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Siskiyou Chipmunk
Tamias siskiyouThe Siskiyou chipmunk
Siskiyou chipmunk
( Neotamias
Neotamias
siskiyou) is a species of rodent in the family Sciuridae. It is endemic to northern California
California
and central Oregon
Oregon
in the United States.[1] References[edit]^ a b Linzey, A. V. & Hammerson, G. (2008). "Tamias siskiyou". IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature
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Conservation Status
The conservation status of a group of organisms (for instance, a species) indicates whether the group still exists and how likely the group is to become extinct in the near future. Many factors are taken into account when assessing conservation status: not simply the number of individuals remaining, but the overall increase or decrease in the population over time, breeding success rates, and known threats
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Ictidomys Parvidens
Ictidomys
Ictidomys
parvidens is a species of squirrel in the family Sciuridae. All the species of Ictidomys
Ictidomys
were previously believed to belong to the much larger genus Spermophilus
Spermophilus
(I. parvidens as a subspecies of Spermophilus
Spermophilus
mexicanus),[1] but DNA sequencing of the cytochrome b gene showed that this group was paraphyletic to the prairie dogs and marmots,[2] and could therefore no longer be retained as a single genus. As a result, Ictidomys
Ictidomys
is now considered as a genus in its own right.[3] References[edit]^ Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., eds. (2005). Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.  ^ Herron, Matthew D.; Castoe, Todd A.; Parkinson, Christopher L. (2004)
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Ictidomys
Ictidomys
Ictidomys
is a genus of rodent in the squirrel family, which contains the thirteen-lined ground squirrel and related species. These species were included in the species-rich ground squirrel genus Spermophilus until molecular data showed that this genus was not a natural, monophyletic grouping. References[edit]Herron, Matthew D.; Castoe, Todd A.; Parkinson, Christopher L. (2004). "Sciurid phylogeny and the paraphyly of Holarctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 31 (3): 1015–30. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2003.09.015. PMID 15120398.  Helgen, Kristofer M.; Cole, F. Russel; Helgen, Lauren E.; Wilson, Don E (2009). "Generic Revision in the Holarctic Ground Squirrel
Squirrel
Genus Spermophilus" (PDF). Journal of Mammalogy. 90 (2): 270–305. doi:10.1644/07-MAMM-A-309.1
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Xerinae
XeriniAtlantoxerus Spermophilopsis XerusProtoxeriniEpixerus Funisciurus Heliosciurus Myosciurus Paraxerus ProtoxerusMarmotiniAmmospermophilus Callospermophilus Cynomys Eutamias Ictidomys Marmota Neotamias Notocitellus Otospermophilus Poliocitellus Sciurotamias Spermophilus Tamias Urocitellus XerospermophilusThe Xerinae
Xerinae
comprise a subfamily of squirrels, many of which are highly terrestrial. It includes the tribes Marmotini
Marmotini
(marmots, chipmunks, prairie dogs, and other Holarctic
Holarctic
ground squirrels), Xerini (African and some Eurasian ground squirrels), and Protoxerini
Protoxerini
(African tree squirrels).[1] References[edit]^ Thorington, R. W. and R. S. Hoffmann. 2005. Family Sciuridae. pp 754–818 in Wilson, E. D. and Reeder, D. M. (eds.), Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Vol. 2
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Sciuromorpha
†Allomyidae Aplodontiidae †Mylagaulidae Sciuridae †Reithroparamyidae Gliridae Sciuromorpha
Sciuromorpha
("squirrel-like") is a rodent clade that includes several different rodent families. It includes all members of the Sciuridae (the squirrel family) as well as the mountain beaver species. Traditionally, the term has been defined on the basis of the shape of the infraorbital canal. A sciuromorphous zygomasseteric system is characterized by attachment of the lateral masseter muscle along the side of the rostrum. Unlike hystricomorphous and myomorphous rodents, the medial masseter muscle does not pass through the infraorbital canal. Among extant rodents, only the families Sciuridae, Castoridae, Heteromyidae, and Geomyidae
Geomyidae
are truly sciuromorphous
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Mammal
Mammals
Mammals
(from Latin mamma "breast") are vertebrate animals constituting the class Mammalia (/məˈmeɪliə/), and characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in females produce milk for feeding (nursing) their young, a neocortex (a region of the brain), fur or hair, and three middle ear bones. These characteristics distinguish them from reptiles and birds, from which they diverged in the late Triassic, 201–227 million years ago. There are around 5,450 species of mammals. The largest orders are the rodents, bats and Soricomorpha
Soricomorpha
(shrews and others). The next three are the Primates (humans, apes, monkeys, and others), the Cetartiodactyla
