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Single (music)
In music , a SINGLE, RECORD SINGLE or MUSIC SINGLE is a type of release , typically a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record , an album or an EP record . This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song that is released separately from an album, although it usually also appears on an album. Typically, these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released as a single may not appear on an album. As digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it is often possible for every track on an album to also be available separately. Nevertheless, the concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more heavily promoted or more popular song (or group of songs) within an album collection. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks on them. The biggest digital music distributor, iTunes , accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify . Any more than three tracks on a musical release or longer than thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play (EP), or if over six tracks long, it is classed as an album
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Music
MUSIC is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time . The common elements of music are pitch (which governs melody and harmony ), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo , meter , and articulation ), dynamics (loudness and softness), and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture (which are sometimes termed the "color" of a musical sound). Different styles or types of music may emphasize, de-emphasize or omit some of these elements. Music is performed with a vast range of instruments and vocal techniques ranging from singing to rapping ; there are solely instrumental pieces , solely vocal pieces (such as songs without instrumental accompaniment ) and pieces that combine singing and instruments. The word derives from Greek μουσική (_mousike_; "art of the Muses "). In its most general form, the activities describing music as an art form or cultural activity include the creation of works of music (songs, tunes, symphonies , and so on), the criticism of music , the study of the history of music , and the aesthetic examination of music . Ancient Greek and Indian philosophers defined music as tones ordered horizontally as melodies and vertically as harmonies. Common sayings such as "the harmony of the spheres " and "it is music to my ears" point to the notion that music is often ordered and pleasant to listen to
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Sound Recording
SOUND RECORDING AND REPRODUCTION is an electrical , mechanical , electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music , or sound effects. The two main classes of sound recording technology are analog recording and digital recording . Prior to the development of sound recording, there were mechanical systems for encoding and reproducing instrumental music, such as wind-up music boxes and, later, player pianos . Acoustic analog recording is achieved by a microphone diaphragm that can detect and sense the changes in atmospheric pressure caused by acoustic sound waves and record them as a mechanical representation of the sound waves on a medium such as a phonograph record (in which a stylus cuts grooves on a record). In magnetic tape recording, the sound waves vibrate the microphone diaphragm and are converted into a varying electric current , which is then converted to a varying magnetic field by an electromagnet , which makes a representation of the sound as magnetized areas on a plastic tape with a magnetic coating on it. Analog sound reproduction is the reverse process, with a bigger loudspeaker diaphragm causing changes to atmospheric pressure to form acoustic sound waves
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LP Record
The LP (from "long playing" or "long play") is an analog sound storage medium, a vinyl record format characterized by a speed of  33 1⁄3 rpm , a 12 or 10 inch (30 or 25 cm) diameter, and use of the "microgroove" groove specification. Introduced by Columbia in 1948, it was soon adopted as a new standard by the entire record industry. Apart from a few relatively minor refinements and the important later addition of stereophonic sound , it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums . CONTENTS * 1 Format advantages * 2 History * 2.1 Soundtrack discs * 2.2 Radio transcription discs * 2.3 RCA Victor * 2.4 Columbia * 2.5 Public reception * 3 Competing formats * 4 Playing time * 4.1 Exceptions * 5 Changers * 6 Disadvantages * 7 Groove * 8 Fidelity and formats * 9 Use by disc jockeys * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 External links FORMAT ADVANTAGESAt the time the LP was introduced, nearly all phonograph records for home use were made of an abrasive (and therefore noisy) shellac compound, employed a much larger groove, and played at approximately 78 revolutions per minute (rpm), limiting the playing time of a 12-inch diameter record to less than five minutes per side. The new product was a 12- or 10-inch (30 or 25 cm) fine-grooved disc made of vinyl and played with a smaller-tipped "microgroove" stylus at a speed of  33 1⁄3 rpm. Each side of a 12-inch LP could play for more than 20 minutes
