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Sittanavasal Cave
SITTANAVASAL CAVE (also, ARIVAR KOIL) is a 2nd-century Jain
Jain
complex of caves in Sittanavasal village in Pudukottai
Pudukottai
district of Tamil Nadu , India. Its name is a distorted form of Sit-tan-na-va-yil, a Tamil word which means "the abode of great saints" (Tamil: சித்தன்னவாசல்). The monument is a rock-cut monastery or temple. Created by Jains , it is called the Arivar Koil, and is a rock cut cave temple of the Arihants . It contains remnants of notable frescoes from the 7th century. The murals have been painted with vegetable and mineral dyes in black, green, yellow, orange, blue, and white. Paintings have been created by applying colours over a thin wet surface of lime plaster. Ancient structures such as Gol Gumbaz , Talagirishvara temple and this one are claimed to be relatively unappreciated
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Pudukottai
PUDUKKOTTAI is the administrative headquarters of Pudukkottai District in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
.It is a small town located on the banks of River Vellar, it has been ruled, at different times, by the Early Pandyas , Mutharaiyars , Thondaimans, and the British . It is situated about 395 kilometres (245 mi) southwest of the state capital Chennai
Chennai
and about 55 kilometres (34 mi) southwest of Tiruchirappalli
Tiruchirappalli
. The people in the city are employed majorly in teritiary sector activities. Tamil Nadu's first women Asiad Santhi Soundarajan is from Pudukkottai. Being the district headquarters, Pudukkottai accommodates the district administration offices, government educational institutes, colleges and schools
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Jain
JAINISM (/ˈdʒeɪnɪzəm/ or /ˈdʒaɪnɪzəm/ ), traditionally known as JAIN DHARMA, is an ancient Indian religion . Jainism followers are called "Jains", a word derived from the Sanskrit word _jina _ (victor) and connoting the path of victory in crossing over life's stream of rebirths through an ethical and spiritual life. Jains trace their history through a succession of twenty-four victorious saviors and teachers known as _Tirthankaras _, with the first being Rishabhanatha , who is believed to have lived millions of years ago, and twenty-fourth being the Mahavira around 500 BCE. Jains believe that Jainism is an eternal _dharma _ with the Tirthankaras guiding every cycle of the Jain cosmology. The main religious premises of Jainism are _ahimsa _ ("non-violence"), _anekantavada _ ("many-sidedness"), _aparigraha _ ("non-attachment") and _asceticism _
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Pandya
The PANDYAN DYNASTY was an ancient Tamil dynasty , one of the three Tamil dynasties , the other two being the Chola and the Chera . The kings of the three dynasties were referred to as the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam . The Early Pandyans ruled parts of Southern India from at least 4th century BCE. Pandyan rule ended in the first half of the 16th century CE. They initially ruled their country Pandya Nadu from Korkai , a seaport on the southernmost tip of the Indian Peninsula, and in later times moved to Madurai
Madurai
. Fish being their flag , Pandyas were experts in water management, agriculture(mostly near river banks) and fisheries and they were eminent sailors and sea traders too. Pandyan was well known since ancient times, with contacts, even diplomatic, reaching the Roman Empire
Roman Empire

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India
INDIA, officially the REPUBLIC OF INDIA (_Bhārat Gaṇarājya_), is a country in South Asia . It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people ), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China , Nepal , and Bhutan to the northeast; and Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives . India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia . The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE
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Jainism
JAINISM (/ˈdʒeɪnɪzəm/ or /ˈdʒaɪnɪzəm/ ), traditionally known as JAIN DHARMA, is an ancient Indian religion . Jainism followers are called "Jains", a word derived from the Sanskrit word _jina _ (victor) and connoting the path of victory in crossing over life's stream of rebirths through an ethical and spiritual life. Jains trace their history through a succession of twenty-four victorious saviors and teachers known as _Tirthankaras _, with the first being Rishabhanatha , who is believed to have lived millions of years ago, and twenty-fourth being the Mahavira around 500 BCE. Jains believe that Jainism is an eternal _dharma _ with the Tirthankaras guiding every cycle of the Jain cosmology. The main religious premises of Jainism are _ahimsa _ ("non-violence"), _anekantavada _ ("many-sidedness"), _aparigraha _ ("non-attachment") and _asceticism _
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Bhaktamara Stotra
BHAKTAMARA STOTRA is a famous Jain
Jain
Sanskrit
Sanskrit
prayer. It was composed by Acharya Manatunga
Manatunga
(seventh century CE). The name Bhaktamara comes from a combination of two sanskrit names, "Bhakta" (Devotee) and "Amar" (Immortal). The prayer praises _ Rishabhanatha
Rishabhanatha
_(adinath) , the first _Tirthankara _ of Jainism. There are forty-eight verses in total. The last verse gives the name of the author _Manatunga_. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Legend * 3 History * 4 Verses * 5 Art * 6 References * 7 Sources OVERVIEW Illustrative of Rishabhanatha, Folio Bhaktamara Stotra
Stotra