Cetartiodactyla
(whales and even-toed ungulates), and the Carnivora
Carnivora
(cats, dogs, seals, and others). In cladistics, which reflect evolution, mammals are classified as endothermic amniotes
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Chordate
And see textA chordate (/kɔːrdeɪt/) is an animal constituting the phylum Chordata. During some period of their life cycle, chordates possess a notochord, a dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail: these five anatomical features define this phylum. Chordates are also bilaterally symmetric; and have a coelom, metameric segmentation, and a circulatory system. The Chordata
Chordata
and Ambulacraria
Ambulacraria
together form the superphylum Deuterostomia. Chordates are divided into three subphyla: Vertebrata (fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals); Tunicata
Tunicata
(salps and sea squirts); and Cephalochordata
Cephalochordata
(which includes lancelets). There are also extinct taxa such as the Vetulicolia
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Animal
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, reproduce sexually, and grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million in total. Animals range in size from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres (110 ft) long and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The study of animals is called zoology. Aristotle divided animals into those with blood and those without. Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809
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International Union For Conservation Of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature
(IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature
and Natural Resources[2]) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, research, field projects, advocacy, and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence, encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America Flag Coat of arms Motto: "In God
God
We Trust"[1][a] .mw-parser-outpu
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Oregon
Oregon
Oregon
(/ˈɔːrɪɡən/ ( listen)[7]) is a state in the Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
region on the West Coast of the United States. The Columbia River
Columbia River
delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary along Washington state, while the Snake River
Snake River
delineates much of its eastern boundary along Idaho. The parallel 42° north delineates the southern boundary with California
California
and Nevada. Oregon
Oregon
is one of only three states of the contiguous United States
United States
to have a coastline on the Pacific Ocean. Oregon
Oregon
was inhabited by many indigenous tribes before Western traders, explorers, and settlers arrived
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California
Native languages as of 2007English 57.4%[2] Spanish 28.5%[3] Chinese 2.8%[3] Filipino 2.2%[3]Demonym CalifornianCapital SacramentoLargest city Los AngelesLargest metro Greater Los Angeles
Los Angeles
AreaArea Ranked 3rd • Total 163,696 sq mi (423,970 km2) • Width 250 miles (400 km) • Length 770 miles (1,240 km) • % water 4.7 • Latitude 32°32′ N to 42° N • Longitude 114°8′ W to 124
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Endemism
Endemism
Endemism
is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere. The extreme opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution. An alternative term for a species that is endemic is precinctive, which applies to species (and subspecific categories) that are restricted to a defined geographical area.Contents1 Etymology 2 Overview 3 Threats to highly endemistic regions 4 Notes 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksEtymology[edit] The word endemic is from New Latin
New Latin
endēmicus, from Greek ενδήμος, endēmos, "native". Endēmos is formed of en meaning "in", and dēmos meaning "the people".[1] The term "precinctive" has been suggested by some scientists,[a] and was first used in botany by MacCaughey in 1917
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name,[1] although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature.[2] For example, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name, Picea abies. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription, position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature)
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Binomial Nomenclature
Binomial nomenclature
Binomial nomenclature
("two-term naming system"), also called binominal nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomial name (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name; more informally it is also called a Latin
Latin
name. The first part of the name – the generic name – identifies the genus to which the species belongs, while the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus Homo
Homo
and within this genus to the species Homo
Homo
sapiens
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