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Single-player Video Game
A SINGLE-PLAYER VIDEO GAME is a video game where input from only one player is expected throughout the course of the gaming session. A single-player game is usually a game that can only be played by one person, while "single-player mode" is usually a game mode designed to be played by a single-player, though the game also contains multi-player modes. The vast majority of modern console games and arcade games are designed so that they can be played by a single-player; although many of these games have modes that allow two or more players to play (not necessarily simultaneously), very few actually require more than one player for the game to be played. The _ Unreal Tournament _ series is one example of such. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Game elements * 2.1 Story * 2.2 Characters * 2.3 Exceptions * 3 See also * 4 References HISTORYThe earliest video games, such as _ Tennis for Two _ (1958), _ Spacewar! _ (1962), and _ Pong _ (1972), were symmetrical games designed to be played by two players. Single-player games gained popularity only after this, with early titles such as _Speed Race _ (1974) and _ Space Invaders _ (1978)
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Video Game
A VIDEO GAME is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor . The word _video_ in _video game_ traditionally referred to a raster display device, but as of the 2000s, it implies any type of display device that can produce two- or three-dimensional images . Some theorists categorize video games as an art form , but this designation is controversial. The electronic systems used to play video games are known as platforms ; examples of these are personal computers and video game consoles . These platforms range from large mainframe computers to small handheld computing devices . Specialized video games such as arcade games , in which the video game components are housed in a large, typically coin-operated chassis, while common in the 1980s in video arcades , have gradually declined due to the widespread availability of affordable home video game consoles (e.g., PlayStation 4 , Xbox One and Nintendo Wii U ) and video games on desktop and laptop computers and smartphones . The input device used for games, the game controller , varies across platforms
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Game Mode
GAME MECHANICS are constructs of rules or methods designed for interaction with the game state, thus providing gameplay . All games use mechanics; however, theories and styles differ as to their ultimate importance to the game. In general, the process and study of game design , or ludology , are efforts to come up with game mechanics that allow for people playing a game to have an engaging, but not necessarily fun, experience. The interaction of various game mechanics in a game determines the complexity and level of player interaction in the game, and in conjunction with the game's environment and resources determine game balance . Some forms of game mechanics have been used in games for centuries, while others are relatively new, having been invented within the past decade. Complexity in game mechanics should not be confused with depth or even realism . Go is perhaps one of the simplest of all games, yet exhibits extraordinary depth of play. Most computer or video games feature mechanics that are technically complex (in terms of making a human do all the calculations involved) even in relatively simple designs. In general, commercial video games have gone from simple designs (such as Space Invaders
Space Invaders
and Asteroids ) to extremely complex ones (such as Gran Turismo 5
Gran Turismo 5
and Crysis 2
Crysis 2
) as processing power has increased
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Console Game
A CONSOLE GAME is a form of interactive multimedia used for entertainment. The game consists of manipulable images (and usually sounds) generated by a video game console and displayed on a television or similar audio-video system. The game itself is usually controlled and manipulated using a handheld device connected to the console, called a controller . The controller generally contains a number of buttons and directional controls, (such as analogue joysticks ), each of which has been assigned a purpose for interacting with and controlling the images on the screen. The display, speakers, console, and controls of a console can also be incorporated into one small object known as a handheld game . Modern game multimedia usually comes in the form of an disc , which can be inserted into the game console. Recent advances have allowed games and game demos to be downloaded directly to the console via the Internet
Internet
. Simpler consoles, however, may only have a fixed selection of built-in games. Cartridges were previously common storage devices for video game data, but due to technological advances, most video games are now stored on CDs , higher capacity DVDs , or Blu-ray Discs used by the PlayStation 4
PlayStation 4
and Xbox One
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Arcade Game
An ARCADE GAME or COIN-OP is a coin-operated entertainment machine typically installed in public businesses such as restaurants, bars and amusement arcades . Most arcade games are video games , pinball machines , electro-mechanical games , redemption games or merchandisers . While exact dates are debated, the golden age of arcade video games is usually defined as a period beginning sometime in the late 1970s and ending sometime in the mid-1980s. Excluding a brief resurgence in the early 1990s, the arcade industry subsequently declined in the Western hemisphere as competing home-based video game consoles such as Playstation
Playstation
and Xbox
Xbox
increased in their graphics and game-play capability and decreased in cost
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Unreal Tournament
UNREAL TOURNAMENT is a first-person shooter video game developed by Epic Games and Digital Extremes . The second installment in the Unreal series, it was first published by GT Interactive in 1999 for Microsoft Windows , and later released on the PlayStation 2
PlayStation 2
by Infogrames , in 2001 and on the Dreamcast
Dreamcast
