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Sirte
Sirte
Sirte
(/ˈsɜːrt/; Arabic: سرت‎,  pronunciation (help·info); from Ancient Greek: Σύρτις), also spelled Sirt, Surt, Sert or Syrte, is a city in Libya. It is located south of the Gulf of Sirte, between Tripoli
Tripoli
and Benghazi. It is famously known for its battles, ethnic groups, and loyalism to Muammar Gaddafi. Also due to its development, it was the capital of Libya
Libya
as Tripoli's successer after the Fall of Tripoli since September 1, 2011 to October 20, 2011. The settlement was established in the early 20th century by the Italians, at the site of a 19th-century fortress built by the Ottomans
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Phoenicia
Coordinates: 34°07′25″N 35°39′04″E / 34.12361°N 35.65111°E / 34.12361; 35.65111Phoeniciaknʿn / kanaʿan  (Phoenician) Φοινίκη / Phoiníkē  (Greek)1500 BC[1]–539 BCMap of Phoenicia
Phoenicia
and its Mediterranean trade routesCapital Not specifiedLanguages Phoenician, PunicReligion Canaanite religionGovernment City-states ruled by kingsWell-known kings of Phoenician cities •  c. 1000 BC Ahiram •  969 – 936 BC Hiram I 
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Saffron
Saffron
Saffron
(pronounced /ˈsæfrən/ or /ˈsæfrɒn/)[1] is a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, commonly known as the "saffron crocus". The vivid crimson stigmas and styles, called threads, are collected and dried to be used mainly as a seasoning and colouring agent in food. Saffron, long among the world's most costly spices by weight,[2][3][4] was probably first cultivated in or near Greece.[5] C. sativus is probably a form of C. cartwrightianus, that emerged by human cultivators selectively breeding plants for unusually long stigmas in late Bronze Age Crete.[6] It slowly propagated throughout much of Eurasia
Eurasia
and was later brought to parts of North Africa, North America, and Oceania. Saffron's taste and iodoform or hay-like fragrance result from the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal.[7][8] It also contains a carotenoid pigment, crocin, which imparts a rich golden-yellow hue to dishes and textiles
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Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
is an epic poem in blank verse by the 17th-century English poet John Milton
John Milton
(1608–1674). The first version, published in 1667, consisted of ten books with over ten thousand lines of verse. A second edition followed in 1674, arranged into twelve books (in the manner of Virgil's Aeneid) with minor revisions throughout and a note on the versification.[1][2] It is considered by critics to be Milton's major work, and it helped solidify his reputation as one of the greatest English poets of his time.[3] The poem concerns the biblical story of the Fall of Man: the temptation of Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
by the fallen angel Satan
Satan
and their expulsion from the Garden of Eden
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John Milton
John Milton
John Milton
(9 December 1608 – 8 November 1674) was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England
Commonwealth of England
under Oliver Cromwell. He wrote at a time of religious flux and political upheaval, and is best known for his epic poem Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
(1667), written in blank verse. Milton's poetry and prose reflect deep personal convictions, a passion for freedom and self-determination, and the urgent issues and political turbulence of his day
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Aeneid
The Aeneid
Aeneid
(/ɪˈniːɪd/; Latin: Aeneis [ae̯ˈneːɪs]) is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil
Virgil
between 29 and 19 BC,[1] that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans. It comprises 9,896 lines in dactylic hexameter.[2] The first six of the poem's twelve books tell the story of Aeneas's wanderings from Troy
Troy
to Italy, and the poem's second half tells of the Trojans' ultimately victorious war upon the Latins, under whose name Aeneas
Aeneas
and his Trojan followers are destined to be subsumed. The hero Aeneas
Aeneas
was already known to Greco-Roman
Greco-Roman
legend and myth, having been a character in the Iliad
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Virgil
Publius Vergilius Maro (Classical Latin: [ˈpuː.blɪ.ʊs wɛrˈɡɪ.lɪ.ʊs ˈma.roː]; traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC[1]), usually called Virgil
Virgil
or Vergil /ˈvɜːrdʒɪl/ in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period. He wrote three of the most famous poems in Latin
Latin
literature: the Eclogues
Eclogues
(or Bucolics), the Georgics, and the epic Aeneid. A number of minor poems, collected in the Appendix Vergiliana, are sometimes attributed to him.[2][3] Virgil
Virgil
