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Shiitake
spore print is white to buffecology is saprotrophicedibility: choiceShiitakeChinese nameTraditional Chinese 香菇Simplified Chinese 香菇Hanyu Pinyin xiānggūTranscriptionsStandard MandarinHanyu Pinyin xiānggūVietnamese nameVietnamese nấm hươngThai nameThai เห็ดหอม (hèt hŏm)Korean nameHangul 표고Hanja 瓢菰TranscriptionsRevised Romanization pyogoJapanese nameKanji 椎茸Hiragana しいたけThe shiitake (/ʃɪˈtɑːkeɪ, ˌʃiːɪ-, -ki/;[1] Japanese: [ɕiːtake] ( listen) Lentinula
Lentinula
edodes) is an edible mushroom native to East Asia, which is cultivated and consumed in many Asian countries
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Golden Oak
Quercus alnifolia, commonly known as the golden oak, is an evergreen oak species of Cyprus. Its common English name refers to the golden coloured lower surface of its leaves. Quercus alnifolia
Quercus alnifolia
belongs to the endemic flora of the island and it is confined to the igneous geological complex of the Troodos Mountains. In February 2006, the parliament of Cyprus
Cyprus
selected the golden oak to be the country's national tree.[2]Contents1 Taxonomy 2 Description 3 Distribution and habitat 4 Ecological importance and conservation status 5 See also 6 ReferencesTaxonomy[edit]A golden oak shrub in a pine stand near Karvounas, Troodos Mountains Quercus alnifolia
Quercus alnifolia
belongs to section Cerris, as with much of the mediterranean evergreen oak species. Occasional hybridization with kermes oak (Quercus coccifera ssp
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Hiragana
Hiragana
Hiragana
(平仮名, ひらがな, Japanese pronunciation: [çiɾaɡana]) is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana, kanji, and in some cases rōmaji (Latin script). It is a phonetic lettering system. The word hiragana literally means "ordinary" or "simple" kana ("simple" originally as contrasted with kanji).[1][2] Hiragana
Hiragana
and katakana are both kana systems. With one or two minor exceptions, each sound in the Japanese language
Japanese language
(strictly, each mora) is represented by one character (or one digraph) in each system. This may be either a vowel such as "a" (hiragana あ); a consonant followed by a vowel such as "ka" (か); or "n" (ん), a nasal sonorant which, depending on the context, sounds either like English m, n, or ng ([ŋ]), or like the nasal vowels of French
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East Asia
East Asia
Asia
or Northeast Asia
Northeast Asia
is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical[3] or pan-ethno-cultural[4] terms.[5][6] Geographically and geopolitically, the region constitutes Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan.[7][8][9][10][11][3][12][13][14][15] The region was the cradle of various ancient civilizations such as Ancient China, ancient Japan, ancient Korea, and the Mongol Empire.[16][17] East Asia
Asia
was one of the cradles of world civilization, with China, an ancient East Asian civilization being one of the earliest cradles of civilization in human history
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Species Description
A species description is a formal description of a newly discovered species, usually in the form of a scientific paper. Its purpose is to give a clear description of a new species of organism and explain how it differs from species which have been described previously or are related. The species description often contains photographs or other illustrations of the type material and states in which museums it has been deposited. The publication in which the species is described gives the new species a formal scientific name. Today, some 1.9 million species have been described and named, out of some 8.7 million that may actually exist on Earth.[1] Millions more have become extinct. It is customary for scientists to introduce all relevant new findings and research in a scientific manuscript, which is sent to other scientists for peer review
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Synonym (biology)
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name,[1] although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature.[2] For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription, position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature)
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Botanical Name
A botanical name is a formal scientific name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants
International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants
(ICN) and, if it concerns a plant cultigen, the additional cultivar or Group epithets must conform to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP). The code of nomenclature covers "all organisms traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants, whether fossil or non-fossil, including blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria), chytrids, oomycetes, slime moulds and photosynthetic protists with their taxonomically related non-photosynthetic groups (but excluding Microsporidia)."[1] The purpose of a formal name is to have a single name that is accepted and used worldwide for a particular plant or plant group
