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Shoot 'em Up
SHOOT \'EM UP (also known as SHMUP or STG ) is a subgenre of the shooter genre of video games . In a shoot 'em up, the player character engages in a lone assault, often in a spacecraft or aircraft , shooting large numbers of enemies while dodging their attacks. There is no consensus as to which design elements compose a shoot 'em up. Some restrict the definition to games featuring spacecraft and certain types of character movement; others allow a broader definition including characters on foot and a variety of perspectives. Shoot 'em ups call for fast reactions and for the player to memorize levels and enemy attack patterns. "Bullet hell" games feature overwhelming numbers of enemy projectiles . The genre's origins can be traced back to Spacewar! , one of the earliest computer games, developed in 1962 and eventually released in amusement arcades in the early 1970s. Later in 70s, games such as Space Invaders and Asteroids popularized the genre. Shoot 'em ups were popular throughout the 1980s and early 1990s. In the mid-1990s, shoot 'em ups became a niche genre based on design conventions established in the 1980s, and increasingly catered to specialist enthusiasts, particularly in Japan
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Shoot 'Em Up (film)
SHOOT \'EM UP is a 2007 gun fu action film written and directed by Michael Davis . Starring Clive Owen
Clive Owen
, Paul Giamatti
Paul Giamatti
, Monica Bellucci and Stephen McHattie , it follows Smith (Owen), a drifter who rescues a newborn from being killed by assassin Hertz (Giamatti) and his henchmen. Smith flees from the gang, enlisting the help of prostitute D. Q. (Bellucci) to keep the baby safe as he unravels the conspiracy. The film was produced by Susan Montford , Don Murphy and Rick Benattar under Murphy's film banner Angry Films. The film was released on September 7, 2007 and underperformed at the box office. CONTENTS * 1 Plot * 2 Cast * 3 Production * 3.1 Development * 3.2 Pre-production * 3.3 Filming and post-production * 4 Marketing * 5 Music * 6 Release * 6.1 Critical reception * 6.2 Home media * 7 References * 8 External links PLOTAt a bus stop in a rough part of town, a drifter named Smith (Clive Owen ) sees a pregnant woman fleeing a hitman . Following them into a warehouse, Smith murders the hitman by stabbing him in the face with a carrot. As more thugs arrive, the woman starts to give birth, and Smith is forced to deliver the woman's baby during a shootout. Pursued by head assassin Karl Hertz ( Paul Giamatti
Paul Giamatti
), the woman is shot and killed, forcing Smith to narrowly escape with the newborn
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Action Game
The ACTION GAME is a video game genre that emphasizes physical challenges, including hand–eye coordination and reaction-time. The genre includes diverse subgenres such as fighting games , shooter games and platform games which are widely considered the most important action games, though multiplayer online battle arena and some real-time strategy games are also considered to be action games. In an action game, the player typically controls the protagonist or avatar . The avatar must navigate a level , collecting objects, avoiding obstacles, and battling enemies with various attacks. At the end of a level or group of levels, the player must often defeat a boss enemy that is more challenging and often larger than other enemies. Enemy attacks and obstacles deplete the avatar's health and lives , and the player receives a Game over when they run out of lives. Alternatively, the player wins the game by finishing a sequence of levels. But some action games, usually arcade games , are unbeatable and have an indefinite number of levels; and the player's only goal is to maximize their score by collecting objects and defeating enemies
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Video Game Genre
A VIDEO GAME GENRE is a classification assigned to a video game based on its gameplay interaction rather than visual or narrative differences. A video game genre is defined by a set of gameplay challenges and are classified independently of their setting or game-world content, unlike other works of fiction such as films or books . For example, a shooter game is still a shooter game, regardless of where it takes place. As with nearly all varieties of genre classification, the matter of any individual video game's specific genre is open to personal interpretation. Moreover, each individual game may belong to several genres at once. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Definition * 3 In practice * 4 Studies * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORYThe first attempt to classify different genres of video games was made by Chris Crawford in his book The Art of Computer Game Design in 1984. In this book, Crawford primarily focused on the player's experience and activities required for gameplay. Here, he also stated that "the state of computer game design is changing quickly. We would therefore expect the taxonomy presented to become obsolete or inadequate in a short time." Since then, among other genres, the platformer and 3D shooter genres, which hardly existed at the time, have gained a lot of popularity
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Action-adventure Game
