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Skills
A SKILL is the ability to carry out a task with pre-determined results often within a given amount of time , energy , or both. Skills can often be divided into domain general and domain-specific skills. For example, in the domain of work, some general skills would include time management , teamwork and leadership , self -motivation and others, whereas domain-specific skills would be useful only for a certain job . Skill usually requires certain environmental stimuli and situations to assess the level of skill being shown and used. People need a broad range of skills in order to contribute to a modern economy . A joint ASTD and U.S. Department of Labor study showed that through technology , the workplace is changing, and identified 16 basic skills that employees must have to be able to change with it. CONTENTS * 1 Labor skills * 2 Life skills * 3 People skills * 4 Social skills * 5 Soft skills * 6 Hard skills * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links LABOR SKILLS Main article: Skill (labor) Skilled workers have long had historical import (_see_ Division of labor ) as electricians , masons , carpenters , blacksmiths , bakers , brewers , coopers , printers and other occupations that are economically productive. Skilled workers were often politically active through their craft guilds
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Time
_TIME_ is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City . It was founded in 1923 and for decades was dominated by Henry Luce
Henry Luce
, who built a highly profitable stable of magazines. A European edition (_ Time
Time
Europe_, formerly known as _ Time
Time
Atlantic_) is published in London and also covers the Middle East, Africa and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition (_ Time
Time
Asia_) is based in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
. The South Pacific edition, which covers Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific Islands , is based in Sydney
Sydney
, Australia. In December 2008, _Time_ discontinued publishing a Canadian advertiser edition. _Time_ has the world's largest circulation for a weekly news magazine, and has a readership of 26 million, 20 million of which are based in the United States. In mid-2016, its circulation was 3,032,581, having fallen from 3.3 million in 2012. Richard Stengel was the managing editor from May 2006 to October 2013, when he joined the U.S. State Department . Nancy Gibbs has been the managing editor since October 2013
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Energy
In physics , ENERGY is the property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on or to heat the object. It can be converted in form , but not created or destroyed . The SI unit of energy is the joule , which is the energy transferred to an object by the mechanical work of moving it a distance of 1 metre against a force of 1 newton . Common forms of energy include the kinetic energy of a moving object, the potential energy stored by an object's position in a force field (gravitational , electric or magnetic ), the elastic energy stored by stretching solid objects, the chemical energy released when a fuel burns, the radiant energy carried by light, and the thermal energy due to an object's temperature . Mass
Mass
and energy are closely related. Due to mass–energy equivalence , any object that has mass when stationary in a frame of reference (called rest mass ) also has an equivalent amount of energy whose form is called rest energy in that frame, and any additional energy acquired by the object above that rest energy will increase an object's mass. For example, with a sensitive enough scale , one could measure an increase in mass after heating an object. Living organisms require available energy to stay alive, such as the energy humans get from food . Humans get the energy they need from energy resources such as fossil fuels , nuclear fuel , or renewable energy
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Departmentalization
DEPARTMENTALIZATION (or DEPARTMENTALISATION) refers to the process of grouping activities into departments. Division of labour creates specialists who need coordination. This coordination is facilitated by grouping specialists together in departments. CONTENTS * 1 Popular types of departmentalization * 2 Some philosophical considerations * 3 Recent trends in departmentalization * 4 References POPULAR TYPES OF DEPARTMENTALIZATION * FUNCTIONAL DEPARTMENTALIZATION - Grouping activities by functions performed. Activities can be grouped according to function (work being done) to pursue economies of scale by placing employees with shared skills and knowledge into departments for example human resources, IT, accounting, manufacturing, logistics, and engineering. Functional departmentalization can be used in all types of organizations. * PRODUCT DEPARTMENTALIZATION - Grouping activities by product line. Tasks can also be grouped according to a specific product or service, thus placing all activities related to the product or the service under one manager. Each major product area in the corporation is under the authority of a senior manager who is specialist in, and is responsible for, everything related to the product line. LA Gear is an example of company that uses product departmentalization
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Time Management
TIME MANAGEMENT is the process of planning and exercising conscious control over the amount of time spent on specific activities - especially to increase effectiveness , efficiency or productivity . It is a meta -activity with the goal to maximize the overall benefit of a set of other activities within the boundary condition of a limited amount of time, as time itself cannot be managed because it is fixed. Time management
Time management
may be aided by a range of skills, tools, and techniques used to manage time when accomplishing specific tasks, projects, and goals complying with a due date. Initially, time management referred to just business or work activities, but eventually the term broadened to include personal activities as well. A time management system is a designed combination of processes, tools, techniques, and methods. Time management
Time management
is usually a necessity in any project development as it determines the project completion time and scope
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Teamwork
