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Sippar
Coordinates: 33°03′32″N 44°15′08″E / 33.058829°N 44.252153°E / 33.058829; 44.252153 (Sippar)Being close to Babylon, Sippar
Sippar
was an early addition to its empire under Hammurabi. Sippar
Sippar
(Sumerian: 𒌓𒄒𒉣𒆠,Zimbir) was an ancient Near Eastern Sumerian and later Babylonian tell (hill city) on the east bank of the Euphrates
Euphrates
river, located at the site of modern Tell Abu Habbah in Iraq's Babil Governorate, some 60 km north of Babylon
Babylon
and 30 km southwest of Baghdad
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Pliny The Elder
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
(born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian. Spending most of his spare time studying, writing, and investigating natural and geographic phenomena in the field, Pliny wrote the encyclopedic Naturalis Historia
Naturalis Historia
(Natural History), which became an editorial model for encyclopedias. His nephew, Pliny the Younger, wrote of him in a letter to the historian Tacitus:For my part I deem those blessed to whom, by favour of the gods, it has been granted either to do what is worth writing of, or to write what is worth reading; above measure blessed those on whom both gifts have been conferred
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Dual (grammatical Number)
Dual (abbreviated DU) is a grammatical number that some languages use in addition to singular and plural. When a noun or pronoun appears in dual form, it is interpreted as referring to precisely two of the entities (objects or persons) identified by the noun or pronoun acting as a single unit or in unison. Verbs can also have dual agreement forms in these languages. The dual number existed in Proto-Indo-European, persisted in many of its descendants, such as Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
and Sanskrit, which have dual forms across nouns, verbs, and adjectives, and Gothic, which used dual forms in pronouns and verbs. It can still be found in a few modern Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
such as Scottish Gaelic, Slovenian, and Sorbian
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Sumu-la-El
Sumu-la-El (also Sumulael or Sumu-la-ilu) was a King in the First Dynasty of Babylon. He reigned c. 1817 - 1781 BC (short chronology).[1] See also[edit]Ancient Near East portalBabyloniaReferences[edit]^ [1] Year names of Sumu-la-El of Babylon - CDLIRegnal titlesPreceded by Sumu-abum King of Babylon 1817 BC-1781 BC Succeeded by Sabiumv t eBabylonian kings Amorite
Amorite
period (Middle Bronze Age)First Dynasty of Isinc. 1953 – 1730 BCIshbi-Erra Shu-Ilishu Iddin-Dagan Ishme-Dagan Lipit-Eshtar Ur-Ninurta Bur-Suen Lipit-Enlil Erra-imitti Enlil-bani Zambiya Iter-pisha Ur-du-kuga Suen-magir Damiq-ilishuKings of Larsac
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Nebuchadnezzar II
Nebuchadnezzar II
Nebuchadnezzar II
(from Akkadian
Akkadian
𒀭𒀝𒆪𒁺𒌨𒊑𒋀 dNabû-kudurri-uṣur, Hebrew: נְבוּכַדְנֶאצַּר‬, Modern Nəvūkádne’ṣar, Tiberian Neḇukáḏné’ṣār), meaning "O god Nabu, preserve/defend my firstborn son") was king of Babylon c. 605 BC – c. 562 BC, the longest and most powerful reign of any monarch in the Neo-Babylonian empire.[2][3]Contents1 Life1.1 Reign2 Portrayal in the Bible 3 Portrayal in medieval Muslim
Muslim
sources 4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External linksLife[edit]Building Inscription of King Nebuchadnezar II at the Ishtar Gate. An abridged excerpt says: "I (Nebuchadnezzar) laid the foundation of the gates down to the ground water level and had them built out of pure blue stone
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Berossus
Berossus /bəˈrɒsəs/ or Berosus (/bəˈroʊsəs/; name possibly derived from Akkadian: Bēl-rē'u-šu, "Bel is his shepherd"; Greek: Βήρωσσος)[1] was a Hellenistic-era Babylonian writer, a priest of Bel Marduk[2] and astronomer who wrote in the Koine Greek
Koine Greek
language, and who was active at the beginning of the 3rd century BC
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Antediluvian
The Antediluvian
Antediluvian
(alternatively Pre-Diluvian or Pre-Flood, or even Tertiary) period (meaning "before the deluge") is the time period referred to in the Bible
Bible
between the fall of humans and the Noachian Deluge (the Genesis Flood) in the biblical cosmology. The narrative takes up chapters 1–6 (excluding the flood narrative) of the Book of Genesis. The term found its way into early geology and science until the late Victorian era
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Abydenus
Abydenus (Ancient Greek: Αβυδηνός) was a Greek historian, and the author of a History of the Chaldeans and Assyrians, of which some fragments are preserved by Eusebius in his Praeparatio Evangelica, and by Cyril of Alexandria in his work against Julian. Several other fragments are preserved by Syncellus. These were particularly valuable for chronology. An important fragment, which clears up some difficulties in Assyrian history, has been discovered in the Armenian translation of the Chronicon of Eusebius. It is uncertain when he lived, but he is to be distinguished from Palaephatus Abydenus, who lived in the time of Alexander the Great; for this Abydenus mentions Berosus, who lived at a later period
