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Shiva
Shiva
Shiva
(/ˈʃiːvə/; Sanskrit: शिव, Śiva, lit. the auspicious one) also known as Mahadeva (lit. the great god)[7][8][9] is one of the principal deities of Hinduism. He is one of the supreme beings within Shaivism, one of the major traditions within contemporary Hinduism.[10][11] Shiva
Shiva
is known as "The Destroyer" within the Trimurti, the Hindu trinity that includes Brahma
Brahma
and Vishnu.[1][12] In Shaivism
Shaivism
tradition, Shiva
Shiva
is one of the supreme beings who creates, protects and transforms the universe.[7][8][9] In the Shaktism
Shaktism
tradition, the Goddess, or Devi, is described as one of the supreme, yet Shiva
Shiva
is revered along with Vishnu
Vishnu
and Brahma
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Crescent
A crescent shape (/ˈkrɛsənt/, British English
British English
also /ˈkrɛzənt/[1]) is a symbol or emblem used to represent the lunar phase in the first quarter (the "sickle moon"), or by extension a symbol representing the Moon
Moon
itself. It is used as the astrological symbol for the Moon, and hence as the alchemical symbol for silver. It was also the emblem of Diana/Artemis, and hence represented virginity
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Devanagari
Devanagari
Devanagari
(/ˌdeɪvəˈnɑːɡəri/ DAY-və-NAH-gə-ree; देवनागरी, IAST: Devanāgarī, a compound of "deva" दे
and "nāgarī" नागरी; Hindi
Hindi
pronunciation: [d̪eːʋˈnaːɡri]), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),[5] is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India
India
and Nepal
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Mojibake
Mojibake
Mojibake
(文字化け) (IPA: [mod͡ʑibake]) is the garbled text that is the result of text being decoded using an unintended character encoding.[1] The result is a systematic replacement of symbols with completely unrelated ones, often from a different writing system. This display may include the generic replacement character � in places where the binary representation is considered invalid. A replacement can also involve multiple consecutive symbols, as viewed in one encoding, when the same binary code constitutes one symbol in the other encoding. This is either because of differing constant length encoding (as in Asian 16-bit encodings vs European 8-bit encodings), or the use of variable length encodings (notably UTF-8
UTF-8
and UTF-16). Failed rendering of glyphs due to either missing fonts or missing glyphs in a font is a different issue that is not to be confused with mojibake
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Brahmic Scripts
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCEProto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c. BCEPhoenician 12 c. BCEPaleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCESamaritan 6 c. BCE Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCETifinaghPaleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c. BCE Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CECanadian syllabics 1840Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCEAvestan 4 c. CEPalmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCENabataean 2 c. BCEArabic 4 c. CEN'Ko 1949 CESogdian 2 c. BCEOrkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CEOld Hungarian c. 650 CEOld UyghurMongolian 1204 CEMandaic 2 c. CEGreek 8 c. BCEEtruscan 8 c. BCELatin 7 c
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Asceticism
Asceticism
Asceticism
(/əˈsɛtɪsɪzəm/; from the Greek: ἄσκησις áskesis, "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals. Ascetics may withdraw from the world for their practices or continue to be part of their society, but typically adopt a frugal lifestyle, characterised by the renunciation of material possessions and physical pleasures, and time spent fasting while concentrating on the practice of religion or reflection upon spiritual matters.[3] Asceticism
Asceticism
is classified into two types
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Meditation
Meditation
Meditation
can be defined as a practice where an individual focuses their mind on a particular object, thought or activity to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.[1] Meditation
Meditation
may be used to reduce stress, anxiety, depression, and pain.[2] It may be done while sitting, repeating a mantra, and closing the eyes in a quiet environment. Meditation
Meditation
has been practiced since antiquity in numerous religious traditions and beliefs. Since the 19th century, it has spread from its Indian origins to other cultures where it is commonly practiced in private and business life
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IAST
The International Alphabet of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Transliteration
Transliteration
(I.A.S.T.) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanization of Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and related Indic languages. It is based on a scheme that emerged during the nineteenth century from suggestions by Charles Trevelyan, William Jones, Monier Monier-Williams and other scholars, and formalised by the Transliteration
Transliteration
Committee of the Geneva Oriental Congress, in September 1894.[1] IAST makes it possible for the reader to read the Indic text unambiguously, exactly as if it were in the original Indic script