A 2012 review of the academic literature found that the word "teamwork" has been used "as a catchall to refer to a number of behavioral processes and emergent states". In healthcare , TEAMWORK is "a dynamic process involving two or more healthcare professionals with complementary background and skills, sharing common health goals and exercising concerted physical and mental effort in assessing, planning, or evaluating patient care". Having followed a volatile trend in the past century, the societal diffusion and application of teamwork has shown a sharp increase since the late 1970s. In a business setting, accounting techniques may be used to provide financial measures of the benefits of teamwork which are useful for justifying the concept
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Leadership
LEADERSHIP is both a research area and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual or organization to "lead" or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations. The literature debates various viewpoints: contrasting Eastern and Western approaches to leadership, and also (within the West) US vs. European approaches. US academic environments define leadership as "a process of social influence in which a person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task ". Leadership seen from a European and non-academic perspective encompasses a view of a leader who can be moved not only by communitarian goals but also by the search for personal power . Studies of leadership have produced theories involving traits , situational interaction, function, behavior, power , vision and values , charisma , and intelligence, among others
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Self
SELF is a reference by an individual to the same individual person. This reference is necessarily subjective, thus SELF is a reference by a subject to the same subject. The sense of having a self – or self-hood – should, however, not be confused with subjectivity itself. Ostensibly, there is a directedness outward from the subject that refers inward, back to its "self" (or itself). Examples of psychiatric conditions where such 'sameness' is broken include depersonalization , which sometimes occur in schizophrenia : the self appears different to the subject. The first-person perspective distinguishes self-hood from personal identity . Whereas "identity" is sameness, self-hood implies a first-person perspective. Conversely, we use "person" as a third-person reference. Personal identity can be impaired in late stage Alzheimer\'s disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. Finally, the self is distinguishable from "others". Including the distinction between sameness and otherness, the self versus other is a research topic in contemporary philosophy ) and contemporary phenomenology (see also psychological phenomenology ), psychology, psychiatry, neurology, and neuroscience. The nationally funded research Center for Subjectivity in Copenhagen, Denmark, is just one example of the importance of research on the self. More recently, the relationship between the self and technology has generated a research field called Technoself Studies
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Motivation
MOTIVATION is a theoretical construct used to explain behaviour . It gives the reason for people's actions, desires, and needs. Motivation can also be defined as one's direction to behavior, or what causes a person to want to repeat a behavior and vice versa. A motive is what prompts the person to act in a certain way, or at least develop an inclination for specific behavior
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Job (role)
A JOB, or OCCUPATION, is a person 's role in society. More specifically, a job is an activity, often regular and performed in exchange for payment ("for a living"). Many people have multiple jobs (e.g., parent, homemaker, and employee). A person can begin a job by becoming an employee , volunteering , starting a business , or becoming a parent . The duration of a job may range from temporary (e.g., hourly odd jobs) to a lifetime (e.g., judges ). An activity that requires a person's mental or physical effort is work (as in "a day's work"). If a person is trained for a certain type of job, they may have a profession . Typically, a job would be a subset of someone's career . The two may differ in that one usually _retires_ from their career, versus _resignation_ or _termination _ from a job. CONTENTS * 1 Jobs for people * 2 Types of jobs * 2.1 Day job * 2.2 Getting a job * 2.3 Use of the word * 3 Occupation and life expectancy * 4 See also * 5 References * 5.1 Citations * 5.2 Sources JOBS FOR PEOPLEMost people spend up to forty or more hours each week in paid employment. Some exceptions are children, retirees , and people with disabilities ; However, within these groups, many will work part-time, volunteer , or work as a homemaker . From the age of 5 or so, many children's primary role in society(and therefore their 'job') is to learn and study as a student
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Economy
An ECONOMY (From Greek οίκος – "household" and νęμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production , distribution , or trade , and consumption of goods and services by different agents in a given geographical location in various countries. Understood in its broadest sense, 'The economy is defined as a social domain that emphasizes the practices, discourses, and material expressions associated with the production, use, and management of resources'. Economic agents can be individuals, businesses, organizations, or governments. Economic transactions occur when two parties agree to the value or price of the transacted good or service, commonly expressed in a certain currency . Monetary transactions only account for a small part of the economic domain. Economic activity is spurred by production which uses natural resources, labor, and capital. It has changed over time due to technology (automation, accelerator of process, reduction of cost functions), innovation (new products, services, processes, new markets, expands markets, diversification of markets, niche markets, increases revenue functions) such as that which produces intellectual property and changes in industrial relations (for example, child labor being replaced in some parts of the world with universal access to education )
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ASTD
