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Sippar
Coordinates: 33°03′32″N 44°15′08″E / 33.058829°N 44.252153°E / 33.058829; 44.252153 (Sippar)
Being close to Babylon, Sippar was an early addition to its empire under Hammurabi.
Sippar (Sumerian: 𒌓𒄒𒉣𒆠,Zimbir) was an ancient Near Eastern Sumerian and later Babylonian tell (hill city) on the east bank of the Euphrates river, located at the site of modern Tell Abu Habbah in Iraq's Babil Governorate, some 60 km north of Babylon and 30 km southwest of Baghdad
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined
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Pliny The Elder
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian. Spending most of his spare time studying, writing, and investigating natural and geographic phenomena in the field, Pliny wrote the encyclopedic Naturalis Historia (Natural History), which became an editorial model for encyclopedias. His nephew, Pliny the Younger, wrote of him in a letter to the historian Tacitus:
For my part I deem those blessed to whom, by favour of the gods, it has been granted either to do what is worth writing of, or to write what is worth reading; above measure blessed those on whom both gifts have been conferred. In the latter number will be my uncle, by virtue of his own and of your compositions.
Pliny the Younger refers to Tacitus’s reliance upon his uncle's book, the History of the German Wars
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Dual (grammatical Number)
Dual (abbreviated DU) is a grammatical number that some languages use in addition to singular and plural. When a noun or pronoun appears in dual form, it is interpreted as referring to precisely two of the entities (objects or persons) identified by the noun or pronoun acting as a single unit or in unison. Verbs can also have dual agreement forms in these languages. The dual number existed in Proto-Indo-European, persisted in many of its descendants, such as Ancient Greek and Sanskrit, which have dual forms across nouns, verbs, and adjectives, and Gothic, which used dual forms in pronouns and verbs. It can still be found in a few modern Indo-European languages such as Scottish Gaelic, Slovenian, and Sorbian. The majority of modern Indo-European languages, however, only show residual traces of the dual whose function has since been replaced by simple plural, as is evident in the English distinctions: both vs. all, either vs
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Nebuchadnezzar II
Nebuchadnezzar II (from Akkadian 𒀭𒀝𒆪𒁺𒌨𒊑𒋀 d--->Nabû-kudurri-uṣur, Hebrew: נְבוּכַדְנֶאצַּר, Modern Nəvūkádne’ṣar, Tiberian Neḇukáḏné’ṣār), meaning "O god Nabu, preserve/defend my firstborn son") was king of Babylon c. 605 BC – c
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Berossus
Berossus /bəˈrɒsəs/ or Berosus (/bəˈrsəs/; name possibly derived from Akkadian: Bēl-rē'u-šu, "Bel is his shepherd"; Greek: Βήρωσσος) was a Hellenistic-era Babylonian writer, a priest of Bel Marduk and astronomer who wrote in the Koine Greek language, and who was active at the beginning of the 3rd century BC
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Antediluvian
The Antediluvian (alternatively Pre-Diluvian or Pre-Flood, or even Tertiary) period (meaning "before the deluge") is the time period referred to in the Bible between the fall of humans and the Noachian Deluge (the Genesis Flood) in the biblical cosmology. The narrative takes up chapters 1–6 (excluding the flood narrative) of the Book of Genesis. The term found its way into early geology and science until the late Victorian era
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Natural History (Pliny)
Pliny's Natural History ( Latin language">Latin: Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD. It is one of the largest single works to have survived from the Roman Empire to the modern day and purports to cover all ancient knowledge. The work's subject area is thus not limited to what is today understood by natural history; Pliny himself defines his scope as "the natural world, or life". It is encyclopedic in scope, but its structure is not like that of a modern encyclopedia. The work is divided into 37 books, organised into ten volumes
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Parthian Empire
The Parthian Empire (/ˈpɑːrθiən/; 247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire (/ˈɑːrsəsɪd/), was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq. Its latter name comes from Arsaces I of Parthia who, as leader of the Parni tribe, founded it in the mid-3rd century BC when he conquered the region of Parthia in Iran's northeast, then a satrapy (province) in rebellion against the Seleucid Empire. Mithridates I of Parthia (r. c. 171–138 BC) greatly expanded the empire by seizing Media and Mesopotamia from the Seleucids. At its height, the Parthian Empire stretched from the northern reaches of the Euphrates, in what is now central-eastern Turkey, to eastern Iran
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Borsippa
Coordinates: 32°23′31.19″N 44°20′30.08″E / 32.3919972°N 44.3416889°E / 32.3919972; 44.3416889
The mountain of Borsippa (in antiquity Babel). Drawn by Faucher-Gudin.
Borsippa (Sumerian: BAD.SI.(A).AB.BAKI--->; Akkadian: Barsip and Til-Barsip) or Birs Nimrud (having been identified with Nimrod) is an archeological site in Babylon Province, Iraq. The ziggurat, the "Tongue Tower," today one of the most vividly identifiable surviving ziggurats, is identified in the later Talmudic and Arabic culture with the Tower of Babel
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Hematite
Hematite, also spelled as haematite, is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), one of several Iron oxide">iron oxides. It is the oldest known iron oxide mineral and is widespread in rocks and soils. Hematite crystallizes in the rhombohedral lattice system, and it has the same crystal structure as ilmenite and corundum. Hematite and ilmenite form a complete solid solution at temperatures above 950 °C (1,740 °F). Hematite is colored black to steel or silver-gray, brown to reddish brown, or red. It is mined as the Iron ore">main ore of iron. Varieties include kidney ore, martite (pseudomorphs after magnetite), iron rose and specularite (specular hematite). While the forms of hematite vary, they all have a rust-red streak
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Ziggurat
A ziggurat (/ˈzɪɡəræt/ ZIG-ə-rat; Akkadian: Akkadian language text" xml:lang="akk-Latn">ziqqurat, D-stem of Akkadian language text" xml:lang="akk-Latn">zaqāru "to build on a raised area") is a type of massive stone structure built in ancient Mesopotamia. It has the form of a terraced compound of successively receding stories or levels
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University Of Pennsylvania
The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in the University City, Philadelphia"> University City section of Philadelphia. Incorporated as The Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania, Penn is one of 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. Benjamin Franklin, Penn's founder, advocated an educational program that focused as much on practical education for commerce and public service as on the classics and theology, though his proposed curriculum was never adopted
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University Of Baghdad
The University of Baghdad (UOB) (Arabic: جامعة بغدادJāmi'at Baghdād) is the largest university in Iraq and the second largest in the Arab world, behind the University of Cairo.