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Sinhala Numerals
Sinhalese belongs to the Indo-European language family with its roots deeply associated with Indo-Aryan sub family to which the languages such as Persian and Hindi belong. Although it is not very clear whether people in Sri Lanka spoke a dialect of Prakrit at the time of arrival of Buddhism in Sri Lanka, there is enough evidence that Sinhala evolved from mixing of Sanskrit, Magadi (the language which was spoken in Magada Province of India where Lord Buddha was born) and local language which was spoken by people of Sri Lanka prior to the arrival of Vijaya in Sri Lanka, the founder of Sinhala Kingdom. It is also surmised that Sinhala had evolved from an ancient variant of Apabramsa (middle Indic) which is known as ‘Elu’ . When tracing history of Elu, it was preceded by Hela or Pali Sihala
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Brahmi Numerals
The BRAHMI NUMERALS are a numeral system attested from the 3rd century BCE (somewhat later in the case of most of the tens). They are the direct graphic ancestors of the modern Indian and Hindu–Arabic numerals . However, they were conceptually distinct from these later systems, as they were not used as a positional system with a zero . Rather, there were separate numerals for each of the tens (10, 20, 30, etc.). There were also symbols for 100 and 1000 which were combined in ligatures with the units to signify 200, 300, 2000, 3000, etc. ORIGINSThe source of the first three numerals seems clear: they are collections of 1, 2, and 3 strokes, in Ashoka 's era vertical I, II, III like Roman numerals
Roman numerals
, but soon becoming horizontal like the modern Chinese numerals . In the oldest inscriptions, 4 is a +, reminiscent of the X of neighboring Kharoṣṭhī , and perhaps a representation of 4 lines or 4 directions
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Babylonian Numerals
BABYLONIAN NUMERALS were written in cuneiform , using a wedge-tipped reed stylus to make a mark on a soft clay tablet which would be exposed in the sun to harden to create a permanent record. The Babylonians , who were famous for their astronomical observations and calculations (aided by their invention of the abacus ), used a sexagesimal (base-60) positional numeral system inherited from either the Sumerian or the Eblaite civilizations. Neither of the predecessors was a positional system (having a convention for which ‘end’ of the numeral represented the units). CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Characters * 3 Zero * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 Bibliography * 7 External links ORIGINThis system first appeared around 2000 BC; its structure reflects the decimal lexical numerals of Semitic languages
Semitic languages
rather than Sumerian lexical numbers
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Egyptian Numerals
The system of ancient EGYPTIAN NUMERALS was used in Ancient Egypt from around 3000 BC until the early first millennium AD. It was a system of numeration based on multiples of ten, often rounded off to the higher power, written in hieroglyphs . The Egyptians had no concept of a place-valued system such as the decimal system . The hieratic form of numerals stressed an exact finite series notation, ciphered one to one onto the Egyptian alphabet
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Etruscan Numerals
The ETRUSCAN NUMERALS were used by the ancient Etruscans . The system was adapted from the Greek Attic numerals and formed the inspiration for the later Roman numerals
Roman numerals
via the Old Italic script . ETRUSCAN ARABIC SYMBOL * OLD ITALIC θu 1 𐌠 maχ 5 𐌡 śar 10 𐌢 muvalχ 50 𐌣 ? 100 or C 𐌟There is very little surviving evidence of these numerals. Examples are known of the symbols for larger numbers, but it is unknown which symbol represents which number. Thanks to the numbers written out on the Tuscania
Tuscania
dice , there is agreement that zal, ci, huθ and śa are the numbers up to six (besides 1 and 5). The assignment depends on whether the numbers on opposite faces of Etruscan dice add up to seven, like nowadays. Some dice found did not show this proposed pattern
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Inuit Numerals
Inuit , like other Eskimo languages (and Celtic and Mayan languages as well), uses a vigesimal counting system. Inuit counting has sub-bases at 5, 10, and 15. Arabic numerals
Arabic numerals
, consisting of 10 distinct digits (0-9) are not adequate to represent a base-20 system. Students from Kaktovik, Alaska , came up with the KAKTOVIK INUPIAQ NUMERALS, which has since gained wide use among Alaskan Iñupiaq , and is slowly gaining ground in other countries where dialects of the Inuit language are spoken. The numeral system has helped to revive counting in Inuit, which had been falling into disuse among Inuit speakers due to the prevalence of the base-10 system in schools. The picture below shows the numerals 1–19 and then 0. Twenty is written with a one and a zero, forty with a two and a zero, and four hundred with a one and two zeros
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Attic Numerals
ATTIC NUMERALS were used by the ancient Greeks , possibly from the 7th century BC. They were also known as HERODIANIC NUMERALS because they were first described in a 2nd-century manuscript by Herodian . They are also known as ACROPHONIC NUMERALS because the symbols derive from the first letters of the words that the symbols represent: five, ten, hundred, thousand and ten thousand. See Greek numerals
Greek numerals
and acrophony . DECIMAL SYMBOL GREEK NUMERAL IPA 1 Ι – – 5 Π πέντε 10 Δ δέκα 100 Η ἑκατόν 1000 Χ χίλιοι / χιλιάς 10000 Μ μύριονThe use of Η for 100 reflects the early date of this numbering system: Η (Eta ) in the early Attic alphabet represented the sound /h/. In later, "classical" Greek, with the adoption of the Ionic alphabet throughout the majority of Greece, the letter eta had come to represent the long e sound while the rough aspiration was no longer marked
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Aegean Numerals
AEGEAN NUMBERS was the numeral system used by the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations. They are attested in several Aegean scripts ( Linear A , Linear B
Linear B
). They may have survived in the Cypro-Minoan script , where a single sign with "100" value is attested so far on a large clay tablet from Enkomi
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Georgian Numerals