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Album
An ALBUM is a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item on CD , record , audio tape or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century, first as books of individual 78rpm records , then from 1948 as vinyl LP records played at  33 1⁄3 rpm . Vinyl LPs are still issued, though in the 21st-century album sales have mostly focused on compact disc (CD) and MP3 formats. The audio cassette was a format used from the late 1970s through to the 1990s alongside vinyl. An album may be recorded in a recording studio (fixed or mobile), in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places. The time frame for completely recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process usually requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, and then brought or "mixed " together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live", even when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation , so as to assist in mixing different takes; other locations, such as concert venues and some "live rooms", allow for reverberation, which creates a "live" sound. The majority of studio recordings contain an abundance of editing, sound effects, voice adjustments, etc
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Promotional Single
A PROMOTIONAL RECORDING, or PROMO, is an audio or video recording distributed free, usually in order to promote a recording that is or soon will be commercially available. Promos are normally sent directly to broadcasters, such as music radio and television stations, and to tastemakers, such as DJs and music journalists , in advance of the release of commercial editions, in the hope that airplay, reviews, and other forms of exposure will result and stimulate the public's interest in the commercial release. Promos are often distributed in plain packaging, without the text or artwork that appears on the commercial version. Typically a promo is marked with some variation of the following text: "Licensed for promotional use only. Sale is prohibited." It may also state that the promo is still the property of the distributor and is to be "returned upon demand." However, it is not illegal to sell promotional recordings, and recalls of promos are extremely rare and unenforced. Because promos are produced in smaller quantity than releases made available to the general public, they are sometimes considered valuable collectors' items. They are never intended for sale in record stores
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Music Download
A MUSIC DOWNLOAD is the digital transfer of music via the Internet into a device capable of decoding and playing it, such as a home computer, MP3 player or smartphone . This term encompasses both legal downloads and downloads of copyrighted material without permission or legal payment . According to a Nielsen report, downloadable music accounted for 55.9% of all music sales in the US in 2012. As of January 2011, Apple's iTunes Store alone made $1.1 billion of revenue in the first quarter of its fiscal year. CONTENTS * 1 Online music store * 2 Music
Music
downloads offered by artists * 3 RIAA against illegal downloading * 4 Sales records * 4.1 United Kingdom * 4.2 United States * 4.3 Japan * 4.4 South Korea * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References ONLINE MUSIC STORE Main articles: Online music store and Comparison of online music stores Popular online music stores that sell downloadable singles and albums include the iTunes Store , Amazon MP3 , fairsharemusic , e Music
Music
, Google Play
Google Play
, CD Universe , Nokia Music Store , TuneTribe , Xbox Music and MyMusic.com.ng . Paid downloads are sometimes encoded with Digital Rights Management that restricts copying the music or playing purchased songs on certain digital audio players
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ITunes
iTunes (/ˈaɪtjuːnz/ or /ˈaɪtuːnz/)[4] is a media player, media library, online radio broadcaster, and mobile device management application developed by Apple Inc. It is used to play, download, and organize digital downloads of music and video (as well as other types of media available on the iTunes Store) on personal computers running the macOS and Microsoft Windows operating systems. The iTunes Store is also available on the iPhone, iPad, and iPod Touch. Through the iTunes Store, users can purchase and download music, music videos, television shows, audiobooks, podcasts, movies, and movie rentals in some countries, and ringtones, available on the iPhone and iPod Touch (fourth generation onward)
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Spotify