The ACTION-ADVENTURE video game genre includes video games that combine core elements from the action and adventure genres. With the decline of the adventure game genre from mainstream popularity, the use of the term (and the hybrid term "action-adventure") has been more liberal. It is not uncommon for gamers to apply the term "adventure" or "action adventure" to describe the genre of fiction to which a game belongs, and not the gameplay itself. Action-adventure is a hybrid genre, and thus the definition is very inclusive, leading it to be perhaps the broadest genre of video games, and can include many games which might better be categorized under narrow genres. Typically, pure adventure games have situational problems for the player to solve, with very little or no action. If there is action, it is generally confined to isolated minigames. Pure action games have gameplay based on real-time interactions that challenge the reflexes. Therefore, action-adventure games engage both reflexes and problem-solving, in both violent and non-violent situations. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Subgenres * 3 Gameplay * 4 History * 5 References * 6 External links DEFINITIONAn action-adventure game can be defined as a game with a mix of elements from an action game and an adventure game , especially crucial elements like puzzles
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Action Role-playing Game
ACTION ROLE-PLAYING VIDEO GAMES (abbreviated ACTION RPG or ARPG) are a subgenre of role-playing video games . The games emphasize real-time combat (where the player has direct control over characters) over turn-based or menu -based combat. These games often use action game combat systems similar to hack and slash or shooter games . Action role-playing games may also incorporate action-adventure games , which iclude a mission system and RPG mechanics, or massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) with real-time combat systems. CONTENTS * 1 Early real-time elements * 2 Early action role-playing games and hack and slash * 2.1 Early 1980s * 2.2 Late 1980s * 2.3 Early–mid-1990s * 2.4 Late 1990s–present * 3 Other subgenres * 3.1 First-person dungeon crawl * 3.2 Point and click * 3.3 Role-playing shooter * 4 Choices and consequences * 5 Criticism * 6 References EARLY REAL-TIME ELEMENTS Main article: History of role-playing video games Early dungeon-crawl video games used turn-based movement, whereby the player and enemy took turns to perform actions. :234–2355 _Dungeons of Daggorath _, released for the TRS-80 Color Computer in 1982 , combined a typical first-person dungeon crawl with real-time elements, requiring timed keyboard commands and containing enemies that move independently of the player
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Open World
OPEN WORLD, FREE ROAM, or (more loosely) SANDBOX are terms for video games where a player can move freely through a virtual world and is given considerable freedom in regard to how and when to approach particular objectives, as opposed to other video games that have a more linear structure to their gameplay. While games had used open world designs prior since the 1980s, the implementation in Grand Theft Auto III (2001) set a standard that has been used in open-world design since that point. Video games with open or free-roaming worlds typically lack the invisible walls and loading screens that are common in linear level designs. Generally, open-world games still enforce many restrictions in the game environment, either because of absolute technical limitations or in-game limitations imposed by a game's linearity. Examples of high level of autonomy in computer games can be found in massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPG) or in single-player games adhering to the open-world concept such as the Fallout series. The main appeal of open-world gameplay is that they provide a simulated reality and allow players to develop their character and its behavior in the direction of their choosing. In these cases, there is often no concrete goal or end to the game
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Stealth Game
A STEALTH GAME is a type of video game that tasks the player with using stealth to avoid or overcome antagonists. Games in the genre typically allow the player to remain undetected by hiding, using disguises or avoiding noise. Some games allow the player to choose between a stealthy approach or directly attacking antagonists, perhaps rewarding the player for greater levels of stealth. The genre has employed espionage , counter-terrorism and rogue themes, with protagonists who are special forces operatives , spies, thieves , ninjas , and assassins . Some games have also combined stealth elements with other genres, such as first-person shooters and even platformers . Some of the early games emphasizing stealth include Manbiki Shounen (1979), Lupin III
Lupin III
(1980), 005 (1981), Castle Wolfenstein (1981), Infiltrator (1986), Metal Gear (1987), and Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake (1990). The genre became popular in 1998, with the mainstream success of Metal Gear Solid
Metal Gear Solid
as well as Tenchu: Stealth Assassins
Assassins
and Thief: The Dark Project . Tenchu was the first 3D game in the genre, while Metal Gear Solid, released some months later, transformed the relatively obscure Metal Gear series into a highly acclaimed, profitable franchise with numerous sequels, while Thief
Thief
pioneered 3D stealth games on the PC
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Survival Game
