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Simplified Chinese Characters
SIMPLIFIED CHINESE CHARACTERS (简化字; _jiǎnhuàzì_) are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the _Table of General Standard Chinese Characters _ for use in mainland China . Along with traditional Chinese characters , it is one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language . The government of the People\'s Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s in an attempt to increase literacy. They are officially used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore . Traditional Chinese characters are currently used in Hong Kong , Macau , and the Republic of China ( Taiwan ). While traditional characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese and the Chinese community in Malaysia and Singapore, these groups generally retain their use of Simplified characters. Overseas Chinese communities generally tend to use traditional characters. Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name above or colloquially (简体字; _ jiǎntǐzì _). The latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms
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Logographic
In written language , a LOGOGRAM or LOGOGRAPH is a written character that represents a word or phrase . Chinese characters and Japanese kanji are logograms; some Egyptian hieroglyphs and some graphemes in cuneiform script are also logograms. The use of logograms in writing is called _logography_. A writing system that is based on logograms is called a _logographic system_. In alphabets and syllabaries , individual written characters represent sounds rather than concepts. These characters are called _phonograms _. Unlike logograms, phonograms do not necessarily have meaning by themselves, but are combined to make words and phrases that have meaning. Writing language in this way is called _phonemic orthography _. CONTENTS * 1 Logographic systems * 2 Semantic and phonetic dimensions * 3 Chinese characters * 3.1 Chinese characters used in Japanese and Korean * 3.2 Differences in processing of logographic and phonologic languages * 4 Advantages and disadvantages * 4.1 Separating writing and pronunciation * 4.2 Characters in information technology * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 7.1 Citations * 7.2 Sources * 8 External links LOGOGRAPHIC SYSTEMSLogographic systems include the earliest writing systems ; the first historical civilizations of the Near East, Africa, China, and Central America used some form of logographic writing
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Chinese Language
LEGEND: Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers Major Chinese-speaking settlements THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters
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Oracle Bone Script
ORACLE BONE SCRIPT (Chinese : 甲骨文) was the form of Chinese characters used on oracle bones —animal bones or turtle plastrons used in pyromantic divination—in the late 2nd millennium BCE, and is the earliest known form of Chinese writing and the earliest writing in East Asia. The vast majority were found at the Yinxu site (in modern Anyang , Henan Province ). They record pyromantic divinations of the last nine kings of the Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
, beginning with Wu Ding , whose accession is dated by different scholars at 1250 BCE or 1200 BCE. After the Shang were overthrown by the Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
in c. 1046 BCE, divining with milfoil became more common, and very few oracle bone writings date from the early Zhou. The late Shang oracle bone writings, along with a few contemporary characters in a different style cast in bronzes, constitute the earliest significant corpus of Chinese writing, which is essential for the study of Chinese etymology , as Shang writing is directly ancestral to the modern Chinese script. It is also the oldest known member and ancestor of the Chinese family of scripts , preceding the bronzeware script
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Seal Script
SEAL SCRIPT (Chinese : 篆書; pinyin : _zhuànshū_) is an ancient style of writing Chinese characters
Chinese characters
that was common throughout the latter half of the 1st millennium BC. It evolved organically out of the Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
script . The Qin variant of seal script eventually became the standard, and was adopted as the formal script for all of China during the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
. It was still widely used for decorative engraving and seals (name chops, or signets) in the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
. The literal translation of the Chinese name for seal script, 篆書 (zhuànshū), is _decorative engraving script_, a name coined during the Han dynasty, which reflects the then-reduced role of the script for the writing of ceremonial inscriptions. CONTENTS * 1 Types of seal script * 2 Evolution * 3 Unified small seal script * 4 Computer encoding * 5 See also * 6 References * 6.1 Citations * 6.2 Sources * 7 External links TYPES OF SEAL SCRIPTThe general term SEAL SCRIPT can be used to refer to several types of seal script, including the Large or Great Seal script
Seal script
(大篆 Dàzhuàn; Japanese _daiten_; Korean _daejeon_) and the lesser or Small Seal Script (小篆 Xiǎozhuàn; Japanese _shōten_; Korean _sojeon_). Most commonly, without any other clarifying terminology, it refers to the latter of these
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Clerical Script
The CLERICAL SCRIPT (traditional Chinese : 隸書; simplified Chinese : 隶书; pinyin : _lìshū_; Japanese: 隷書体, _Reishotai_), also formerly chancery script, is an archaic style of Chinese calligraphy which evolved in the Warring States period to the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
, was dominant in the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
