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Siwa Oasis
The Siwa Oasis
Oasis
(Arabic: واحة سيوة‎, Wāḥat Sīwah, IPA: [ˈwæːħet ˈsiːwæ]; Berber languages: Isiwan, ⵉⵙⵉⵡⴰⵏ) is an urban oasis in Egypt, between the Qattara Depression and the Egyptian Sand Sea
Egyptian Sand Sea
in the Western Desert, nearly 50 km (30 mi) east of the Libyan border, and 560 km (348 mi) from Cairo.[1][2][3] About 80 km (50 mi) in length and 20 km (12 mi) wide,[1] Siwa Oasis
Oasis
is one of Egypt's most isolated settlements, with about 33,000 people,[4] mostly Berbers[1] who developed a unique culture and a distinct language of the Berber family called Siwi.[5] Its fame lies primarily in its ancient role as the home to an oracle of Ammon, the ruins of which are a popular tourist attraction which gave the oasis its ancient name Ammonium
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Al-Maqrizi
Taqi al-Din Abu al-Abbas Ahmad ibn ' Ali
Ali
ibn 'Abd al-Qadir ibn Muhammad al-Maqrizi (1364–1442)[1] (Arabic: تقى الدين أحمد بن على بن عبد القادر بن محمد المقريزى) was an Egyptian historian more commonly known as al-Maqrizi or Makrizi. Although he was "a Mamluk-era historian and himself a Sunni Muslim, he is remarkable in this context for his unusually keen interest in the Isma'ili Fatimid dynasty and its role in Egyptian history."[2]Contents1 Life 2 Writings2.1 Smaller works 2.2 Books3 See also 4 References 5 External linksLife[edit] Maqrizi was born in Fatimid
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Cyrene, Libya
Cyrene (/saɪˈriːniː/; Ancient Greek: Κυρήνη, translit. Kyrēnē) was an ancient Greek and Roman city near present-day Shahhat, Libya. It was the oldest and most important of the five Greek cities in the region. It gave eastern Libya
Libya
the classical name Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
that it has retained to modern times. Located nearby is the ancient Necropolis
Necropolis
of Cyrene. Cyrene lies in a lush valley in the Jebel Akhdar uplands. The city was named after a spring, Kyre, which the Greeks
Greeks
consecrated to Apollo. It was also the seat of the Cyrenaics, a famous school of philosophy in the 4th century BC, founded by Aristippus, a disciple of Socrates
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Herodotus
Herodotus
Herodotus
(/hɪˈrɒdətəs/; Ancient Greek: Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos, Attic Greek
Attic Greek
pronunciation: [hɛː.ró.do.tos]) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus
in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (c. 484–c. 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides
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Persian Empire
The Persian Empire
Empire
(Persian: شاهنشاهی ایران‎, translit. Šâhanšâhiye Irân, lit. 'Imperial Iran') is a series of imperial dynasties centered in Persia/ Iran
Iran
since the 6th century BC in the Achaemenid
Achaemenid
era, to the 20th century AD in the Qajar
Qajar
era.Contents1 Achaemenids 2 Parthians and Sasanians 3 Safavids 4 List of the dynasties described as a Persian Empire 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksAchaemenids The first dynasty of the Persian Empire
Empire
was created by Achaemenids, established by Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
in 550 BC with the conquest of Median, Lydian and Babylonian empires.[1] It covered much of the Ancient world and controlled the largest percentage of the earth's population in history when it was conquered by Alexander the Great
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Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Pharaoh
(/ˈfeɪ.roʊ/, /fɛr.oʊ/[1][2] or /fær.oʊ/;[2] Coptic: ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 30 BCE,[3] although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Nesu Bety, and the Nebty name. The Golden Horus
Horus
and Nomen and prenomen titles were later added. In Egyptian society, religion was central to everyday life. One of the roles of the pharaoh was as an intermediary between the gods and the people. The pharaoh thus deputised for the gods; his role was both as civil and religious administrator
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Egyptian Language
The Egyptian language
Egyptian language
was spoken in ancient Egypt
Egypt
and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages. Its attestation stretches over an extraordinarily long time, from the Old Egyptian
Old Egyptian
stage (mid-3rd millennium BC, Old Kingdom of Egypt). Its earliest known complete written sentence has been dated to about 2690 BC, which makes it one of the oldest recorded languages known, along with Sumerian.[2] Its classical form is known as Middle Egyptian, the vernacular of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt
Middle Kingdom of Egypt
which remained the literary language of Egypt until the Roman period. The spoken language evolved into Demotic by the time of Classical Antiquity, and finally into Coptic by the time of Christianisation