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Common Name
In biology, a common name of a taxon or organism (also known as a vernacular name, English name, colloquial name, trivial name, trivial epithet, country name, popular name, or farmer's name) is a name that is based on the normal language of everyday life; this kind of name is often contrasted with the scientific name for the same organism, which is Latinized. A common name is sometimes frequently used, but that is by no means always the case.[1] Sometimes common names are created by authorities on one particular subject, in an attempt to make it possible for members of the general public (including such interested parties as fishermen, farmers, etc.) to be able to refer to one particular species of organism without needing to be able to memorise or pronounce the Latinized scientific name
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Sawtooth Oak
Quercus acutissima, the sawtooth oak, is an Asian species of oak native to China
China
(including Tibet), Korea, Japan, Indochina (Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia) and the Himalayas (Nepal, Bhutan, northeastern India).[2] It is widely planted in many lands and has become naturalized in parts of North America.[3] Quercus acutissima
Quercus acutissima
is closely related to the Turkey oak, classified with it in Quercus sect. Cerris, a section of the genus characterised by shoot buds surrounded by soft bristles, bristle-tipped leaf lobes, and acorns that mature in about 18 months.[2]Contents1 Description 2 Ecology 3 Uses 4 References 5 External linksDescription[edit]Acorns from Quercus acutissima Quercus acutissima
Quercus acutissima
is a medium-sized deciduous tree growing to 25–30 metres (82–98 ft) tall with a trunk up to 1.5 metres (4 ft 11 in) in diameter
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Deciduous Tree
In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous means "falling off at maturity"[1] and "tending to fall off",[2] in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit. Generally, the term deciduous means "the dropping of a part that is no longer needed" and the "falling away [of a part] after its purpose is finished"
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Hanja
Hanja
Hanja
(Hangul: 한자; Hanja: 漢字; Korean pronunciation: [ha(ː)nt͈ɕa]) is the Korean name
Korean name
for Chinese characters (Chinese: 漢字; pinyin: hànzì).[1] More specifically, it refers to those Chinese characters
Chinese characters
borrowed from Chinese and incorporated into the Korean language
Korean language
with Korean pronunciation. Hanja-mal or Hanja-eo (the latter is more used) refers to words that can be written with Hanja, and hanmun (한문, 漢文) refers to Classical Chinese
Classical Chinese
writing, although "Hanja" is sometimes used loosely to encompass these other concepts. Because Hanja
Hanja
never underwent major reform, they are almost entirely identical to traditional Chinese and kyūjitai characters, though the stroke orders for some characters are slightly different
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Chestnut
* treated as a synonym of Castanea pumila
Castanea pumila
by many authorsThe chestnut (Castanea) group is a genus of eight or nine species of deciduous trees and shrubs in the beech family Fagaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The name also refers to the edible nuts they produce.[1][2][3]Contents1 Species 2 Etymology 3 Description 4 History4.1 Europe 4.2 Asia 4.3 North America 4.4 Australia, New Zealand5 Nutrition 6 Cultivation, pests and diseases6.1 Climate, seasonal germination cycle 6.2 Soil requirements 6.3 Sun exposure 6.4 Watering 6.5 Preservation 6.6 Pests6.6.1 Mammals and birds 6.6.2
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Oak
See List of Quercus speciesAn oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (/ˈkwɜːrkəs/;[1] Latin
Latin
"oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae. There are approximately 600 extant species of oaks. The common name "oak" also appears in the names of species in related genera, notably Lithocarpus (stone oaks), as well as in those of unrelated species such as Grevillea robusta
Grevillea robusta
(silky oaks) and the Casuarinaceae
Casuarinaceae
(she-oaks). The genus Quercus is native to the Northern Hemisphere, and includes deciduous and evergreen species extending from cool temperate to tropical latitudes in the Americas, Asia, Europe, and North Africa. North America
North America
contains the largest number of oak species, with approximately 90 occurring in the United States, while Mexico
Mexico
has 160 species of which 109 are endemic
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Maple
See either species grouped by sections alphabetical list of speciesDistributionAcer /ˈeɪsər/ is a genus of trees or shrubs commonly known as maple
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