SPOTIFY is a music , podcast , and video streaming service , officially launched on 7 October 2008. It is developed by startup Spotify AB in Stockholm , Sweden. It provides digital rights management -protected content from record labels and media companies. Spotify is a freemium service, meaning that basic features are free with advertisements, while additional features, including improved streaming quality and offline music downloads, are offered via paid subscriptions. Spotify is available in most of Europe, most of the Americas, Australia, New Zealand and parts of Asia. It is available for most modern devices, including Windows , macOS , and Linux computers, as well as iOS and Android smartphones and tablets. Music can be browsed or searched for via various parameters, such as artist, album, genre, playlist , or record label. Users can create, edit and share playlists, share tracks on social media , and make playlists with other users. Spotify provides access to over 30 million songs. As of June 2017, it has over 140 million monthly active users, and as of March 2017, it has over 50 million paying subscribers. Unlike physical or download sales, which pay artists a fixed price per song or album sold, Spotify pays royalties based on the number of artists' streams as a proportion of total songs streamed on the service
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Extended Play
An EXTENDED PLAY record, often referred to as an EP, is a musical recording that contains more tracks than a single , but is usually unqualified as an album or LP . EPs generally do not contain as many tracks as albums, and are considered "less expensive and time-consuming" for an artist to produce than an album. An EP originally referred to specific types of vinyl records other than 78 rpm standard play (SP) and LP, but it is now applied to mid-length CDs and downloads as well. Ricardo Baca of _ The Denver Post _ said, "EPs—originally extended-play 'single' releases that are shorter than traditional albums—have long been popular with punk and indie bands." In the United Kingdom , the Official Chart Company defines a boundary between EP and album classification at 25 minutes of length or four tracks (not counting alternative versions of featured songs, if present). CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Definition * 3 Double EPs * 4 Jukebox EP * 5 See also * 6 References BACKGROUNDEPs were released in various sizes in different eras. The earliest multi-track records, issued around 1919 by Grey Gull Records , were vertically cut 78 rpm discs known as "2-in-1" records. These had finer than usual grooves, like Edison Disc Records
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Gramophone Record
A GRAMOPHONE RECORD (PHONOGRAPH RECORD in the US), commonly known as a VINYL RECORD or simply VINYL or RECORD, is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat polyvinyl chloride (previously shellac ) disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. The groove usually starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. The phonograph disc record was the primary medium used for music reproduction until late in the 20th century. It had co-existed with the phonograph cylinder from the late 1880s and replaced it by the late 1920s. Records retained the largest market share even when new formats such as compact cassette were mass-marketed. By the late 1980s, digital media , in the form of the compact disc , had gained a larger market share, and the vinyl record left the mainstream in 1991. From the 1990s to the 2010s, records continued to be manufactured and sold on a much smaller scale, and were especially used by disc jockeys (DJs), released by artists in some genres, and listened to by a niche market of audiophiles . The phonograph record has made a niche resurgence in the early 21st century – 9.2 million records were sold in the U.S. in 2014, a 260% increase since 2009. Likewise, in the UK sales have increased five-fold from 2009 to 2014. As of 2017, 48 record pressing facilities remain worldwide, 18 in the United States and 30 in other countries
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Phonograph Cylinder
PHONOGRAPH CYLINDERS are the earliest commercial medium for recording and reproducing sound . Commonly known simply as "records" in their era of greatest popularity (c. 1896–1915), these hollow cylindrical objects have an audio recording engraved on the outside surface, which can be reproduced when they are played on a mechanical cylinder phonograph . In the 1910s, the competing disc record system triumphed in the marketplace to become the dominant commercial audio medium. CONTENTS * 1 Early development * 2 Commercial packaging * 3 Hard plastic cylinders * 4 Disc records * 5 Advantages of cylinders * 6 Advantages of discs * 7 Decline * 8 Later applications * 9 Preservation of cylinder recordings * 10 Gallery * 11 See also * 12 References * 13 External links EARLY DEVELOPMENT Two Edison cylinder records (left and right) and their cylindrical cardboard boxes (center) Brown wax cylinders showing various shades (and mold damage) Paper record slip from 1903 cylinder Back side of 1903 record slip Portion of the label from the outside of a Columbia cylinder box, before 1901. Note that the title is hand-written. Edison Gold Moulded record made of relatively hard black wax, ca. 1904 Rim of Edison "Blue Amberol" celluloid cylinder with plaster core Blue Amberol cylinder box lid The phonograph was invented by Thomas Edison and his team on July 18, 1877
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Revolutions Per Minute
