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Sinhalese Language
Sinhalese (/ˌsɪn(h)əˈliːz, ˌsɪŋ(ɡ)ə-/), known natively as Sinhala (Sinhalese: සිංහල; siṁhala [ˈsiŋɦələ]),[3] is the native language of the Sinhalese people, who make up the largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka, numbering about 16 million.[4][5][6] Sinhalese is also spoken as a second language by other ethnic groups in Sri Lanka, totalling about four million.[7] It belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages.[5] Sinhalese is written using the Sinhalese script, which is one of the Brahmic scripts, a descendant of the ancient Indian Brahmi script
Brahmi script<

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Toponyms
Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.Contents1 Etymology 2 Meaning and history 3 Issues 4 Noted toponymists 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksEtymology[edit] The word "toponymy" is derived from the Greek words tópos (τόπος) "place" and ónoma (ὄνομα) "name". Toponymy is itself a branch of onomastics, the study of names of all kinds. Meaning and history[edit] Toponym is the general name for any place or geographical entity.[1] Related, more specific types of toponym include hydronym for a body of water and oronym for a mountain or hill
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Elision
In linguistics, an elision or deletion is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase. Sometimes sounds are elided to make a word easier to pronounce. The word elision is frequently used in linguistic description of living languages, and deletion is often used in historical linguistics for a historical sound change. In English as spoken by native speakers, elisions come naturally, and are often described as "slurred" or "muted" sounds. Often, elisions are deliberate
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Yaksha
Yaksha
Yaksha
(Sanskrit: यक्ष yakṣa, Tamil: யகன் yakan, இயக்கன் iyakan,[1] Odia: ଯକ୍ଷ jôkhyô, Pali: yakkha)[2] are a broad class of nature-spirits, usually benevolent, but sometimes mischievous and sexually aggressive or capricious caretakers of the natural treasures hidden in the earth and tree roots.[3] They appear in Hindu, Jain and Buddhist texts, as well as ancient and medieval era temples of South Asia and Southeast Asia as guardian deities.[3][4] The feminine form of the word is yakṣī[5] or Yakshini
Yakshini
(yakṣiṇī).[6] In Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist texts, the yakṣa has a dual personality
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Lanka
Lanka
Lanka
/ˈləŋkɑː/ is the name given in Hindu
Hindu
epics to the island fortress capital of the legendary asura king Ravana
Ravana
in the epics of the Ramayana
Ramayana
and the Mahabharata. The fortress was situated on a plateau between three mountain peaks known as the Trikuta Mountains. The ancient city of Lankapura is thought to have been burnt down by Hanuman. After its king, Ravana, was killed by Rama
Rama
with the help of Ravana's brother Vibhishana, the latter was crowned king of Lankapura. The site of Lankā is identified with Sri Lanka
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Exotic Tribes Of Ancient India
The classic Indian epics, such as the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
and the Ramayana, and the Puranas, refer to diverse kinds of beings, describing them as superhuman or subhuman and other worldly extraterrestrials came to inhabit the living world. Many of these tribes have a strong historical basis, while the supernatural and fantastic aspects are considered literary speculation
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Magadha
Magadha
Magadha
was an ancient Indian kingdom in southern Bihar, and was counted as one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas (Sanskrit: "Great Countries") of ancient India. Magadha
Magadha
played an important role in the development of Jainism
Jainism
and Buddhism, and two of India's greatest empires, the Maurya Empire
Maurya Empire
and Gupta Empire, originated in Magadha. The existence of Magadha
Magadha
is recorded in Vedic texts much earlier in time than 600 BCE. The earliest reference to the Magadha
Magadha
people occurs in the Atharvaveda, where they are found listed along with the Angas, Gandharis and Mujavats. The core of the kingdom was the area of Bihar south of the Ganges; its first capital was Rajagriha
Rajagriha
(modern Rajgir), then Pataliputra
Pataliputra
(modern Patna)
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Lion
P. l. atrox P. l. europaea P. l. melanochaita (Sensu stricto) P. l. sinhaleyus P. l. spelaea P. l. vereshchaginiDistribution of Panthera
Panthera
leo in Africa
Africa
and Eurasia, in the past and present.Synonyms Felis
Felis
leo Linnaeus, 1758The lion ( Panthera
Panthera
leo) is a species in the family Felidae
Felidae
and a member of the genus Panthera. It is the second largest extant species after the tiger. It exhibits a pronounced sexual dimorphism; males are larger than females with a typical weight range of 150 to 250 kg (331 to 551 lb) for the former and 120 to 182 kg (265 to 401 lb) for the latter