The ASSOCIATION FOR TALENT DEVELOPMENT (ATD), formerly AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TRAINING 122 U.S. chapters; 26 global networks, and 12 global partners). The association’s membership work in various types of organizations, including government offices, and independent consultants and suppliers. COMPETENCY MODELBased on findings from a 2004 Competency Study, ATD created a competency model as a guide for its professional constituency. The model includes three tiers: foundational competencies, areas of expertise (designing learning , improving human performance , delivering training, measuring and evaluating, facilitating organizational change, managing the learning function, coaching, managing organizational knowledge , and career planning and talent management ), and roles, and is a frame of reference for career growth and professional development. This model is a basis for ATD’s Certified Professional in Learning and Performance credential offered by the ATD Certification Institute. ABOUT ATDATD was founded as the American Society for Training & Development (ASTD) in 1944. The organization began in New Orleans during a training committee meeting of the American Petroleum Institute in 1942. The following year, a group of 15 “training men” met for the first board meeting of the American Society of Training Directors in Baton Rouge, Louisiana . They became the governing body of the association, which convened its membership in Chicago in 1945
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U.S. Department Of Labor
The UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (DOL) is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government responsible for occupational safety , wage and hour standards, unemployment insurance benefits, reemployment services, and some economic statistics; many U.S. states also have such departments. The department is headed by the U.S. Secretary of Labor . The purpose of the Department of Labor is to foster, promote, and develop the welfare of the wage earners, job seekers, and retirees of the United States; improve working conditions; advance opportunities for profitable employment; and assure work-related benefits and rights. In carrying out this mission, the Department of Labor administers and enforces more than 180 federal laws and thousands of federal regulations. These mandates and the regulations that implement them cover many workplace activities for about 10 million employers and 125 million workers. The Department’s headquarters is housed in the Frances Perkins Building , named in honor of Frances Perkins
Frances Perkins
, the Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945 and the first female cabinet secretary in U.S. history
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Technology
TECHNOLOGY ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, _techne_, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, _-logia_ ) is the collection of techniques , skills , methods and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation . Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, or it can be embedded in machines which can be operated without detailed knowledge of their workings. The simplest form of technology is the development and use of basic tools . The prehistoric discovery of how to control fire and the later Neolithic Revolution increased the available sources of food and the invention of the wheel helped humans to travel in and control their environment. Developments in historic times, including the printing press , the telephone , and the Internet , have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale. The steady progress of military technology has brought weapons of ever-increasing destructive power, from clubs to nuclear weapons . Technology has many effects. It has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's global economy ) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class . Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of Earth's environment
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Basic Skills
BASIC SKILLS can be compared to higher order thinking skills . Facts and methods are highly valued under the back-to-basics approach to education. * Facts are learned one at a time, in isolation, as compared to an integrated curriculum which combines fields of learning. * They are learned from a book or teacher as compared to constructivism or student-centered learning where the learner constructs his or her own knowledge. * Direct Instruction is based on teaching basic skills. * They are learned for academics sake rather than in context or "real life" as compared to project-based learning . Critics who dismissed some mathematics as "Rainforest algebra" find pages filled with information about rainforests, the environment, or even shoe companies like Nike but very little information on how to actually solve the mathematics exercises. * A basic skills test is generally a multiple choice which tests for one area of knowledge, as compared to a standards based assessment which requires an open response that requires integrating many different areas of knowledge such as communication, problem solving , mathematics and science on a science item. * Mathematical skills such as borrowing or long division are learned without adding cultural context such as multiculturalism or ethnic heritage or issues of social justice. * Facts are learned in sequence, rather than spiraling
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Skill (labor)
SKILL is a measure of the amount of worker's expertise, specialization, wages, and supervisory capacity. Skilled workers are generally more trained, higher paid, and have more responsibilities than unskilled workers. Skilled workers have long had historical import (_see_ Division of labor ) as masons , carpenters , blacksmiths , bakers , brewers , coopers , printers and other occupations that are economically productive. Skilled workers were often politically active through their craft guilds . CONTENTS * 1 Relative demand of skilled labor * 2 Foundation, transferable, and technical and vocational skills * 2.1 Foundation skills * 2.2 Transferable skills * 2.3 Technical and vocational skills * 3 See also * 4 Sources * 5 References * 6 Further reading RELATIVE DEMAND OF SKILLED LABOROne of the factors that increases the relative demand for skilled labor is the introduction of computers. In order to operate computers, workers must build up their human capital in order to learn how such a piece of machinery works. Thus, there is an increase in the demand for skilled labor. In addition to the technological change of computers, the introduction of electricity also replaces man power (unskilled labor) which alters the demand for labor skills. Technology, however, is not the only factor. Trade and the effects of globalization also play roles in affecting the relative demand for skilled labor
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