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Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sanskrit
(English: /ˈsænskrɪt/;[6] Sanskrit: संस्कृतम्, romanized: saṃskṛtam, IPA: [ˈsɐ̃skr̩tɐm] (listen)) is a language of ancient India
India
with a 3,500-year history.[7][8][9] It is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism
Hinduism
and the predominant language of most works of Hindu philosophy
Hindu philosophy
as well as some of the principal texts of Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism
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Manasa
Manasā, also Mansā Devi, is an Indian folk goddess of snakes, worshipped mainly in Bengal
Bengal
and other parts of North and northeastern India, chiefly for the prevention and cure of snakebite and also for fertility and prosperity. Manasa
Manasa
is the mother of Astika, sister of Vasuki, king of Nāgas (snakes) and wife of sage Jagatkāru (Jaratkāru).[1] She is also known as Vishahara (the destroyer of poison), Nityā (eternal) and Padmavati.[2] In the Puranas, sage Kashyapa
Kashyapa
is her father, Lord Shiva is a father figure to her
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Aniconic
Aniconism
Aniconism
is the absence of material representations of the natural and supernatural world in various cultures, particularly in the monotheistic Abrahamic religions. This ban may extend from only God and deities to saint characters, all living beings, and everything that exists. The phenomenon is generally codified by the religious traditions and as such becomes a taboo. When enforced by the physical destruction of images, aniconism becomes iconoclasm
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Ashokasundari
Ashokasundari (Sanskrit: अशोकसुंदरी, Aśokasundarī) or Ashoka Sundari, is a goddess and the daughter of Shiva
Shiva
and Parvati
Parvati
in Hinduism. She is referenced to in the Padma Purana, which narrates her story. The goddess is mostly venerated in Dravida in the form of Bala Tripurasundari. Etymology[edit] Ashokasundari was created from the wish-fulfilling tree Kalpavriksha when Parvati
Parvati
wished for reducing her loneliness. The words in her name are derived from her creation. "Ashoka" refers to the easing of Parvati's "shoka," which means sorrow, while "sundari" means "beautiful girl".[1] Legend[edit] The birth of Ashokasundari is recorded in the Padma Purana
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Damaru
New branches:Blue Lotus AssemblyGateway of the Hidden FlowerNew Kadampa BuddhismShambhala BuddhismTrue Awakening TraditionHistoryTantrismMahasiddhaSahajaPursuitBuddhahood BodhisattvaKalachakraPracticesGeneration stage Completion stagePhowaTantric techniques: Fourfold division:KriyayogaCharyayogaYogatantraAnuttarayogatantraTwofold division:Inner TantrasOuter TantrasThought forms and visualisation:MandalaMantraMudraThangkaYantraYoga:Deity yogaDream yogaDeath yogaNgöndro Guru
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Panchayatana Puja
Panchayatana puja
Panchayatana puja
( IAST
IAST
Pañcāyatana pūjā) is a system of worship ('puja') in the Smarta tradition of Hinduism.[1] It consists of the worship of five deities set in a quincunx pattern,[2] the five deities being Shiva, Vishnu, Devi
Devi
or Durga, Surya
Surya
and an Ishta Devata
Ishta Devata
such as Ganesha
Ganesha
or Skanda or any personal god of devotee's preference.[3][4] Sometimes the Ishta Devata
Ishta Devata
is the sixth deity in the mandala.[1] Panchayatana puja
Panchayatana puja
has been attributed to Adi Shankara, the 8th century CE Hindu philosopher.[5] It is a practice that became popular in medieval India.[1] However, archaeological evidence suggests that this practice long predates the birth of Adi Shankara
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Parashu
Parashu
Parashu
(Sanskrit: paraśu) is the Sanskrit word for battle-axe which can be wielded with one or both hands. Construction[edit] The parashu could be double edged or bladed or single-bladed with a spike on the non cutting edge. It usually measures between 3 – 5 feet though some are as long as 7 feet. The parashu is usually made of iron or wootz steel. The cutting edge is broader than the edge which is attached to the haft. The haft is often tied with a leather sheet to provide a good grip. In Hinduism[edit] The parashu is the weapon of the god Shiva
Shiva
who gave it to Parashurama, sixth avatar of Vishnu, whose name means "Rama with the axe" and also taught him its mastery. He is regarded as the founder of the northern style of kalaripayat
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Shasta (deity)
Shasta ( IAST
IAST
Śāstā) is the name of a Hindu deity in India. Shasta is a generic Sanskrit
Sanskrit
term for a teacher. The word Shasta was first used in the sense of a Hindu deity in South India
India
during the 3rd century. He is identified with many deities like Aiyanar, Ayyappa
Ayyappa
and Kartikeya. According to Tamil literature, Shasta has eight important forms.Contents1 Significance1.1 Tamil Nadu 1.2 Kerala2 Notes 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksSignificance[edit] Shasta is a generic term that means "Teacher, Guide, Lord, Ruler" in Sanskrit.[1] In South India, a number of deities are associated with Shasta. The Tamil song Shasta Varavu states that there are eight important incarnations and forms of Shasta. This is also present in the agamic work Dyana Ratnavali
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