined with an Antarctic
Antarctic
southern border), this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined.[1] Both the center of the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
are in the Pacific Ocean
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Ethnographic
Ethnography
Ethnography
(from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures. It is designed to explore cultural phenomena where the researcher observes society from the point of view of the subject of the study. An ethnography is a means to represent graphically and in writing the culture of a group
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James K. Polk
James Knox Polk (November 2, 1795 – June 15, 1849) was an American politician who served as the 11th President of the United States (1845–1849). He previously was Speaker of the House of Representatives (1835–1839) and Governor of Tennessee
Governor of Tennessee
(1839–1841). A protégé of Andrew Jackson, he was a member of the Democratic Party and an advocate of Jacksonian democracy. During Polk's presidency, the United States expanded significantly with the annexation of the Republic of Texas, the Oregon Territory, and the Mexican Cession following the American victory in the Mexican–American War. After building a successful law practice in Tennessee, Polk was elected to the state legislature (1823) and then to the United States House of Representatives in 1825, becoming a strong supporter of Jackson. After serving as chairman of the Ways and Means Committee, he became Speaker in 1835, the only president to have been Speaker
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Scientists
A scientist is a person engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world. In a more restricted sense, a scientist may refer to an individual who uses the scientific method.[1] The person may be an expert in one or more areas of science.[2] The term scientist was coined by the theologian, philosopher, and historian of science William Whewell
William Whewell
in 1833. This article focuses on the more restricted use of the word. Scientists perform research toward a more comprehensive understanding of nature, including physical, mathematical and social realms. Philosophy
Philosophy
is today typically regarded as a distinct activity from science, though the activities were not always distinguished in this fashion, with science considered a "branch" of philosophy rather than opposed to it, prior to modernity
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Gold Sovereign
The sovereign is a gold coin of the United Kingdom, with a nominal value of one pound sterling. Struck from 1817 until the present time, it was originally a circulating coin accepted in Britain and elsewhere in the world; it is now a bullion coin and is sometimes mounted in jewellery. In most recent years, it has borne the well-known design of Saint George and the Dragon
Saint George and the Dragon
on the reverse—the initials (B P) of the designer, Benedetto Pistrucci, may be seen to the right of the date. The coin was named after the English gold sovereign, last minted about 1603, and originated as part of the Great Recoinage of 1816. Many in parliament believed a one-pound coin should be issued rather than the 21-shilling (£1.05) guinea struck until that time. The Master of the Mint, William Wellesley Pole, had Pistrucci design the new coin, and his depiction was also used for other gold coins
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Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
(March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845) was an American soldier and statesman who served as the seventh president of the United States from 1829 to 1837. Before being elected to the presidency, Jackson gained fame as a general in the United States Army and served in both houses of Congress. As president, Jackson sought to advance the rights of the "common man"[1] against a "corrupt aristocracy"[2] and to preserve the Union. Born in the colonial Carolinas to a Scotch-Irish family in the decade before the American Revolutionary War, Jackson became a frontier lawyer and married Rachel Donelson Robards. He served briefly in the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate representing Tennessee. After resigning, he served as a justice on the Tennessee Supreme Court from 1798 until 1804. Jackson purchased a property later known as the Hermitage, and became a wealthy, slaveowning planter
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Major General (United States)
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, major general is a two-star general-officer rank, with the pay grade of O-8. Major general ranks above brigadier general and below lieutenant general.[1][Note 1] A major general typically commands division-sized units of 10,000 to 15,000 soldiers. Major general is equivalent to the two-star rank of rear admiral in the United States Navy
United States Navy
and United States Coast Guard
United States Coast Guard
and is the highest permanent rank during peacetime in the uniformed services. Higher ranks are technically temporary ranks linked to specific positions, although virtually all officers who have been promoted to those ranks are approved to retire at their highest earned rank.Contents1 Statutory limits 2 Promotion, appointment, and tour length 3 Retirement 4 History4.1 U.S. Army 4.2 Confederate States Army 4.3 U.S. Marine Corps 4.4 U.S
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United States And Mexican Boundary Survey
The United States and Mexican Boundary Survey
United States and Mexican Boundary Survey
(1848-1855) determined the border between the United States and Mexico as defined in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which had ended the Mexican-American War. The results of the survey were published in the three volumes entitled Report on the United States and Mexican boundary survey, made under the direction of the secretary of the Interior by William H. Emory (1857-1859). In addition to its documentation of the new boundary, the survey report was notable for its natural history content, including paleontology, botany, ichthyology, herpetology, ornithology, and mammalogy. Twenty-five hand-colored lithographic plates of birds were included in the volume Zoology of the Boundary, edited by Spencer Fullerton Baird. These illustrations were prepared by J.T. Bowen and Company of Philadelphia, the same firm that had produced the octavo edition of Audubon's Birds of America
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U.S. States
A state is a constituent political entity of the United States. There are currently 50 states, which are bound together in a union with each other. Each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the United States federal government. Due to the shared sovereignty between each state and the federal government, Americans
Americans
are citizens of both the federal republic and of the state in which they reside.[3] State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons covered by certain types of court orders (e.g., paroled convicts and children of divorced spouses who are sharing custody)
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Puerto Rico
Coordinates: 18°12′N 66°30′W / 18.2°N 66.5°W / 18.2; -66.5Commonwealth of Puerto Rico Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Joannes est nomen ejus" (Latin) "John is his name"Anthem: "La Borinqueña"[a] "The Borinquenian""The Star-Spangled Banner"Great SealStatus Unincorporated territoryCapital and largest city San Juan 18°27′N 66°6′W / 18.450°N 66.100°W / 18.450; -66.100Official languages Spanish English[1]Common languages94.7% Spanish[2]5.3% EnglishEthnic groups75.8% White12.4% Black3.3% Two or more races0.5% American Indian & Alaskan Native0.2% Asian<0.1% Pacific Islander7.8% Other[3]DemonymPuerto Rican (formal) American (since 1917) Boricua (colloquial)Country  United StatesGovernment Commonwealth[b
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Texas
Texas
Texas
(/ˈtɛksəs/, locally /-sɪz/; Spanish: Texas
Texas
or Tejas [ˈtexas]) is the second largest state in the United States
United States
by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas
Texas
shares borders with the U.S
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[note 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation.[1] To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.[2]Contents1 History 2 Geodetic datum 3 Horizontal coordinates3.1 Latitude
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