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Christianity
Christianity[note 1] is an Abrahamic monotheistic[1] religion based on the life, teachings, and miracles of Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth, known by Christians
Christians
as the Christ, or "Messiah", who is the focal point of the Christian
Christian
faiths
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Islam
Islam
Islam
(/ˈɪslɑːm/)[note 1] is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God
God
(Allah)[1] and that Muhammad
Muhammad
is the messenger of God.[2][3] It is the world's second-largest religion[4] and the fastest-growing major religion in the world,[5][6][7] with over 1.8 billion followers or 24.1% of the global population,[8] known as Muslims.[9] Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries.[4] Islam
Islam
teaches that God
God
is merciful, all-powerful, unique[10] and has guided mankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs.[3][11] The primary scriptures of Islam
Islam
are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad
Muhammad
(c
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Al-Idrisi
Abu Abdullah Muhammad al-Idrisi
Muhammad al-Idrisi
al-Qurtubi al-Hasani as-Sabti, or simply Al-Idrisi /ælɪˈdriːsiː/ (Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد الإدريسي القرطبي الحسني السبتي‎; Latin: Dreses; 1100 – 1165), was an Arab
Arab
Muslim geographer, cartographer and Egyptologist who lived in Palermo, Sicily
Sicily
at the court of King Roger
King Roger
II
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Zenata
The Zenata
Zenata
(Berber: Iznaten, ⵉⵣⵏⴰⵜⴻⵏ[citation needed] or Iznasen, ⵉⵣⵏⴰⵙⴻⵏ; Arabic: زناتة‎ Zanātah) were a Berber tribe, who inhabited an area stretching from western Egypt
Egypt
to Morocco
Morocco
in antiquity along with the Sanhaja
Sanhaja
and Masmuda.[1] Their lifestyle was mainly nomadic.[2][3] The Zenata
Zenata
adopted Islam early, still in the 7th century. While other Berber tribes continued to resist the Umayyad Caliphate
Umayyad Caliphate
conquest well into the 8th century, they were quickly Arabized.[4] They also formed a substantial contingent in the subsequent Muslim invasion of Iberia. The 14th-century historiographer Ibn Khaldun
Ibn Khaldun
reports that the Zenata were divided into three large tribes: Jarawa, Maghrawa, and Banu Ifran
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Twenty-sixth Dynasty Of Egypt
The Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt
Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt
(notated Dynasty XXVI, alternatively 26th Dynasty or Dynasty 26) was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian conquest in 525 BC (although others followed). The dynasty's reign (664–525 BC) is also called the Saite Period after the city of Sais, where its pharaohs had their capital, and marks the beginning of the Late Period of ancient Egypt.[1]Contents1 History 2 Art 3 Pharaohs of the 26th Dynasty 4 Timeline of the 26th Dynasty 5 See also 6 References 7 BibliographyHistory[edit] This dynasty traced its origins to the 24th Dynasty. Psamtik I
Psamtik I
was probably a descendant of Bakenrenef, and following the Assyrians' invasions during the reigns of Taharqa
Taharqa
and Tantamani, he was recognized as sole king over all of Egypt
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Muhammad Ali Of Egypt
Wāli
Wāli
of Egypt, Sudan, Sham, Hejaz, Morea, Thasos, CreteAn 1840 portrait of Muhammad Ali Pasha
Pasha
by Auguste CouderReign 17 May 1805 – 2 March 1848Predecessor Ahmad Khurshid PashaSuccessor Ibrahim PashaBorn 4 March 1769 Kavala, Macedonia, Rumeli eyalet, Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(present-day Greece)Died 2 August 1849(1849-08-02) (aged 80) Ras el-Tin Palace, Alexandria, Egypt
Egypt
Eyalet, Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(present day Egypt)Burial Mosque of Muhammad Ali, Cairo
Cairo
Citadel, EgyptWivesEmina of Nosratli Shams uz-Zafar Nuraj Shams-i-Nur Zepha Mah-Duran Khadija Ziba Mumtaz Shama NourIssue Tevhida Ibrahim Pasha Tusun Pasha Isma'il Hatice (a.k.a
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Ethnological Museum Of Berlin
The Ethnological Museum of Berlin
Berlin
(German: Ethnologisches Museum Berlin) is one of the Berlin
Berlin
State Museums (German: Staatliche Museen zu Berlin), the de facto national collection of the Federal Republic of Germany. It is presently located in the museum complex in Dahlem, along with the Museum of Asian Art
Museum of Asian Art
(German: Museum für Asiatische Kunst) and the Museum of European Cultures (German: Museum Europäischer Kulturen)
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World War I
Allied victoryCentral Powers' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
and foundation of the Soviet Union Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies
German colonies
and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers Establishment of the League of Nations
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