Bhaktamar verses have been recited as a stotra (prayer), and sung as a stavan (hymn ), somewhat interchangeably
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Micchami Dukkadam
MICCHāMI DUKKAḍAṃ (मिच्छामि दुक्कडम्) is an ancient Indian phrase, which is translated from Prakrit
Prakrit
to literally mean "may all the evil that has been done be fruitless." It is commonly used to seek forgiveness and to mean, "If I have offended you in any way, knowingly or unknowingly, in thought, word or deed, then I seek your forgiveness." It is used widely in the Jain religion on the last day ( Samvatsari or Kshamavani ) of Paryushana
Paryushana
, the most important annual holy event of the Jain calendar. As a matter of ritual, Jains greet their friends and relatives on this last day with Micchāmi Dukkaḍaṃ, seeking their forgiveness. No private quarrel or dispute should be carried beyond this time. The importance of forgiveness in Jainism
Jainism
may be compared to the importance of forgiveness in other religions
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Namokar Mantra
ṆAMōKāRA MANTRA is the most significant mantra in Jainism
Jainism
. This is the first prayer recited by the Jains while meditating . The mantra is also variously referred to as the _Pancha Namaskāra Mantra_, _Navakāra Mantra_ or _Namaskāra Mantra_. While reciting this mantra, the devotee bows with respect to the _Panch Parameshti_ (the Supreme Five): * _Arihant _— Those who have destroyed the four inimical _karmas _ * _ Siddha _ — The liberated souls * _Acharyas _ — The spiritual leaders or Preceptors * _Upadhayaya_ — Preceptor of less advanced ascetics * _Sādhu_ — The monks or sages in the worldThere is no mention of any particular names of the gods or any specific person. The prayer is done towards the guṇa (the good qualities) of the gods, teachers and the saints
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Jai Jinendra
JAI JINENDRA! ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: जय जिनेन्द्र Jaya Jinēndra) is a common greeting used by the Jains . The phrase means "Honor to the Supreme _Jinas_ (Tirthankaras )" The reverential greeting is a combination of two sanskrit words: _Jai_ and _Jinendra_ The word, _Jai_ is used to praise somebody. In Jai Jinendra, it is used to praise the qualities of the _Jinas_ (conquerors). The word _Jinendra_ is a compound-word derived from the word _Jina_, referring to a human being who has conquered all inner passions and possess Kevala Gyan(pure infinite knowledge), and the word "Indra," which means chief or lord. SEE ALSO * God in Jainism
Jainism
* Mahavira
Mahavira
NOTES * ^ _A_ _B_ Rankin 2013 , p. 37. * ^ Sangave 2001 , p. 16. * ^ Sangave 2001 , p. 164.REFERENCES * Rankin, Aidan (2013), "Chapter 1
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Anekantavada
ANEKāNTAVāDA ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: अनेकान्तवाद, "many-sidedness") refers to the Jain doctrine about metaphysical truths that emerged in ancient India
India
. It states that the ultimate truth and reality is complex, has multiple aspects. Anekantavada
Anekantavada
has also been interpreted to mean non-absolutism, "intellectual Ahimsa", religious pluralism, as well as a rejection of fanaticism that leads to terror attacks and mass violence. According to Jainism
Jainism
, no single, specific statement can describe the nature of existence and the absolute truth . This knowledge (_Kevala Jnana _), it adds, is comprehended only by the Arihants . Other beings and their statements about absolute truth are incomplete, and at best a partial truth
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Jain Cosmology
JAIN COSMOLOGY is the description of the shape and functioning of the Universe
Universe
(_loka_) and its constituents (such as living beings, matter, space, time etc.) according to Jainism
Jainism
. Jain cosmology
Jain cosmology
considers the universe, as an uncreated entity, existing since infinity, having neither beginning nor end. Jain texts describe the shape of the universe as similar to a man standing with legs apart and arm resting on his waist. This Universe, according to Jainism, is broad at the top, narrow at the middle and once again becomes broad at the bottom
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Ahimsa In Jainism
_AHIMSā_ (_Ahiṃsā_) in Jainism
Jainism
is a fundamental principle forming the cornerstone of its ethics and doctrine. The term _ahimsa _ means nonviolence , non-injury or absence of desire to harm any life forms. Vegetarianism and other nonviolent practices and rituals of Jains flow from the principle of _ahimsa_. The Jain
Jain
concept of _ahimsa_ is very different from the concept of nonviolence found in other philosophies. Violence is usually associated with causing harm to others. But according to the Jain philosophy , violence refers primarily to injuring one's own self – behaviour which inhibits the soul's own ability to attain _moksha _ (liberation from the cycle of births and deaths)
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Karma In Jainism
KARMA is the basic principle within an overarching psycho-cosmology in Jainism
Jainism
. Human moral actions form the basis of the transmigration of the soul (_jīva _). The soul is constrained to a cycle of rebirth, trapped within the temporal world (_saṃsāra _), until it finally achieves liberation (_mokṣa _). Liberation is achieved by following a path of purification. Jains believe that karma is a physical substance that is everywhere in the universe. Karma
Karma
particles are attracted to the soul by the actions of that soul. Karma