SURVIVAL GAMES are a subgenre of action video games that generally start the player off with minimal resources, in a hostile, open-world environment, and require them to collect resources, craft tools, weapons, and shelter, and survive as long as possible. Many survival games are based on randomly or procedurally generated persistent environments, with more recently created games often playable online, with multiple players on a single persistent world. Survival games are generally open-ended with no set goals, and are often closely related to the survival horror genre, in which the player must survive within a supernatural setting, such as a zombie apocalypse . CONTENTS * 1 Gameplay * 2 History * 3 List of survival games * 4 References GAMEPLAYSurvival games are considered an extension of a common video game theme where the player-character is stranded or separated from others, and must work alone to survive and complete a goal. Survival games primarily focus on the survival parts of these games, while encouraging exploration of an open world. They are primarily action games, though some gameplay elements present in the action-adventure genre—such as resource management and item crafting—are commonly found in survival games,and are often central elements in some titles, like Survival Kids
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Survival Horror
SURVIVAL HORROR is a subgenre of video games inspired by horror fiction that focuses on survival of the character as the game tries to frighten players with either horror graphics or scary ambience. Although combat can be part of the gameplay, the player is made to feel less in control than in typical action games through limited ammunition, health, speed and vision, or through various obstructions of the player's interaction with the game mechanics . The player is also challenged to find items that unlock the path to new areas and solve puzzles to proceed in the game. Games make use of strong horror themes, like dark maze-like environments and unexpected attacks from enemies. The term "survival horror" was first used for the original Japanese release of Resident Evil
Resident Evil
in 1996, which was influenced by earlier games with a horror theme such as 1989's Sweet Home or 1992's Alone in the Dark . The name has been used since then for games with similar gameplay, and has been retroactively applied to earlier titles. Starting with the release of Resident Evil 4 in 2005, the genre began to incorporate more features from action games and more traditional first person and third-person shooter games. This has led game journalists to question whether long-standing survival horror franchises and more recent franchises have abandoned the genre and moved into a different distinct genre often referred to as "action horror"
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Fighting Game
A FIGHTING GAME is a video game genre in which the player controls an on-screen character and engages in close combat with an opponent, which can be either an AI or controlled by another player. The fight matches typically consist of several rounds and take place in an arena, while each character has widely differing abilities but each is relatively viable to choose . Players must master techniques such as blocking, counter-attacking, and chaining attacks together into "combos ". Since the early 1990s, most fighting games allow the player to execute special attacks by performing specific input combinations. The fighting game genre is related to but distinct from beat \'em ups , which involve large numbers of enemies against the human player. The first video game to feature fist fighting was arcade game _ Heavyweight Champ _ in 1976 , but it was _ Karate Champ _ which popularized one-on-one martial arts games in arcades in 1984 . In 1985 , _ Yie Ar Kung-Fu _ featured antagonists with differing fighting styles, while _ The Way of the Exploding Fist _ further popularized the genre on home systems. In 1987 , _ Street Fighter _ introduced hidden special attacks. In 1991 , Capcom 's highly successful _Street Fighter II _ refined and popularized many of the conventions of the genre
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Beat 'em Up
BEAT \'EM UP (also known as BRAWLER) is a video game genre featuring hand-to-hand combat between the protagonist and an improbably large number of opponents. These games typically take place in urban settings and feature crime-fighting and revenge-based plots, though some games may employ historical, sci-fi or fantasy themes. Traditional beat 'em ups take place in scrolling , two-dimensional (2D) levels, though some later games feature more open three-dimensional (3D) environments with yet larger numbers of enemies. These games are noted for their simple gameplay , a source of both critical acclaim and derision. Two-player cooperative gameplay and multiple player characters are also hallmarks of the genre. The first beat 'em up was 1984's Kung-Fu Master , with 1986's Renegade introducing the urban settings and underworld revenge themes employed extensively by later games. The genre then saw a period of high popularity between the release of Double Dragon in 1987, which defined the two-player cooperative mode central to classic beat 'em ups, and 1991's Street Fighter II , which drew gamers towards one-on-one fighting games . Games such as Streets of Rage , Final Fight and Golden Axe are other classics to emerge from this period. The genre has been less popular since the emergence of 3D-based mass-market games, but still some beat 'em ups adapted the simple formula to utilize large-scale 3D environments
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Platform Game