by Secret Level in 2000. Players compete in a series of matches of various types, with the general aim of out-killing opponents. The PC version supports multiplayer online or over a local area network . Free expansion packs were released, some of which were bundled with a 2000 re-release: UNREAL TOURNAMENT: GAME OF THE YEAR EDITION. The game is based on the same technology that powered Unreal , but the design of Unreal Tournament
Unreal Tournament
shifted the series' focus to competitive multiplayer action. Development took almost a year and a half, and the game was initially intended to be an expansion for Unreal. Unreal Tournament
Unreal Tournament
received critical acclaim, with reviewers praising the graphics, artificial intelligence and gameplay, although the console ports were noted for having limitations. The game won several awards, and the series has continued with the releases of sequels Unreal Tournament 2003 in 2002, Unreal Tournament 2004 in 2004, and Unreal Tournament 3 in 2007
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Tennis For Two
TENNIS FOR TWO is a sports video game developed in 1958, which simulates a game of tennis , and was one of the first games developed in the early history of video games . American physicist William Higinbotham designed the game for display at the Brookhaven National Laboratory 's annual public exhibition after learning that the government research institution's Donner Model 30 analog computer could simulate trajectories with wind resistance. He designed the game, displayed on an oscilloscope and played with two custom aluminum controllers, in a few hours, after which he and technician Robert V. Dvorak built it over three weeks. The game's visuals show a representation of a tennis court viewed from the side, and players adjust the angle of their shots with a knob on their controller and try to hit the ball over the net by pressing a button. The game was very popular during the three-day exhibition, with players lining up to see the game, especially high school students. It was shown again the following year with a larger oscilloscope screen and a more complicated design that could simulate different gravity levels. It was then dismantled and largely forgotten until the late 1970s, when Higinbotham testified in court about the game during lawsuits between Magnavox
Magnavox
and Ralph H
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Spacewar!
SPACEWAR! is a space combat video game developed in 1962 by Steve Russell , in collaboration with Martin Graetz and Wayne Wiitanen, and programmed by Russell with assistance from others including Bob Saunders and Steve Piner. It was written for the newly installed DEC PDP-1 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology . After its initial creation, Spacewar was expanded further by other students and employees of universities in the area, including Dan Edwards and Peter Samson . It was also spread to many of the few dozen, primarily academic, installations of the PDP-1 computer, making Spacewar the first known video game to be played at multiple computer installations. The game features two spaceships, "the needle" and "the wedge", engaged in a dogfight while maneuvering in the gravity well of a star. Both ships are controlled by human players. Each ship has limited fuel for maneuvering and a limited number of torpedoes, and the ships follow Newtonian physics , remaining in motion even when the player is not accelerating. Flying near the star to provide a gravity assist was a common tactic. Ships are destroyed when hit with a torpedo or colliding with the star. At any time, the player can engage a hyperspace feature to move to a new, random location on the screen, though each use has an increasing chance of destroying the ship instead
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Pong
_PONG_ is one of the earliest arcade video games and the first sports arcade video game. It is a table tennis sports game featuring simple two-dimensional graphics . While other arcade video games such as _ Computer Space _ came before it, _Pong_ was one of the first video games to reach mainstream popularity. The game was originally manufactured by Atari , which released it in 1972. Allan Alcorn created _Pong_ as a training exercise assigned to him by Atari co-founder Nolan Bushnell . Bushnell based the idea on an electronic ping-pong game included in the Magnavox Odyssey , which later resulted in a lawsuit against Atari. Surprised by the quality of Alcorn's work, Bushnell and Atari co-founder Ted Dabney decided to manufacture the game. _Pong_ quickly became a success and is the first commercially successful arcade video game machine, which helped to establish the video game industry along with the first home console, the Magnavox Odyssey. Soon after its release, several companies began producing games that copied _Pong_'s gameplay, and eventually released new types of games. As a result, Atari encouraged its staff to produce more innovative games. The company released several sequels that built upon the original's gameplay by adding new features. During the 1975 Christmas season, Atari released a home version of _Pong_ exclusively through Sears retail stores
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Space Invaders
SPACE INVADERS (Japanese : スペースインベーダー, Hepburn : Supēsu Inbēdā) is an arcade video game created by Tomohiro Nishikado and released in 1978. It was originally manufactured and sold by Taito in Japan, and was later licensed for production in the United States by the Midway division of Bally . Space Invaders
Space Invaders
is one of the earliest shooting games and the aim is to defeat waves of aliens with a laser cannon to earn as many points as possible. In designing the game, Nishikado drew inspiration from popular media: Breakout , The War of the Worlds
The War of the Worlds
, and Star Wars
Star Wars
. To complete it, he had to design custom hardware and development tools. It was one of the forerunners of modern video gaming and helped expand the video game industry from a novelty to a global industry (see Golden age of arcade video games ). When first released, Space Invaders was very successful. The game has been the inspiration for other video games, re-released on numerous platforms, and led to several sequels. The 1980 Atari
Atari
2600 version quadrupled the system's sales and became the first "killer app " for video game consoles . Space Invaders