is traditionally ranked as one of Rome's greatest poets. His Aeneid
Aeneid
has been considered the national epic of ancient Rome
Rome
since the time of its composition
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Punic
The Punics
Punics
(from Latin
Latin
pūnicus, pl. pūnici), also known as Carthaginians, were a people from Ancient Carthage
Ancient Carthage
(now in Tunisia, North Africa) who traced their origins to the Phoenicians. Punic is the English adjective, derived from the Latin
Latin
adjective punicus to describe anything Carthaginian. Their language, Punic, was a dialect of Phoenician. Unlike their Phoenician ancestors, the Carthaginians had a landowning aristocracy, which established a rule of the hinterland in Northern Africa and trans-Saharan trade routes. In later times, one of the clans established a Hellenistic-inspired empire in Iberia and possibly had a foothold in western Gaul. Like other Phoenician people, their urbanized culture and economy were strongly linked to the sea
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Ksar
Ksar, plural ksour (Maghrebi Arabic: قصر qser, plural qsur) is the North African Meghrebi Arabic term for "castle", possibly loaned from Latin castrum. The term generally means a fortified village.Contents1 Related terms 2 Architecture 3 Places named Ksar 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksRelated terms[edit] The counterpart of Maghrebi ksar in literary Arabic, qaṣr, means "castle" or "palace"[1] and it is found in this form elsewhere in the Muslim world. The Berber (Amazigh) original word for "ksar" used in North Africa
North Africa
by the Berber-speaking populations is aghrem (singular) or igherman (plural). In the Maghreb, the term has a more general meaning of "fortified village,"or "fort"
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Abdülmecid I
Abdülmecid I (Ottoman Turkish: عبد المجيد اول ‘Abdü’l-Mecīd-i evvel; 23/25 April 1823 – 25 June 1861), also known as Abdulmejid and similar spellings, was the 31st Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and succeeded his father Mahmud II
Mahmud II
on 2 July 1839.[3] His reign was notable for the rise of nationalist movements within the empire's territories. Abdulmejid wanted to encourage Ottomanism
Ottomanism
among the secessionist subject nations and stop the rise of nationalist movements within the empire, but failed to succeed despite trying to integrate non- Muslims
Muslims
and non-Turks more thoroughly into Ottoman society with new laws and reforms. He tried to forge alliances with the major powers of Western Europe, namely the United Kingdom and France, who fought alongside the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in the Crimean War against Russia
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Karamanli Dynasty
The Karamanli, Caramanli, Qaramanli, or al-Qaramanli dynasty was an early modern dynasty, independent or quasi-independent,[1] which ruled from 1711 to 1835 in Tripolitania. The territory comprised Tripoli
Tripoli
and its surroundings in present-day Libya. At its peak, the Karamanli dynasty's influence reached Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
and Fezzan, covering most of Libya. The founder of the dynasty was Pasha
Pasha
Ahmed Karamanli, a descendant of the Karamanids. The most well-known Karamanli ruler was Yusuf ibn Ali Karamanli Pasha
Pasha
who reigned from 1795 to 1832, who fought a war with the United States
United States
in (1801–1805)
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World War II
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Ottoman Tripolitania
Flag Tripolitania
Tripolitania
Eyalet
Eyalet
in 1795Capital TripoliHistory •  Siege of Tripoli 15 August 1551 •  Italo-Turkish War 18 October 1911Today part of  LibyaThe coastal region of what is today Libya
Libya
was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1551 to 1911, as the Eyalet
Eyalet
of Tripolitania
Tripolitania
(Ottoman Turkish: ایالت طرابلس غرب‎ Eyālet-i Trâblus Gârb) or Bey and Subjects of Tripoli
Tripoli
of Barbary from 1551 to 1864 and as the Vilayet
Vilayet
of Tripolitania
Tripolitania
(Ottoman Turkish: ولايت طرابلس غرب‎ Vilâyet-i Trâblus Gârb) from 1864 to 1911
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Italian Libya
Italian Libya
Libya
(Italian: Libia Italiana; Arabic: ليبيا الإيطالية‎, Lībyā al-Īṭālīya) was a unified colony of Italian North Africa
North Africa
(Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI) established in 1934[3] in what is now modern Libya
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Italo-Turkish War
Italian victoryAnnexation of Libya Start of the First Balkan
Balkan
War Start of the Libyan resistance movementTerritorial changes Italy gains Tripolitania, Cyrenaica, Fezzan, and the Dodecanese islands ( Italian Libya
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