REVOLUTIONS PER MINUTE (abbreviated RPM, RPM, REV/MIN, R/MIN) is a measure of the frequency of rotation , specifically the number of rotations around a fixed axis in one minute . It is used as a measure of rotational speed of a mechanical component. In the French language , TR/MIN (tours par minute) is the common abbreviation. The German language uses the abbreviation U/MIN or U/MIN (Umdrehungen pro Minute). CONTENTS * 1 International System of Units
International System of Units
* 2 Examples * 3 See also * 4 References INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITSAccording to the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI), rpm is not a unit. This is because the word revolution is a semantic annotation rather than a unit. The annotation is instead done as a subscript of the formula sign if needed. Because of the measured physical quantity , the formula sign has to be f for (rotational) frequency and ω or Ω for angular velocity . The corresponding basic SI derived unit is s−1 or Hz . When measuring angular speed, the unit radians per second is used
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Shellac
SHELLAC is a resin secreted by the female lac bug , on trees in the forests of India and Thailand. It is processed and sold as dry flakes (pictured) and dissolved in ethanol to make liquid shellac, which is used as a brush-on colorant, food glaze and wood finish . Shellac functions as a tough natural primer , sanding sealant , tannin -blocker, odour -blocker, stain , and high-gloss varnish . Shellac was once used in electrical applications as it possesses good insulation qualities and it seals out moisture. Phonograph and 78 rpm gramophone records were made of it until they were replaced by vinyl long-playing records from the 1950s onwards. From the time it replaced oil and wax finishes in the 19th century, shellac was one of the dominant wood finishes in the western world until it was largely replaced by nitrocellulose lacquer in the 1920s and 1930s. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Production * 3 Colours and availability * 4 Properties * 5 History * 6 Uses * 6.1 Historical * 6.2 Current * 6.2.1 Other * 7 Gallery * 8 References * 9 External links ETYMOLOGY_Shellac_ comes from _shell_ and _lac _, a calque of French _laque en écailles_, "lac in thin pieces", later _gomme-laque_, "gum lac". Most European languages (except Romance ones and Greek) have borrowed the word for the substance from English or from the German equivalent _Schellack_
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Record Players
The PHONOGRAPH is a device, invented in 1877, for the mechanical recording and reproduction of sound . In its later forms, it is also called a GRAMOPHONE (as a trademark since 1887, as a generic name in the UK since 1910), or, since the 1940s, a RECORD PLAYER, or, most recently, a TURNTABLE. The sound vibration waveforms are recorded as corresponding physical deviations of a spiral groove engraved, etched, incised, or impressed into the surface of a rotating cylinder or disc, called a "record" . To recreate the sound, the surface is similarly rotated while a playback stylus traces the groove and is therefore vibrated by it, very faintly reproducing the recorded sound. In early acoustic phonographs, the stylus vibrated a diaphragm which produced sound waves which were coupled to the open air through a flaring horn , or directly to the listener's ears through stethoscope -type earphones. The phonograph was invented in 1877 by Thomas Edison . While other inventors had produced devices that could record sounds, Edison's phonograph was the first to be able to reproduce the recorded sound. His phonograph originally recorded sound onto a tinfoil sheet wrapped around a rotating cylinder. A stylus responding to sound vibrations produced an up and down or hill-and-dale groove in the foil
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Synchronous Motor
A SYNCHRONOUS ELECTRIC MOTOR is an AC motor in which, at steady state , the rotation of the shaft is synchronized with the frequency of the supply current ; the rotation period is exactly equal to an integral number of AC cycles. Synchronous motors contain multiphase AC electromagnets on the stator of the motor that create a magnetic field which rotates in time with the oscillations of the line current. The rotor with permanent magnets or electromagnets turns in step with the stator field at the same rate and as a result, provides the second synchronized rotating magnet field of any AC motor . A synchronous motor is only considered doubly fed if it is supplied with independently excited multiphase AC electromagnets on both the rotor and stator. The synchronous motor and induction motor are the most widely used types of AC motor. The difference between the two types is that the synchronous motor rotates at a rate locked to the line frequency. The synchronous motor does not rely on current induction to produce the rotor's magnetic field. By contrast, the induction motor requires "slip ", the rotor must rotate slightly slower than the AC current alternations, to induce current in the rotor winding
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