Space Invaders
has been referenced and parodied in multiple television shows, and been a part of several video game and cultural exhibitions
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Raph Koster
RAPHAEL "RAPH" KOSTER (born September 7, 1971) is an American entrepreneur, game designer , and author of A Theory of Fun for Game Design . Koster is widely recognized for his work as the lead designer of Ultima Online and the creative director behind Star Wars Galaxies . From 2006 until 2013 he worked as the founder and president of Metaplace (previously operating as Areae and acquired by social gaming company Playdom in 2010, which was in turn acquired by Disney
Disney
) producing a Facebook game platform. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Credits * 2.1 Games * 2.2 Discography * 2.3 Writing * 3 Awards * 4 References * 5 External links * 5.1 Interviews * 5.2 In the news BIOGRAPHY Play media is a Game, presentation by Raph Koster
Raph Koster
at Wikimania 2014
Wikimania 2014
Koster attended Washington College
Washington College
in Chestertown, Maryland
Chestertown, Maryland
, receiving a bachelor's degree in English ( Creative Writing ) and Spanish in 1992. The same year he became involved with MUDs as a developer of Worlds of Carnage, then in 1994 moved on to become implementor of Legend MUD
MUD
, where he was known as PTAH. He also played MUME for a time
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Asymmetric Warfare
ASYMMETRIC WARFARE (or ASYMMETRIC ENGAGEMENT) is war between belligerents whose relative military power differs significantly, or whose strategy or tactics differ significantly. This is typically a war between a standing, professional army and an insurgency or resistance movement. Asymmetric warfare
Asymmetric warfare
can describe a conflict in which the resources of two belligerents differ in essence and in the struggle, interact and attempt to exploit each other's characteristic weaknesses. Such struggles often involve strategies and tactics of unconventional warfare , the weaker combatants attempting to use strategy to offset deficiencies in quantity or quality. Such strategies may not necessarily be militarized. This is in contrast to symmetric warfare, where two powers have similar military power and resources and rely on tactics that are similar overall, differing only in details and execution. The term is also frequently used to describe what is also called "guerrilla warfare ", "insurgency ", "terrorism ", "counterinsurgency ", and "counterterrorism ", essentially violent conflict between a formal military and an informal, less equipped and supported, undermanned but resilient opponent. Asymmetric warfare
Asymmetric warfare
is a form of irregular warfare
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Cooperative Gameplay
COOPERATIVE GAMEPLAY (often abbreviated as CO-OP) is a feature in video games that allows players to work together as teammates, usually against one or more AI opponents. It is distinct from other multiplayer modes, such as competitive multiplayer modes like player versus player or deathmatch . Playing simultaneously allows players to assist one another in many ways: passing weapons or items, healing, providing covering fire in a firefight, and performing cooperative maneuvers such as boosting a teammate up and over obstacles. In its most simple form, cooperative gameplay modifies the single player mode of a game, allowing additional players, and increasing the difficulty level to compensate for the additional players. More complex examples exist, however, with broader modifications to the story and gameplay. Some co-op games include a new ending when completed in co-op mode. This new ending is unlocked only when players work as a team to complete the game. For instance, Bubble Bobble features an ending that can only be accessed when two players survive co-op mode, as do some console beat \'em up games such as Double Dragon , Streets of Rage
Streets of Rage
, and Die Hard Arcade
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Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
The MYERS–BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR (MBTI) is an introspective self-report questionnaire claiming to indicate psychological preferences in how people perceive the world around them and make decisions. The MBTI was constructed by Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers . It is based on the typological theory proposed by Carl Jung , who had speculated that there are four principal psychological functions by which humans experience the world – sensation, intuition, feeling, and thinking – and that one of these four functions is dominant for a person most of the time. The MBTI was constructed for normal populations and emphasizes the value of naturally occurring differences. "The underlying assumption of the MBTI is that we all have specific preferences in the way we construe our experiences, and these preferences underlie our interests, needs, values, and motivation." Although popular in the business sector, the MBTI exhibits significant psychometric deficiencies, notably including poor validity (i.e. not measuring what it purports to measure) and poor reliability (giving different results for the same person on different occasions). The four scales used in the MBTI have some correlation with four of the Big Five personality traits , which are a more commonly accepted framework. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Origins of the theory * 1.2 Differences from Jung * 1.2.1 Structured vs
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Video Game Industry
The COMPUTER GAME INDUSTRY (sometimes referred to as the INTERACTIVE ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY ) is the economic sector involved in the development , marketing and monetizing of video games . It encompasses dozens of job disciplines and employs thousands of people worldwide. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Game industry value chain * 3 Disciplines * 4 History * 4.1 1940s–1960s * 4.2 1970s * 4.3 1980s * 4.4 1990s * 4.5 2000s * 4.6 2010s * 5 Economics
Economics
* 5.1 Retail * 6 Practices * 6.1 Breakaways * 6.2 Piracy * 6.3 Creative control * 6.4 Alternatives * 6.5 Gaming conventions * 7 International practices * 7.1 World trends * 7.2 Conventions * 7.3 Africa * 7.4 Canada * 7.5 China