, and remained in use through the Wei -Jin periods. Due to its high legibility to modern readers, it is still used for artistic flavor in a variety of functional applications such as headlines, signboards, and advertisements. This legibility stems from the highly rectilinear structure, a feature shared with modern regular script (kaishu) . In structure and rectilinearity, it is generally similar to the modern script; however, in contrast with the tall to square modern script, it tends to be square to wide, and often has a pronounced, wavelike flaring of isolated major strokes, especially a dominant rightward or downward diagonal stroke. Some structures are also archaic
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Traditional Chinese
TRADITIONAL CHINESE CHARACTERS (traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese : 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin : Zhèngtǐzì/Fántĭzì) are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan , of Hong Kong and Macau or in the Kangxi Dictionary . The modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty , and have been more or less stable since the 5th century (during the Southern and Northern Dynasties .) The retronym "traditional Chinese" is used to contrast traditional characters with Simplified Chinese characters , a standardized character set introduced by the government of the People\'s Republic of China on Mainland China in the 1950s. Traditional Chinese characters are currently used in Taiwan , Hong Kong , and Macau ; as well as in Overseas Chinese communities outside of Southeast Asia, although the number of printed materials in simplified characters is growing in Australia, the US and Canada, targeting or created by new arrivals from mainland China. Currently, a large number of overseas Chinese online newspapers allow users to switch between both sets
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Kanji
KANJI (漢字; Japanese pronunciation: _ listen ), or kan'ji_, are the adopted logographic Chinese characters (_hànzì_) that are used in the modern Japanese writing system along with hiragana and katakana . The Japanese term _kanji_ for the Chinese characters literally means "Han characters" and is written using the same characters as the Chinese word _hànzì _
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Chữ Nôm
CHữ NôM (字喃, IPA: , literally Southern characters, in earlier times also called 國音 "quốc âm" or 𡨸南 "chữ nam") is a logographic writing system formerly used to write the Vietnamese language . It used the standard set of classical Chinese characters
Chinese characters
to represent Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary and some native Vietnamese words, while new characters were created on the Chinese model to represent other words. Although formal writing in Vietnam was done in literary Chinese (Vietnamese: cổ văn 古文 or văn ngôn 文言 ) until the early 20th century (except for two brief interludes), chữ Nôm was widely used between the 15th and 19th centuries by Vietnam's cultured elite, including women, for popular works, many in verse. One of the best-known pieces of Vietnamese literature, The Tale of Kiều , was composed in chữ Nôm. In the 1920s, the Latin-based Vietnamese alphabet displaced chữ Nôm as the preferred way to record Vietnamese. Although chữ Nôm is today only taught at the university level within the Vietnamese education system, the characters are still used for decorative, historic and ceremonial value and symbols of good luck. The task of preservation and study of Vietnamese texts written in Nôm (but also classical Chinese texts from Vietnam) is conducted by the Institute of Hán-Nôm Studies in Hanoi
Hanoi

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Hanja
HANJA ( Hangul : 한자; Hanja: 漢字; Korean pronunciation: ) is the Korean name for Chinese characters (Chinese : 漢字; pinyin : _hànzì_). More specifically, it refers to those Chinese characters borrowed from Chinese and incorporated into the Korean language with Korean pronunciation . _Hanja-mal_ or _hanja-eo _ refers to words that can be written with hanja, and _hanmun_ (한문, 漢文) refers to Classical Chinese writing, although "hanja" is sometimes used loosely to encompass these other concepts. Because hanja never underwent major reform, they are almost entirely identical to traditional Chinese and _kyūjitai _ characters. Only a small number of hanja characters are modified or unique to Korean. By contrast, many of the Chinese characters currently in use in Japan and Mainland China have been simplified, and contain fewer strokes than the corresponding hanja characters. Although a phonetic Korean alphabet, now known as hangul , had been created by a team of scholars commissioned in the 1440s by King Sejong the Great , it did not come into widespread use until the late 19th and early 20th century. Thus, until that time it was necessary to be fluent in reading and writing hanja in order to be literate in Korean, as the vast majority of Korean literature and most other Korean documents were written in hanja
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Khitan Script
The KHITAN SCRIPTS were the writing systems for the now-extinct para-Mongolian Khitan language used in the 10th-12th century by the Khitan people who had established the Liao dynasty
Liao dynasty
in Northeast China . There were two scripts, the large script and the small script . These were functionally independent and appear to have been used simultaneously. The Khitan scripts continued to be in use to some extent by the Jurchen people for several decades after the fall of the Liao dynasty
Liao dynasty
until the Jurchens fully switched to a script of their own . Examples of the scripts appeared most often on epitaphs and monuments , although other fragments sometimes surface. Many scholars recognize that the Khitan scripts have not been fully deciphered and that more research and discoveries would be necessary for a proficient understanding of them. The Khitan scripts are part of the Chinese family of scripts . Knowledge of the Khitan language, which was written by the Khitan script, is quite limited as well. Although there are several clues to its origins, which might point in different directions, the Khitan language shares an ancestor with the Mongolian languages but is not one
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Zhuyin
