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Single (music)
In music , a SINGLE, RECORD SINGLE or MUSIC SINGLE is a type of release , typically a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record , an album or an EP record . This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song that is released separately from an album, although it usually also appears on an album. Typically, these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released as a single may not appear on an album. As digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it is often possible for every track on an album to also be available separately. Nevertheless, the concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more heavily promoted or more popular song (or group of songs) within an album collection
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Stereophonic Sound
STEREOPHONIC SOUND or, more commonly, STEREO, is a method of sound reproduction that creates an illusion of multi-directional audible perspective. This is usually achieved by using two or more independent audio channels through a configuration of two or more loudspeakers (or stereo headphones ) in such a way as to create the impression of sound heard from various directions, as in natural hearing. Thus the term "stereophonic" applies to so-called "quadraphonic " and "surround-sound " systems as well as the more common two-channel, two-speaker systems. It is often contrasted with monophonic , or "mono" sound, where audio is heard as coming from one position, often ahead in the sound field (analogous to a visual field ). In the 2000s, stereo sound is common in entertainment systems such as broadcast radio and TV, recorded music and the cinema
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Discotheque
A NIGHTCLUB (or CLUB) is an entertainment venue and bar which serves alcoholic beverages that usually operates late into the night. A nightclub is generally distinguished from regular bars , pubs or taverns by the inclusion of a stage for live music, one or more dance floor areas and a DJ booth, where a DJ plays recorded music and where coloured lights illuminate the dance area. Another distinction is that whereas many pubs and sports bars aim at a mass market , nightclubs typically aim at a niche market of music and dancing enthusiasts and clubgoers. The upmarket nature of nightclubs can be seen in the inclusion of VIP areas in some nightclubs, for celebrities and their guests. Nightclubs are much more likely than pubs or sports bars to use bouncers to screen prospective clubgoers for entry. Some nightclub bouncers do not admit people with ripped jeans or other informal clothing or gang apparel as part of a dress code
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Dance Music
DANCE MUSIC is music composed specifically to facilitate or accompany dancing . It can be either a whole musical piece or part of a larger musical arrangement. In terms of performance, the major categories are live dance music and recorded dance music. While there exist attestations of the combination of dance and music in ancient times (for example Ancient Greek vases sometimes show dancers accompanied by musicians), the earliest Western dance music that we can still reproduce with a degree of certainty are the surviving medieval dances . In the Baroque period, the major dance styles were noble court dances (see Baroque dance ). In the classical music era , the minuet was frequently used as a third movement , although in this context it would not accompany any dancing. The waltz also arose later in the classical era
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Videotape
VIDEOTAPE is magnetic tape used for storing video and usually sound in addition. Information stored can be in the form of either an analog signal or digital signal . Videotape is used in both video tape recorders (VTRs) or, more commonly, videocassette recorders (VCRs) and camcorders . Videotapes are also used for storing scientific or medical data, such as the data produced by an electrocardiogram . Because video signals have a very high bandwidth , and stationary heads would require extremely high tape speeds, in most cases, a helical-scan video head rotates against the moving tape to record the data in two dimensions. Tape is a linear method of storing information and thus imposes delays to access a portion of the tape that is not already under the heads. The early 2000s saw the introduction and rise to prominence of high quality random-access video recording media such as hard disks and flash memory
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Monaural
MONAURAL or MONOPHONIC SOUND REPRODUCTION (often shortened to MONO) is intended to be heard as if it were a single channel of sound perceived as coming from one position (unlike stereo , which uses two channels to convey the impression of sound coming from different places from left, middle, and right). In mono, only one loudspeaker is necessary, but, when played through multiple loudspeakers or headphones, identical signals are fed through each of the wires into each speaker, resulting in the perception of a one-channel sound, which "images" in one sonic space between the speakers (provided that the speakers are set up in a proper symmetrical critical-listening placement). Monaural recordings, like stereo, customarily use multiple microphones, fed into multiple channels on a recording console, but each channel is "panned " to be in the center
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Fidelity
FIDELITY is the quality of faithfulness or loyalty . Its original meaning regarded duty in a broader sense than the related concept of fealty . Both derive from the Latin
Latin
word fidēlis, meaning "faithful or loyal". In the City of London
City of London
financial markets it has traditionally been used in the sense encompassed in the motto "My word is my bond". CONTENTS * 1 Audio * 2 Scientific modelling and simulation * 3 Program evaluation * 4 References AUDIO See also: Sound recording and reproduction Fidelity
Fidelity
also denotes how accurately a copy reproduces its source. For example, a worn gramophone I record will have a lower fidelity than one in good condition, and a recording made by a low budget record company in the early 20th century is likely to have significantly less audio fidelity than a good modern recording
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Flexi Disc
The FLEXI DISC (also known as a PHONOSHEET, SONOSHEET or SOUNDSHEET, a trademark) is a phonograph record made of a thin, flexible vinyl sheet with a molded-in spiral stylus groove, and is designed to be playable on a normal phonograph turntable. Flexible records were commercially introduced as the EVA-TONE SOUNDSHEET in 1962, and were very popular among children and teenagers and mass-produced by the state publisher in the Soviet government. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 In the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* 3 Human League track * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYBefore the advent of the compact disc , flexi discs were sometimes used as a means to include sound with printed material such as magazines and music instruction books. A flexi disc could be moulded with speech or music and bound into the text with a perforated seam, at very little cost and without any requirement for a hard binding