A PLATFORM GAME (or PLATFORMER) is a type of video game , and subgenre of action game . It involves guiding a player character or avatar to jump between suspended platforms and/or over obstacles to traverse their environment. The player controls the jumps to avoid letting their character fall to their death or miss necessary jumps. The most common unifying element of games of this genre is the jump button, but now there are other alternatives like swiping a touchscreen. Other acrobatic maneuvers may factor into the gameplay as well, such as climbing, swinging from vines or extendable arms, as in Ristar or Bionic Commando
Bionic Commando
, or bouncing from springboards or trampolines, as in Alpha Waves
Alpha Waves
. These mechanics, even in the context of other genres, are commonly called platforming, a verbification of platform. Games where jumping is automated completely, such as 3D games in The Legend of Zelda
The Legend of Zelda
series, fall outside of the genre. Platform games originated in the early 1980s, with 3D successors popularized in the mid-1990s. The term itself describes games where jumping on platforms is an integral part of the gameplay and came into use after the genre had been established, no later than 1983
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Metroidvania
METROIDVANIA is a subgenre of the action-adventure video game with gameplay concepts similar to the Metroid series and some games of the Castlevania series (specifically Castlevania: Symphony of the Night and the subsequent episodes released on Nintendo's portable consoles). The genre name is a portmanteau of the two series' names. Other names include CASTLEROID and the term "tansaku" (exploration) games. Other terms include METROID-STYLE GAMES, METROID-LIKE GAMES, and other similar formations invoking similarity to Metroid. Metroidvania
Metroidvania
games generally feature a large interconnected world map the player can explore, though access to parts of the world is often limited by doors or other obstacles that can only be passed once the player has acquired special items, tools, weapons or abilities within the game. Acquiring such improvements can also aid the player in defeating more difficult enemies and locating shortcuts and secret areas, and often includes retracing one's steps across the map. Through this, Metroidvania
Metroidvania
games include tighter integration of story and level design, careful design of levels and character controls to encourage exploration and experimentation, and a means for the player to become more invested in their player character . Metroidvania
Metroidvania
games typically are two-dimensional platformers , but can also include other genre types
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Shooter Game
SHOOTER GAMES are a subgenre of action game , which often test the player's speed and reaction time. It includes many subgenres that have the commonality of focusing on the actions of the avatar using some sort of weapon. Usually this weapon is a gun , or some other long-range weapon . A common resource found in many shooter games is ammunition . Most commonly, the purpose of a shooter game is to shoot opponents and proceed through missions without the player character being killed or dying. A shooting game is a genre of video game where the player has limited spatial control of his or her character, and the focus is almost entirely on the defeat of the character's enemies using long-range weaponry. CONTENTS* 1 Characteristics of shooters * 1.1 Perspective * 1.2 Realism * 1.3 Number of characters * 1.4 Multiplayer * 1.5 Focus * 2 Subgenres * 2.1 Shoot \'em up * 2.2 Shooting
Shooting
gallery * 2.2.1 Light gun shooter * 2.3 First-person shooters * 2.4 Third-person shooters * 2.5 Hero shooters * 2.6 Tactical shooters * 2.7 Other * 3 Controversy * 4 References CHARACTERISTICS OF SHOOTERSThere are many criteria to determine the type of shooter; listed below are some of the major divisions. Using the following, it is possible to categorize almost all shooters developed
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First-person Shooter
FIRST-PERSON SHOOTER (FPS) is a video game genre centered around gun and other weapon-based combat in a first-person perspective ; that is, the player experiences the action through the eyes of the protagonist . The genre shares common traits with other shooter games , which in turn makes it fall under the heading action game . Since the genre's inception, advanced 3D and pseudo-3D graphics have challenged hardware development, and multiplayer gaming has been integral. The first-person shooter genre has been traced as far back as _Maze War _, development of which began in 1973, and 1974's _ Spasim _. Later, and after more playful titles like _ MIDI Maze _ in 1987, the genre coalesced into a more wantonly violent form with 1992's _ Wolfenstein 3D _, which has been credited with creating the genre's basic archetype, that subsequent titles were based upon. One such title, and the progenitor of the genre's wider mainstream acceptance and popularity was _Doom ,_ perhaps one of the most influential games in this genre; for many years, the term DOOM CLONE was used to designate this genre due to _Doom_'s influence. 1998's _Half-Life _—along with its 2004 sequel _ Half-Life 2 _—enhanced the narrative and puzzle elements. In 1999, the _Half-Life_ mod _ Counter-Strike _ was released and, together with _Doom _, is perhaps one of the most influential first-person shooters
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