The GEORGIAN NUMERALS are the system of number names used in Georgian , a language spoken in the country of Georgia . The Georgian numerals from 30 to 99 are constructed using a base-20 system, similar to the scheme used in Basque , French for numbers 80 through 99, or the notion of the score in English. The symbols for numbers in modern Georgian texts are the same Arabic numerals used in English, except that the comma is used as the decimal separator , and digits in large numbers are divided into groups of three using spaces or periods (full stops). An older method for writing numerals exists in which most of letters of the Georgian alphabet (including some obsolete letters) are each assigned a numeric value
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Greek Numerals
GREEK NUMERALS, also known as IONIC, IONIAN, MILESIAN, or ALEXANDRIAN NUMERALS, are a system of writing numbers using the letters of the Greek alphabet . In modern Greece
Greece
, they are still used for ordinal numbers and in contexts similar to those in which Roman numerals
Roman numerals
are still used elsewhere in the West. For ordinary cardinal numbers , however, Greece
Greece
uses Arabic numerals
Arabic numerals
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Description * 3 Table * 4 Higher numbers * 5 Zero * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORYThe Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations ' Linear A and Linear B alphabets used a different system, called Aegean numerals
Aegean numerals
, which included specialized symbols for numbers: 𐄇 = 1, 𐄐 = 10, 𐄙 = 100, 𐄢 = 1000, and 𐄫 = 10000
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Hebrew Numerals
The system of HEBREW NUMERALS is a quasi-decimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet . The system was adapted from that of the Greek numerals
Greek numerals
in the late 2nd century BC. The current numeral system is also known as the Hebrew alphabetic numerals to contrast with earlier systems of writing numerals used in classical antiquity. These systems were inherited from usage in the Aramaic and Phoenician scripts, attested from c. 800 BC in the so-called Samaria ostraca and sometimes known as Hebrew-Aramaic numerals, ultimately derived from the Egyptian Hieratic numerals . The Greek system was adopted in Hellenistic Judaism
Hellenistic Judaism
and had been in use in Greece since about the 5th century BC. In this system, there is no notation for zero , and the numeric values for individual letters are added together
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Roman Numerals
The numeric system represented by ROMAN NUMERALS originated in ancient Rome
Rome
and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe
Europe
well into the Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet . Roman numerals, as used today, are based on seven symbols: SYMBOL I V X L C D M VALUE 1 5 10 50 100 500 1,000The use of Roman numerals
Roman numerals
continued long after the decline of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. From the 14th century on, Roman numerals
Roman numerals
began to be replaced in most contexts by the more convenient Hindu-Arabic numerals ; however, this process was gradual, and the use of Roman numerals persists in some minor applications to this day
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Kharosthi Numerals
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE * Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCE * Demotic 7 c. BCE * Meroitic 3 c. BCE* Proto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCE * Ugaritic 15 c. BCE* Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE * Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE* Phoenician 12 c. BCE * Paleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCE * Samaritan 6 c. BCE* Libyco-Berber 3 c. BCE * Tifinagh * Paleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE* Aramaic 8 c. BCE * Kharoṣṭhī 4 c. BCE* Brāhmī 4 c. BCE * Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see) * E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE * Hangul
Hangul
(core letters only) 1443* Devanagari 13 c. CE * Canadian syllabics 1840 * Hebrew 3 c. BCE* Pahlavi 3 c. BCE * Avestan 4 c. CE * Palmyrene 2 c. BCE* Syriac 2 c. BCE * Nabataean 2 c. BCE * Arabic 4 c. CE * N\'Ko 1949 CE* Sogdian 2 c. BCE * Orkhon (old Turkic) 6 c
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Maya Numerals
The MAYA NUMERAL SYSTEM is a vigesimal (base-20) positional notation used in the Maya civilization to represent numbers. The numerals are made up of three symbols; zero (shell shape, with the plastron uppermost), one (a dot) and five (a bar). For example, thirteen is written as three dots in a horizontal row above two horizontal lines stacked above each other. 400s 20s 1s 33 429 5125 Numbers after 19 were written vertically in powers of twenty. For example, thirty-three would be written as one dot above three dots, which are in turn atop two lines. The first dot represents "one twenty" or "1×20", which is added to three dots and two bars, or thirteen. Therefore, (1×20) + 13 = 33. Upon reaching 202 or 400, another row is started (203 or 8000, then 204 or 160,000, and so on). The number 429 would be written as one dot above one dot above four dots and a bar, or (1×202) + (1×201) + 9 = 429
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Quaternary Numeral System
QUATERNARY is the base -4 numeral system . It uses the digits 0, 1, 2 and 3 to represent any real number . Four is the largest number within the subitizing range and one of two numbers that is both a square and a highly composite number (the other being 36), making quaternary a convenient choice for a base at this scale. Despite being twice as large, its radix economy is equal to that of binary. However, it fares no better in the localization of prime numbers (the next best being the primorial base six, senary ). Quaternary shares with all fixed-radix numeral systems many properties, such as the ability to represent any real number with a canonical representation (almost unique) and the characteristics of the representations of rational numbers and irrational numbers . See decimal and binary for a discussion of these properties
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Ternary Numeral System
The TERNARY numeral system (also called BASE-3) has three as its base . Analogous to a bit , a ternary digit is a TRIT (TRinary digIT). One trit is equivalent to log23 (about 1.58496) bits of information . Although ternary most often refers to a system in which the three digits 0 , 1 , and 2 are all non-negative numbers, the adjective also lends its name to the balanced ternary system, comprising the digits −1 , 0 and +1, used in comparison logic and ternary computers
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