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Silesian Wars
The Silesian Wars
Silesian Wars
(German: Schlesische Kriege) were a series of three wars fought in the mid-18th century between Prussia (under King Frederick the Great) and Austria (under Empress Maria Theresa) for control of Silesia, all three of which ended in Prussian victory. The First (1740–42) and Second (1744–45) Silesian Wars
Silesian Wars
formed a part of the larger War of the Austrian Succession, while the Third Silesian War (1756–63) was one theater of the Seven Years' War. Besides its value as a source of tax revenue, industrial output and military recruits, Silesia
Silesia
was strategically important to Prussia because its seizure "significantly blunted the capacity of Prussia's two chief foes—Austria and Russia—to meddle in Prussian affairs."[1] Capture of Silesia, furthermore, prevented Augustus III of Poland from uniting his two realms of Poland and Saxony via a land bridge through Silesia
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Pragmatic Sanction Of 1713
The Pragmatic Sanction (Latin: Sanctio Pragmatica) was an edict issued by Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, on 19 April 1713 to ensure that the Habsburg hereditary possessions, which included the Archduchy of Austria, the Kingdom of Hungary, the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Duchy of Milan, the Kingdom of Naples, the Kingdom of Sicily
Kingdom of Sicily
and the Austrian Netherlands, could be inherited by a daughter. Charles and his wife Elizabeth Christine had not to that point had children, and since 1711 Charles had been the sole surviving male member of the House of Habsburg. Charles's elder brother Joseph I had died without male issue, leaving Joseph's daughter Maria Josepha as the heir presumptive. This presented two problems. First, a prior agreement with his brother known as the Mutual Pact of Succession (1703) had agreed that, in the absence of male heirs, Joseph's daughters would take precedence over Charles's daughters in all Habsburg lands
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George William, Duke Of Liegnitz
George William (German: Georg Wilhelm), also known as George IV William ; Polish: Jerzy IV Wilhelm; 29 September 1660 – 21 November 1675) was the last Silesian duke of Legnica
Legnica
and Brzeg
Brzeg
from 1672 until his death. He was the last male member of the Silesian Piast dynasty
Piast dynasty
descending from Władysław II the Exile
Władysław II the Exile
(1105–1159).Contents1 Family 2 Life 3 Legacy 4 Ancestry 5 References 6 External linksFamily[edit] George William was the eldest but only surviving son of Duke Christian of Legnica- Brzeg
Brzeg
(1618-1672) by his wife Louise (1631-1680), a daughter of the Ascanian prince John Casimir of Anhalt-Dessau
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Joachim II Hector, Elector Of Brandenburg
Joachim II (German: Joachim II Hector
Hector
or Hektor; 13 January 1505 – 3 January 1571) was a Prince-elector
Prince-elector
of the Margraviate of Brandenburg (1535–1571), the sixth member of the House of Hohenzollern. Joachim II was the eldest son of Joachim I Nestor, Elector of Brandenburg
Joachim I Nestor, Elector of Brandenburg
and his wife Elizabeth of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. He received the cognomen Hector
Hector
after the Trojan prince and warrior for his athel qualities and prowess.Contents1 Biography 2 Marriages and children 3 Ancestry 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksBiography[edit]Joachim II Hector, Elector of Brandenburg, 1550Joachim II was born in Cölln. His father, Joachim I Nestor, made Joachim Hector
Hector
sign an inheritance contract in which he promised to remain Roman Catholic
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Homage (feudal)
Homage in the Middle Ages was the ceremony in which a feudal tenant or vassal pledged reverence and submission to his feudal lord, receiving in exchange the symbolic title to his new position (investiture). It was a symbolic acknowledgement to the lord that the vassal was, literally, his man (homme). The oath known as "fealty" implied lesser obligations than did "homage". Further, one could swear "fealty" to many different overlords with respect to different land holdings, but "homage" could only be performed to a single liege, as one could not be "his man" (i.e., committed to military service) to more than one "liege lord". A similar concept is the bay'ah, a type of oath in Islam. There have been some conflicts about obligations of homage in history. For example, the Angevin monarchs of England were sovereign in England, i.e., they had no duty of homage regarding those holdings; but they were not sovereign regarding their French holdings
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Wohlau
Wołów
Wołów
[ˈvɔwuf] (German: Wohlau, Czech: Volov) is a town in Lower Silesian Voivodeship in south-western Poland. It is the seat of Wołów
Wołów
County, and of the smaller administrative district (gmina) called Gmina
Gmina
Wołów. It lies approximately 38 kilometres (24 miles) north-west of the regional capital Wrocław
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Electorate Of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
Brandenburg
(German pronunciation: [ˈbʁandn̩bʊɐ̯k] ( listen); Low German: Brannenborg, Lower Sorbian: Bramborska, Upper Sorbian: Braniborsko) is one of the sixteen federated states of Germany. It lies in the northeast of the country covering an area of 29,478 square kilometers and has 2.48 million inhabitants. The capital and largest city is Potsdam. Brandenburg
Brandenburg
surrounds but does not include the national capital and city-state Berlin
Berlin
forming a metropolitan area. Originating in the medieval Northern March, the Margraviate of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
grew to become the core of the Kingdom of Prussia, which would later become the Free State of Prussia
Free State of Prussia
with part being the province of Brandenburg
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House Of Habsburg
The House of Habsburg
Habsburg
