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Shield Volcano
A shield volcano is a type of volcano usually built almost entirely of fluid lava flows. They are named for their low profile, resembling a warrior's shield lying on the ground. This is caused by the highly fluid (low viscosity) lava they erupt which travels farther than lava erupted from stratovolcanoes. This results in the steady accumulation of broad sheets of lava, building up the shield volcano's distinctive form
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Sill (geology)
In geology, a sill is a tabular sheet intrusion that has intruded between older layers of sedimentary rock, beds of volcanic lava or tuff, or along the direction of foliation in metamorphic rock. A sill is a concordant intrusive sheet, meaning that a sill does not cut across preexisting rock beds. Stacking of sills builds a sill complex and a large magma chamber at high magma flux. In contrast, a dike is a discordant intrusive sheet, which does cut across older rocks. Sills are fed by dikes, except in unusual locations where they form in nearly vertical beds attached directly to a magma source. The rocks must be brittle and fracture to create the planes along which the magma intrudes the parent rock bodies, whether this occurs along preexisting planes between sedimentary or volcanic beds or weakened planes related to foliation in metamorphic rock
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Sea Floor
The seabed (also known as the seafloor, sea floor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean.

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Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (PNG; UK: /ˈpæp(j)uə ... ˈɡɪni, ˈpɑː-/, US: /ˈpæpjuə -, pɑːˈpə -/; Tok Pisin language">Tok Pisin: Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu language">Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea ( Tok Pisin language">Tok Pisin: Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu language">Hiri Motu: Independen Stet bilong Papua Niu Gini) is a country in Oceania that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia. Its capital, located along its southeastern coast, is Port Moresby
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Purico Complex
The Purico complex is a Pleistocene volcanic complex in Chile close to Bolivia, formed by an ignimbrite, several lava domes and stratovolcanoes and one maar. It is one of the Chilean volcanoes of the Andes, and more specifically the Chilean segment of the Central Volcanic Zone, one of the four volcanic belts which make up the Andean Volcanic Belt. The Central Volcanic Zone spans Peru, Bolivia, Chile and Argentina and includes 44 active volcanoes as well as the Altiplano-Puna volcanic complex, a system of large calderas and ignimbrites of which Purico is a member of. Licancabur to the north, La Pacana southeast and Guayaques to the east are separate volcanic systems. The Purico complex consists of a shield shaped volcanic structure consisting of the Purico ignimbrite and a number of secondary volcanoes that are emplaced on this volcanic shield. During the ice ages, the shield was in part covered by glaciers which have left moraines
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Oregon
Oregon (/ˈɔːrɪɡən/ (About this sound listen)) is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary along Washington state, while the Snake River delineates much of its eastern boundary along Idaho. The parallel 42° north delineates the southern boundary with California and Nevada. Oregon is one of only three states of the contiguous United States to have a coastline on the Pacific Ocean. Oregon was inhabited by many indigenous tribes before Western traders, explorers, and settlers arrived. An autonomous government was formed in the Oregon Country in 1843 before the Oregon Territory was created in 1848. Oregon became the 33rd state on February 14, 1859. Today, at 98,000 square miles (250,000 km2--->), Oregon is the ninth largest and, with a population of 4 million, 27th most populous U.S. state
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Flood Basalt
A flood basalt is the result of a giant volcanic eruption or series of eruptions that covers large stretches of land or the ocean floor with basalt lava. Flood basalt provinces such as the Deccan Traps of India are often called traps, after the Swedish word trappa (meaning "stairs"), due to the characteristic stairstep geomorphology of many associated landscapes. Michael Rampino and Richard Stothers (1988) cited eleven distinct flood basalt episodes occurring in the past 250 million years, creating large volcanic provinces, plateaus, and mountain ranges. However, more have been recognized such as the large Ontong Java Plateau, and the Chilcotin Group, though the latter may be linked to the Basalt Group">Columbia River Basalt Group
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Subaerial
In natural science, subaerial (literally "under the air"), has been used since 1833, notably in geology and botany, to describe events or features that are formed, located, or taking place immediately on or near the Earth's land surface. They are thus exposed to Earth's atmosphere
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Sea Level
Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured. MSL is a type of vertical datum – a standardised geodetic reference point – that is used, for example, as a chart datum in cartography and marine navigation, or, in aviation, as the standard sea level at which atmospheric pressure is measured to calibrate altitude and, consequently, aircraft flight levels. A common and relatively straightforward mean sea-level standard is the midpoint between a mean low and mean high tide at a particular location. Sea levels can be affected by many factors and are known to have varied greatly over geological time scales
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Mount Everest
Mount Everest, known in Nepali as Sagarmāthā and in Tibetan as Chomolungma, is Earth's highest mountain above sea level, located in the Mahalangur Himal sub-range of the Himalayas. The international border between China (Tibet Autonomous Region) and Nepal (Province No. 1) runs across its summit point. The current official elevation of 8,848 m (29,029 ft), recognised by China and Nepal, was established by a 1955 Indian survey and subsequently confirmed by a Chinese survey in 1975. In 2005, China remeasured the rock height of the mountain, with a result of 8844.43 m. There followed an argument between China and Nepal as to whether the official height should be the rock height (8,844 m., China) or the snow height (8,848 m., Nepal)
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Tephra
Tephra is fragmental material produced by a volcanic eruption regardless of composition, fragment size or emplacement mechanism.
Tephra horizons in south-central Iceland. The thick and light coloured layer at the centre of the photo is rhyolitic tephra from Hekla.
Volcanologists also refer to airborne fragments as pyroclasts
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University Of Houston
The University of Houston (UH) is a state research university and the flagship institution of the University of Houston System. Founded in 1927, UH is the third-largest university in Texas with nearly 44,000 students. Its campus spans 667 acres in southeast Houston, and was known as University of Houston–University Park from 1983 to 1991. The Carnegie Foundation classifies UH as a doctoral degree-granting institution with "highest research activity." The U.S. News & World Report ranks the university No. 192 in its National University Rankings, and No
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Lava Lake
Lava lakes are large volumes of molten lava, usually basaltic, contained in a volcanic vent, crater, or broad depression
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