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Bhagavata Purana
DivisionsSamhita Brahmana Aranyaka UpanishadsUpanishads Rig vedicAitareya KaushitakiSama vedicChandogya KenaYajur vedicBrihadaranyaka Isha Taittiriya Katha Shvetashvatara MaitriAtharva vedicMundaka Mandukya PrashnaOther scripturesBhagavad Gita AgamasRelated Hindu
Hindu
textsVedangasShiksha Chandas Vyakarana Nirukta Kalpa JyotishaPuranas Brahma
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Middle Indo-Aryan Languages
The Middle Indo-Aryan languages
Indo-Aryan languages
(or Middle Indic languages, sometimes conflated with the Prakrits, which are a stage of Middle Indic) are a historical group of languages of the Indo-Aryan family. They are the descendants of Old Indo-Aryan (attested in Vedic Sanskrit) and the predecessors of the modern Indo-Aryan languages, such as Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu), Odia, Bengali and Punjabi. The Middle Indo-Aryan (MIA) stage in the evolution of Indo-Aryan languages is thought to have spanned more than a millennium between 600 BCE and 1000 CE, and is often divided into three major subdivisions.The early stage is represented by the Ardhamagadhi of the Edicts of Ashoka
Ashoka
(c
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L2 Speakers
A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person. In contrast, a foreign language is a language that is learned in an area where that language is not generally spoken by the community as a whole. Some languages, often called auxiliary languages, one of them being English, are used primarily as second languages or lingua francas. More informally, a second language can be said to be any language learned in addition to one's native language, especially in the context of second-language acquisition (that is, learning a new foreign language). A person's first language is not necessarily their dominant language, the one they use most or are most comfortable with. For example, the Canadian census defines first language for its purposes as "the first language learned in childhood and still spoken", recognizing that for some, the earliest language may be lost, a process known as language attrition
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Aspirated Consonant
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents. In English, aspirated consonants are allophones in complementary distribution with their unaspirated counterparts, but in some other languages, notably most Indian and East Asian languages, the difference is contrastive, while in Arabic and Persian, all stops are aspirated.[citation needed] To feel or see the difference between aspirated and unaspirated sounds, one can put a hand or a lit candle in front of one's mouth, and say spin [spɪn] and then pin [pʰɪn]
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Vowel Length
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. Often the chroneme, or the "longness", acts like a consonant, and may have arisen from one etymologically, such as in Australian English. While not distinctive in most other dialects of English, vowel length is an important phonemic factor in many other languages, for instance in Arabic, Finnish, Fijian, Kannada, Japanese, Old English, Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
and Vietnamese. It plays a phonetic role in the majority of dialects of British English and is said to be phonemic in a few other dialects, such as Australian English, South African English and New Zealand English. It also plays a lesser phonetic role in Cantonese, unlike other varieties of Chinese. Many languages do not distinguish vowel length phonemically. Those that do usually distinguish between short vowels and long vowels. A very few languages distinguish three phonemic vowel lengths, such as Luiseño and Mixe
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Loanword
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation
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Kadamba Alphabet
The Kadamba script (known as Pre Old Kannada
Kannada
script) marks the birth of a dedicated script for writing Kannada. It is a descendant of the Brahmi script, an abugida[1] visually close to the Kalinga alphabet.[2] The Kadamba script was developed during the reign of the Kadamba dynasty
Kadamba dynasty
in the 4th–6th centuries. The Kadamba script is also known as Pre-Old- Kannada
Kannada
script. This script later became popular in what is today the state of Goa
Goa
and was used to write Sanskrit, Kannada, Konkani and Marathi. The Kadamba script is one of the oldest of the southern group of South Asian scripts that evolved from the Brahmi script. By 5th century CE it became different from other Brahmi variants and was used in southern Indian states of Karnataka
Karnataka
and Andhra Pradesh
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Sandhi
Sandhi[note 1] (Sanskrit: संधि saṃdhí "joining") is a cover term for a wide variety of sound changes that occur at morpheme or word boundaries. Examples include fusion of sounds across word boundaries and the alteration of one sound depending on nearby sounds or the grammatical function of the adjacent words
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