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Natural History (Pliny)
Pliny's Natural History (Latin: Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin
Latin
by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD. It is one of the largest single works to have survived from the Roman Empire to the modern day and purports to cover all ancient knowledge. The work's subject area is thus not limited to what is today understood by natural history; Pliny himself defines his scope as "the natural world, or life".[2] It is encyclopedic in scope, but its structure is not like that of a modern encyclopedia. The work is divided into 37 books, organised into ten volumes
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Parthian Empire
The Parthian Empire
Empire
(/ˈpɑːrθiən/; 247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire
Empire
(/ˈɑːrsəsɪd/),[9] was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran
Iran
and Iraq.[10] Its latter name comes from Arsaces I of Parthia[11] who, as leader of the Parni
Parni
tribe, founded it in the mid-3rd century BC when he conquered the region of Parthia[12] in Iran's northeast, then a satrapy (province) in rebellion against the Seleucid Empire. Mithridates I of Parthia
Parthia
(r. c. 171–138 BC) greatly expanded the empire by seizing Media and Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the Seleucids. At its height, the Parthian Empire
Empire
stretched from the northern reaches of the Euphrates, in what is now central-eastern Turkey, to eastern Iran
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Borsippa
Coordinates: 32°23′31.19″N 44°20′30.08″E / 32.3919972°N 44.3416889°E / 32.3919972; 44.3416889The mountain of Borsippa
Borsippa
(in antiquity Babel). Drawn by Faucher-Gudin. Borsippa
Borsippa
(Sumerian: BAD.SI.(A).AB.BAKI; Akkadian: Barsip and Til-Barsip)[1] or Birs Nimrud (having been identified with Nimrod) is an archeological site in Babylon
Babylon
Province, Iraq. The ziggurat, the "Tongue Tower," today one of the most vividly identifiable surviving ziggurats, is identified in the later Talmudic
Talmudic
and Arabic
Arabic
culture with the Tower of Babel
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Hematite
Hematite, also spelled as haematite, is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides. It is the oldest known[clarify] iron oxide mineral and is widespread in rocks and soils[5]. Hematite
Hematite
crystallizes in the rhombohedral lattice system, and it has the same crystal structure as ilmenite and corundum. Hematite
Hematite
and ilmenite form a complete solid solution at temperatures above 950 °C (1,740 °F). Hematite
Hematite
is colored black to steel or silver-gray, brown to reddish brown, or red. It is mined as the main ore of iron. Varieties include kidney ore, martite (pseudomorphs after magnetite), iron rose and specularite (specular hematite). While the forms of hematite vary, they all have a rust-red streak. Hematite
Hematite
is harder than pure iron, but much more brittle
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Ziggurat
A ziggurat (/ˈzɪɡəræt/ ZIG-ə-rat; Akkadian: ziqqurat, D-stem
D-stem
of zaqāru "to build on a raised area") is a type of massive stone structure built in ancient Mesopotamia. It has the form of a terraced compound of successively receding stories or levels. Notable ziggurats include the Great Ziggurat of Ur
Ziggurat of Ur
near Nasiriyah, the Ziggurat
Ziggurat
of Aqar Quf near Baghdad, the now destroyed Etemenanki
Etemenanki
in Babylon, Chogha Zanbil in Khūzestān and Sialk.Contents1 Description 2 Interpretation and significance 3 Zacuali (Toltecs) 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksDescription[edit] Ziggurats were built by the ancient Sumerians, Akkadians, Assyrians, Elamites, Eblaites and Babylonians for local religions, predominantly Mesopotamian religion
Mesopotamian religion
and Elamite religion
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University Of Pennsylvania
The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in the University City section of Philadelphia. Incorporated as The Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania, Penn is one of 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution.[5] Benjamin Franklin, Penn's founder, advocated an educational program that focused as much on practical education for commerce and public service as on the classics and theology, though his proposed curriculum was never adopted
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University Of Baghdad
The University
University
of Baghdad
Baghdad
(UOB) (Arabic: جامعة بغداد‎ Jāmi'at Baghdād) is the largest university in Iraq
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