HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff
[::MainTopicLength::#1500] [::ListTopicLength::#1000] [::ListLength::#15] [::ListAdRepeat::#3]

Slippery Slope
A slippery slope argument (SSA), in logic, critical thinking, political rhetoric, and caselaw, is a consequentialist logical device[1] in which a party asserts that a relatively small first step leads to a chain of related events culminating in some significant (usually negative) effect.[2] The core of the slippery slope argument is that a specific decision under debate is likely to result in unintended consequences. The strength of such an argument depends on the warrant, i.e. whether or not one can demonstrate a process that leads to the significant effect. This type of argument is sometimes used as a form of fear mongering, in which the probable consequences of a given action are exaggerated in an attempt to scare the audience. The fallacious sense of "slippery slope" is often used synonymously with continuum fallacy, in that it ignores the possibility of middle ground and assumes a discrete transition from category A to category B
[...More...]

"Slippery Slope" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

False Equivalence
False equivalence is a logical fallacy in which two completely opposing arguments appear to be logically equivalent when in fact they are not. This fallacy is categorized as a fallacy of inconsistency.[1]Contents1 Characteristics 2 Examples 3 See also 4 ReferencesCharacteristics[edit] A common way for this fallacy to be perpetuated is one shared trait between two subjects is assumed to show equivalence, especially in order of magnitude, when equivalence is not necessarily the logical result.[2] False equivalence is a common result when an anecdotal similarity is pointed out as equal, but the claim of equivalence doesn't bear because the similarity is based on oversimplification or ignorance of additional factors. The pattern of the fallacy is often as such: "If A is the set of c and d, and B is the set of d and e, then since they both contain d, A and B are equal"
[...More...]

"False Equivalence" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

Precedent
In legal systems based on case law, a precedent, or authority, is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case that is either binding on or persuasive for a court or other tribunal when deciding subsequent cases with similar issues or facts [1]. Common law
Common law
legal systems place great value on deciding cases according to consistent principled rules so that similar facts will yield similar and predictable outcomes, and observance of precedent is the mechanism by which that goal is attained. The principle by which judges are bound to precedents is known as stare decisis
[...More...]

"Precedent" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

Bruce Waller
Bruce Waller is a contemporary American philosopher notable for his theories about the nature of free will and its implications for human society.[1][2] In 2016 he is a professor of Philosophy and Religious Studies at Youngstown State University.[1] Waller is a determinist who believes that everything that happens, had to happen, and could not have happened otherwise, and that all events are necessitated to happen by the process of cause and effect, that is, that past, present, and future consist of an essentially unbreakable chain of circumstances of which no single link in such a chain could possibly be avoided or altered
[...More...]

"Bruce Waller" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Broken Windows Theory
The broken windows theory is a criminological theory that visible signs of crime, anti-social behavior and civil disorder create an urban environment that encourages further crime and disorder, including serious crimes. The theory thus suggests that policing methods that target minor crimes such as vandalism, public drinking and fare evasion help to create an atmosphere of order and lawfulness, thereby preventing more serious crimes. The theory was introduced in a 1982 article by social scientists James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling.[1] It was further popularized in the 1990s by New York City
New York City
police commissioner William Bratton
William Bratton
and Mayor Rudy Guiliani, whose policing policies were influenced by the theory. The theory has been subject to great debate both within the social sciences and the public sphere
[...More...]

"Broken Windows Theory" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Butterfly Effect
In chaos theory, the butterfly effect is the sensitive dependence on initial conditions in which a small change in one state of a deterministic nonlinear system can result in large differences in a later state.[1] The term, coined by Edward Lorenz, is derived from the metaphorical example of the details of a tornado (the exact time of formation, the exact path taken) being influenced by minor perturbations such as the flapping of the wings of a distant butterfly several weeks earlier. Lorenz discovered the effect when he observed that runs of his weather model with initial condition data that was rounded in a seemingly inconsequential manner would fail to reproduce the results of runs with the unrounded initial condition data
[...More...]