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Digital Compact Cassette
The DIGITAL COMPACT CASSETTE (DCC) is a magnetic tape sound recording format introduced by Philips
Philips
and Matsushita in late 1992 and marketed as the successor to the standard analog Compact Cassette
Compact Cassette
. It was also a direct competitor to Sony
Sony
's MiniDisc (MD), but neither format toppled the then-ubiquitous analog cassette despite their technical superiority. Another competing format, the Digital Audio Tape (DAT) had by 1992 also failed to sell in large quantities (although it was established in recording studios)—DCC was envisaged as a less expensive alternative to DAT. DCC shares a similar form factor to analog compact cassettes, and DCC recorders can play back either type of cassette. This backward compatibility allowed users to adopt digital recording without rendering their existing tape collections completely obsolete
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RCA Victor
RCA RECORDS is an American record label owned by Sony Music , a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America . It is one of SME's three flagship record labels, alongside Columbia Records and Epic Records . The label has released multiple genres of music, including pop , rock , hip hop , R"> Classic RCA logo, first retired in 1968; revived in 1987 until 2015. Still used by RCA in the UK. In 1929, the Radio Corporation of America ( RCA ) purchased the Victor Talking Machine Company , then the world's largest manufacturer of phonographs (including the famous "Victrola ") and phonograph records (in British English , "gramophone records"). The company then became RCA VICTOR but retained use of the Victor Records name on their labels until the beginning of 1946 when the labels were finally switched over to RCA Victor
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VHS
The VIDEO HOME SYSTEM (VHS) is a standard for consumer-level analog video recording on tape cassettes . Developed by Victor Company of Japan (JVC) in the early 1970s, it was released in Japan in late 1976 and in the USA in early 1977. From the 1950s, magnetic tape video recording became a major contributor to the television industry, via the first commercialized video tape recorders (VTRs). At that time, the devices were used only in expensive professional environments such as television studios and medical imaging (fluoroscopy ). In the 1970s, videotape entered home use, creating the home video industry and changing the economics of the television and movie businesses. The television industry viewed videocassette recorders (VCRs) as having the power to disrupt their business, while television users viewed the VCR as the means to take control of their hobby. In the 1980s and 1990s, at the peak of VHS's popularity, there were videotape format wars in the home video industry
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Betamax
BETAMAX (also called BETA, as in its logo) is a consumer-level analog-recording and cassette format of magnetic tape for video . It was developed by Sony
Sony
and was released in Japan
Japan
on May 10, 1975. The first Betamax
Betamax
introduced in the United States was the LV-1901 console, which included a 19-inch (48 cm) color monitor, and appeared in stores in early November 1975. The cassettes contain 0.50-inch-wide (12.7 mm) videotape in a design similar to that of the earlier, professional 0.75-inch-wide (19 mm), U-matic format. Betamax
Betamax
is obsolete, having lost the videotape format war to VHS
VHS
. Production of Betamax recorders ceased in 2002; new Betamax
Betamax
cassettes were available until March 2016, when Sony
Sony
stopped making and selling them
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Aaliyah
AALIYAH DANA HAUGHTON (/ɑːˈliːə/ ; January 16, 1979 – August 25, 2001) was an American singer, actress, and model. She was born in Brooklyn
Brooklyn
, New York , and raised in Detroit
Detroit
, Michigan. At the age of 10, she appeared on the television show Star Search and performed in concert alongside Gladys Knight . At age 12, Aaliyah
Aaliyah
signed with Jive Records and her uncle Barry Hankerson 's Blackground Records . Hankerson introduced her to R. Kelly , who became her mentor, as well as lead songwriter and producer of her debut album, Age Ain\'t Nothing but a Number . The album sold three million copies in the United States and was certified double platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). After facing allegations of an illegal marriage with R
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Streaming Media
STREAMING MEDIA is multimedia that is constantly received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider. The verb "to stream" refers to the process of delivering or obtaining media in this manner; the term refers to the delivery method of the medium, rather than the medium itself, and is an alternative to file downloading , a process in which the end-user obtains the entire file for the content before watching or listening to it. A client end-user can use their media player to begin to play the data file (such as a digital file of a movie or song) before the entire file has been transmitted. Distinguishing delivery method from the media distributed applies specifically to telecommunications networks , as most of the delivery systems are either inherently streaming (e.g. radio , television , streaming apps or inherently non-streaming (e.g. books , video cassettes , audio CDs )
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Apple Computer
Coordinates : 37°19′55″N 122°01′52″W / 37.33182°N 122.03118°W / 37.33182; -122.03118 Apple Inc. The Apple Campus at 1 Infinite Loop , Cupertino, California FORMERLY CALLED * Apple Computer Company (1976–1977) * Apple Computer, Inc. (1977–2007) TYPE Public TRADED AS * NASDAQ : AAPL * NASDAQ-100 component * DJIA component * S&P 100 component * S"> * Computer hardware * Computer software * Consumer electronics * Digital distribution * Fabless silicon design * Corporate venture capital FOUNDED April 1, 1976; 41 years ago (1976-04-01) FOUNDERS * Steve Jobs * Steve Wozniak * Ronald Wayne HEADQUARTERS Apple Campus , Cupertino , California , U.S
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Hot 100 Airplay (Radio Songs)
The RADIO SONGS chart (previously named HOT 100 AIRPLAY) is released weekly by Billboard magazine and measures the airplay of songs being played on radio stations throughout the United States across all musical genres. It is one of the three components, along with sales (both physical and the digital ) and streaming activity, that determine the chart positions of songs on the Billboard Hot 100
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