(/ˈhæpsbɜːrɡ/; German pronunciation: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk], traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria[1] was one of the most influential and outstanding royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs between 1438 and 1740. The house also produced emperors and kings of the Kingdom of Bohemia, Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
( Jure uxoris King), Kingdom of Germany, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Croatia, Kingdom of Illyria, Second Mexican Empire, Kingdom of Ireland
Kingdom of Ireland
( Jure uxoris King), Kingdom of Portugal, and Kingdom of Spain, as well as rulers of several Dutch and Italian principalities.[dubious – discuss] From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches
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Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor
Ferdinand I (Spanish: Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
from 1558, king of Bohemia
Bohemia
and Hungary
Hungary
from 1526, and king of Croatia
Croatia
from 1527 until his death.[1][2] Before his accession, he ruled the Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburgs in the name of his elder brother, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Also, he often served as Charles' representative in Germany
Germany
and developed useful relationships with German princes. The key events during his reign were the contest with the Ottoman Empire, whose great advance into Central Europe began in the 1520s, and the Protestant Reformation, which resulted in several wars of religion. Ferdinand was able to defend his realm and make it somewhat more cohesive, but he could not conquer the major part of Hungary
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Frederick William, Elector Of Brandenburg
Frederick William (German: Friedrich Wilhelm) (16 February 1620 – 29 April 1688) was Elector of Brandenburg
Elector of Brandenburg
and Duke
Duke
of Prussia, thus ruler of Brandenburg-Prussia, from 1640 until his death in 1688. A member of the House of Hohenzollern, he is popularly known as "the Great Elector"[1] (der Große Kurfürst) because of his military and political achievements. Frederick William was a staunch pillar of the Calvinist faith, associated with the rising commercial class. He saw the importance of trade and promoted it vigorously
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Joachim III Frederick, Elector Of Brandenburg
Joachim Frederick (German: Joachim Friedrich) (27 January 1546 – 18 July 1608), of the House of Hohenzollern, was Prince-elector
Prince-elector
of the Margraviate of Brandenburg
Margraviate of Brandenburg
from 1598 until his death. Biography[edit] Joachim Frederick was born in Cölln
Cölln
to John George, Elector of Brandenburg, and Sophie of Legnica. He served as administrator of the Archbishopric of Magdeburg
Archbishopric of Magdeburg
from 1566 to 1598, then succeeded his father as Elector of Brandenburg
Elector of Brandenburg
in 1598. Joachim Frederick was succeeded at his death by his son John Sigismund
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Exclave
An enclave is a territory, or a part of a territory, that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state.[1] Territorial waters have the same sovereign attributes as land, and enclaves may therefore exist within territorial waters.[2]:60 An exclave is a portion of a state or territory geographically separated from the main part by surrounding alien territory (of one or more states).[3] Many exclaves are also enclaves. Enclave is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory that is only partly surrounded by another state.[1] Vatican City
City
and San Marino, enclaved by Italy, and Lesotho, enclaved by South Africa, are the only completely enclaved states
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George Frederick, Margrave Of Brandenburg-Ansbach
George Frederick of Brandenburg- Ansbach
Ansbach
(German: Georg Friedrich der Ältere; 5 April 1539 in Ansbach
Ansbach
– 25 April 1603) was Margrave
Margrave
of Ansbach
Ansbach
and Bayreuth, as well as Regent of Prussia. He was the son of George, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach
Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach
and a member of the House of Hohenzollern. He married firstly, in 1559, Elisabeth of Brandenburg-Küstrin (29 August 1540 – 8 March 1578)
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Bohemian Revolt
The Bohemian Revolt
Bohemian Revolt
(1618–1620) was an uprising of the Bohemian estates against the rule of the Habsburg dynasty
Habsburg dynasty
that began the Thirty Years' War. It was caused by both religious and power disputes. The estates were almost entirely Protestant, mostly Utraquist Hussite
Hussite
but there was also a substantial German population that endorsed Lutheranism. The dispute culminated after several battles in the final Battle of White Mountain, where the estates suffered a decisive defeat
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Thirty Years' War
Peace of Westphalia Protestant
Protestant
princes allowed to continue religious practices Decline of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church<

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Holy Roman Emperor
The Holy Roman Emperor
Emperor
(historically Romanorum Imperator " Emperor
Emperor
of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
(800-1806 CE, from Charlemagne
Charlemagne
to Francis II). The title was almost without interruption held in conjunction with the rule of the Kingdom of Germany.[1][2][3] From an autocracy in Carolingian
Carolingian
times the title evolved into an elected monarchy chosen by the prince-electors. The Holy Roman Emperor was widely perceived to rule by divine right by Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
rulers in Europe, and he often contradicted or rivaled the Pope, most notably during the Investiture controversy. In theory, the Holy Roman Emperor was primus inter pares (first among equals) among other Catholic monarchs
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