"Butterfly Effect" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

Creeping Normality
Creeping normality or death by a thousand cuts[1] is the way a major change can be accepted as the normal situation if it happens slowly, in unnoticed increments, when it would be regarded as objectionable if it took place in a single step or short period. Examples would be a change in job responsibilities or a change in a medical condition. American scientist Jared Diamond
Jared Diamond
has invoked the concept[2] (as well as that of landscape amnesia[clarification needed]) in attempting to explain why in the course of long-term environmental degradation, Easter Island
Easter Island
natives would, seemingly irrationally, chop down the last tree:[3]Gradually trees became fewer, smaller, and less important. By the time the last fruit-bearing adult palm tree was cut, palms had long since ceased to be of economic significance
[...More...]

"Creeping Normality" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

First They Came ...
"First they came ..." is a poem written by the German Lutheran pastor Martin Niemöller
Martin Niemöller
(1892–1984). It is about the cowardice of German intellectuals following the Nazis' rise to power and subsequent purging of their chosen targets, group after group. Many variations and adaptations in the spirit of the original have been published in the English language
[...More...]

"First They Came ..." on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

Foot-in-the-door Technique
Foot-in-the-door (FITD) technique is a compliance tactic that aims at getting a person to agree to a large request by having them agree to a modest request first.[1][2][3] The foot-in-the-door technique succeeds owing to a basic human reality that social scientists call "successive approximations". Essentially, the more a subject goes along with small requests or commitments, the more likely that subject is to continue in a desired direction of attitude or behavioral change and feel obligated to go along with larger requests.[4] FITD works by first getting a small "yes" and then getting an even bigger "yes". The principle involved is that a small agreement creates a bond between the requester and the requestee
[...More...]

"Foot-in-the-door Technique" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

Gateway Drug Theory
Gateway drug theory (alternatively, stepping-stone theory, escalation hypothesis, or progression hypothesis) is a comprehensive catchphrase for the medical theory that the use of a psychoactive drug can be coupled to an increased probability of the use of further drugs. Possible causes are biological alterations in the brain due to the earlier drug and similar attitudes of users across different drugs (common liability to addiction)
[...More...]

"Gateway Drug Theory" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Overton Window
The Overton window, also known as the window of discourse, is the range of ideas tolerated in public discourse. The term is derived from its originator, Joseph P
[...More...]

"Overton Window" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Precautionary Principle
The precautionary principle (or precautionary approach) generally defines actions on issues considered to be uncertain, for instance applied in assessing risk management.[1] The principle is used by policy makers to justify discretionary decisions in situations where there is the possibility of harm from making a certain decision (e.g. taking a particular course of action) when extensive scientific knowledge on the matter is lacking. The principle implies that there is a social responsibility to protect the public from exposure to harm, when scientific investigation has found a plausible risk
[...More...]

"Precautionary Principle" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

Splitting (psychology)
Splitting (also called black-and-white thinking or all-or-nothing thinking) is the failure in a person's thinking to bring together the dichotomy of both positive and negative qualities of the self and others into a cohesive, realistic whole. It is a common defense mechanism used by many people.[1] The individual tends to think in extremes (i.e., an individual's actions and motivations are all good or all bad with no middle ground). The concept of splitting was developed by Ronald Fairbairn
Ronald Fairbairn
in his formulation of object relations theory;[2] it begins as the inability of the infant to combine the fulfilling aspects of the parents (the good object) and their unresponsive aspects (the unsatisfying object) into the same individuals, instead seeing the good and bad as separate
[...More...]

"Splitting (psychology)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

Parade Of Horribles
A parade of horribles is both a literal parade and a rhetorical device.Contents1 As a literal parade 2 As a rhetorical device 3 See also 4 ReferencesAs a literal parade[edit] The phrase parade of horribles originally referred to a literal parade of people wearing comic and grotesque costumes, rather like the Philadelphia Mummers Parade
[...More...]

"Parade Of Horribles" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

Trivial Objections
Trivial objections (also referred to as hair-splitting, nothing but objections, barrage of objections and banal objections) is an informal logical fallacy where irrelevant and sometimes frivolous objections are made to divert the attention away from the topic that is being discussed.[1][2] This type of argument is called a "quibble" or "quillet".[citation needed] Trivial objections are a special case of red herring. The fallacy often appears when an argument is difficult to oppose. The person making a trivial objection may appear ready to accept the argument in question, but at the same time they will oppose it in many different ways.[1][2]:165 These objections can appear in the form of lists, hypotheticals, and even accusations. Such objections themselves may be valid, but they fail to confront the main argument under consideration
[...More...]

"Trivial Objections" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse

picture info

Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
[...More...]

"Digital Object Identifier" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
Parouse
.