Egyptian hieroglyphs 32 c. BCE * Hieratic 32 c. BCE * Demotic 7 c. BCE * Meroitic 3 c. BCE* Proto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCE * Ugaritic 15 c. BCE* Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE * Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE* Phoenician 12 c. BCE * Paleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCE * Samaritan 6 c. BCE* Libyco-Berber 3 c. BCE * Tifinagh * Paleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE* Aramaic 8 c. BCE * Kharoṣṭhī 4 c. BCE* Brāhmī 4 c. BCE * Brahmic family (see) * E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE * Hangul (core letters only) 1443* Devanagari 13 c. CE * Canadian syllabics 1840 * Hebrew 3 c. BCE* Pahlavi 3 c. BCE * Avestan 4 c. CE * Palmyrene 2 c. BCE* Syriac 2 c. BCE * Nabataean 2 c. BCE * Arabic 4 c. CE * N\'Ko 1949 CE* Sogdian 2 c. BCE * Orkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CE * Old Hungarian c. 650 CE* Old Uyghur * Mongolian 1204 CE * Mandaic 2 c. CE* Greek 8 c. BCE * Etruscan 8 c. BCE * Latin 7 c. BCE * Cherokee (syllabary; letter forms only) c. 1820 CE * Runic 2 c. CE * Ogham
Ogham
(origin uncertain) 4 c. CE * Coptic 3 c. CE * Gothic 3 c. CE * Armenian 405 CE * Georgian (origin uncertain) c. 430 CE * Glagolitic 862 CE* Cyrillic c. 940 CE * Old Permic 1372 CE Thaana 18 c
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ISO 15924
ISO 15924, CODES FOR THE REPRESENTATION OF NAMES OF SCRIPTS, defines two sets of codes for a number of writing systems (scripts). Each script is given both a four-letter code and a numeric one. Script is defined as "set of graphic characters used for the written form of one or more languages". Where possible the codes are derived from ISO 639-2 where the name of a script and the name of a language using the script are identical (example: Gujarātī ISO 639 guj, ISO 15924 Gujr). Preference is given to the 639-2 Bibliographical codes, which is different from the otherwise often preferred use of the Terminological codes. 4-letter ISO 15924 codes are incorporated into the Language Subtag Registry for IETF language tags and so can be used in file formats that make use of such language tags. For example, they can be used in HTML and XML to help Web browsers determine which typeface to use for foreign text. This way one could differentiate, for example, between Serbian written in the Cyrillic (sr-Cyrl) or Latin (sr-Latn) script, or mark romanized text as such
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International Phonetic Alphabet
The INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet . It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language . The IPA is used by lexicographers , foreign language students and teachers, linguists , speech-language pathologists , singers , actors , constructed language creators and translators . The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones , phonemes , intonation and the separation of words and syllables . To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing, lisping , and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate , an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet , may be used. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types, letters and diacritics . For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a single letter, , or with a letter plus diacritics, , depending on how precise one wishes to be. Often, slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription ; thus, /t/ is less specific than, and could refer to, either or , depending on the context and language
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Mojibake
MOJIBAKE (文字化け) (IPA: ; lit. "character transformation"), from the Japanese 文字 (moji) "character" + 化け (bake, pronounced "bah-keh") "transform", is the garbled text that is the result of text being decoded using an unintended character encoding . The result is a systematic replacement of symbols with completely unrelated ones, often from a different writing system . This display may include the generic replacement character � in places where the binary representation is considered invalid. A replacement can also involve multiple consecutive symbols, as viewed in one encoding, when the same binary code constitutes one symbol in the other encoding. This is either because of differing constant length encoding (as in Asian 16-bit encodings vs European 8-bitencodings), or the use of variable length encodings (notably UTF-8
UTF-8
and UTF-16). Failed rendering of glyphs due to either missing fonts or missing glyphs in a font is a different issue that is not to be confused with mojibake. Symptoms of this failed rendering include blocks with the codepoint displayed in hexadecimal or using the generic replacement character �. Importantly, these replacements are _valid_ and are the result of correct error handling by the software
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Unicode
UNICODE is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding , representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems . Developed in conjunction with the Universal Coded Character Set (UCS) standard and published as _The Unicode Standard_, the latest version of Unicode
Unicode
contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts , as well as multiple symbol sets. The standard consists of a set of code charts for visual reference, an encoding method and set of standard character encodings , a set of reference data files , and a number of related items, such as character properties, rules for normalization , decomposition, collation , rendering, and bidirectional display order (for the correct display of text containing both right-to-left scripts, such as Arabic and Hebrew , and left-to-right scripts). As of June 2017 , the most recent version is _ Unicode
Unicode
10.0_. The standard is maintained by the Unicode Consortium . Unicode's success at unifying character sets has led to its widespread and predominant use in the internationalization and localization of computer software . The standard has been implemented in many recent technologies, including modern operating systems , XML , Java (and other programming languages), and the .NET Framework . Unicode
Unicode
can be implemented by different character encodings
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