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Shield Volcano
A shield volcano is a type of volcano usually built almost entirely of fluid lava flows. They are named for their low profile, resembling a warrior's shield lying on the ground. This is caused by the highly fluid (low viscosity) lava they erupt which travels farther than lava erupted from stratovolcanoes. This results in the steady accumulation of broad sheets of lava, building up the shield volcano's distinctive form
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Sill (geology)
In geology, a sill is a tabular sheet intrusion that has intruded between older layers of sedimentary rock, beds of volcanic lava or tuff, or along the direction of foliation in metamorphic rock. A sill is a concordant intrusive sheet, meaning that a sill does not cut across preexisting rock beds. Stacking of sills builds a sill complex [1] and a large magma chamber at high magma flux.[2] In contrast, a dike is a discordant intrusive sheet, which does cut across older rocks. Sills are fed by dikes, except in unusual locations where they form in nearly vertical beds attached directly to a magma source. The rocks must be brittle and fracture to create the planes along which the magma intrudes the parent rock bodies, whether this occurs along preexisting planes between sedimentary or volcanic beds or weakened planes related to foliation in metamorphic rock
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Sea Floor
The seabed (also known as the seafloor, sea floor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean.Contents1 Seabed structure1.1 Technical terms2 Benthos 3 Seabed features 4 History of exploration 5 Resources 6 In art and culture 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksSeabed structure[edit] See also: Seafloor spreadingThis section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)The major oceanic divisionsMost of the oceans have a common structure, created by common physical phenomena, mainly from tectonic movement, and sediment from various sources
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Papua New Guinea
Coordinates: 6°S 147°E / 6°S 147°E / -6; 147Independent State of Papua New GuineaIndependen Stet bilong Papua Niugini Papua Niu GiniFlagNational emblemMotto: "Unity in diversity"[1]Anthem: O Arise, All You Sons [2]Location of  Papua New Guinea  (green)Capital and largest city Port Moresby 9°30′S 147°07′E / 9.500°S 147.117°E / -9.500; 147.117Official languages[3][4]Hiri Motu Tok Pisin PNG Sign Language EnglishDemonym Papua New GuineanGovernment Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy• MonarchElizabeth II• Governor-GeneralBob Dadae• Prime MinisterPeter O'NeillLegislature National ParliamentIndependence from Australia• Papua and
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Purico Complex
The Purico complex is a Pleistocene volcanic complex in Chile close to Bolivia, formed by an ignimbrite, several lava domes and stratovolcanoes and one maar. It is one of the Chilean volcanoes of the Andes, and more specifically the Chilean segment of the Central Volcanic Zone, one of the four volcanic belts which make up the Andean Volcanic Belt. The Central Volcanic Zone spans Peru, Bolivia, Chile and Argentina and includes 44 active volcanoes as well as the Altiplano-Puna volcanic complex, a system of large calderas and ignimbrites of which Purico is a member of. Licancabur to the north, La Pacana southeast and Guayaques to the east are separate volcanic systems. The Purico complex consists of a shield shaped volcanic structure consisting of the Purico ignimbrite and a number of secondary volcanoes that are emplaced on this volcanic shield. During the ice ages, the shield was in part covered by glaciers which have left moraines
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Oregon
Oregon
Oregon
(/ˈɔːrɪɡən/ ( listen)[7]) is a state in the Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
region on the West Coast of the United States. The Columbia River
Columbia River
delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary along Washington state, while the Snake River
Snake River
delineates much of its eastern boundary along Idaho. The parallel 42° north delineates the southern boundary with California
California
and Nevada. Oregon
Oregon
is one of only three states of the contiguous United States
United States
to have a coastline on the Pacific Ocean. Oregon
Oregon
was inhabited by many indigenous tribes before Western traders, explorers, and settlers arrived
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Flood Basalt
A flood basalt is the result of a giant volcanic eruption or series of eruptions that covers large stretches of land or the ocean floor with basalt lava. Flood basalt
Flood basalt
provinces such as the Deccan Traps
Deccan Traps
of India are often called traps, after the Swedish word trappa (meaning "stairs"), due to the characteristic stairstep geomorphology of many associated landscapes. Michael Rampino and Richard Stothers (1988) cited eleven distinct flood basalt episodes occurring in the past 250 million years, creating large volcanic provinces, plateaus, and mountain ranges.[1] However, more have been recognized such as the large Ontong Java Plateau,[2] and the Chilcotin Group, though the latter may be linked to the Columbia River Basalt
Basalt
Group
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Subaerial
In natural science, subaerial (literally "under the air"), has been used since 1833,[1] notably in geology and botany, to describe events or features that are formed, located, or taking place immediately on or near the Earth's land surface.[1] They are thus exposed to Earth's atmosphere
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Sea Level
Mean
Mean
sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured. MSL is a type of vertical datum – a standardised geodetic reference point – that is used, for example, as a chart datum in cartography and marine navigation, or, in aviation, as the standard sea level at which atmospheric pressure is measured to calibrate altitude and, consequently, aircraft flight levels. A common and relatively straightforward mean sea-level standard is the midpoint between a mean low and mean high tide at a particular location.[1] Sea
Sea
levels can be affected by many factors and are known to have varied greatly over geological time scales
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Mount Everest
Mount Everest, known in Nepali as Sagarmāthā and in Tibetan as Chomolungma, is Earth's highest mountain above sea level, located in the Mahalangur Himal
Mahalangur Himal
sub-range of the Himalayas. The international border between China
China
( Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region) and Nepal
Nepal
(Province No. 1) runs across its summit point. The current official elevation of 8,848 m (29,029 ft), recognised by China
China
and Nepal, was established by a 1955 Indian survey and subsequently confirmed by a Chinese survey in 1975.[1] In 2005, China
China
remeasured the rock height of the mountain, with a result of 8844.43 m. There followed an argument between China
China
and Nepal
Nepal
as to whether the official height should be the rock height (8,844 m., China) or the snow height (8,848 m., Nepal)
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Tephra
Tephra
Tephra
is fragmental material produced by a volcanic eruption regardless of composition, fragment size or emplacement mechanism.[1] Tephra
Tephra
horizons in south-central Iceland. The thick and light coloured layer at the centre of the photo is rhyolitic tephra from Hekla.Volcanologists also refer to airborne fragments as pyroclasts. Once clasts have fallen to the ground they remain as tephra unless hot enough to fuse together into pyroclastic rock or tuff.A 2007 eruptive plume at Mount Etna
Mount Etna
producing volcanic ash, pumice and lava bombs.Contents1 Overview 2 Classification 3 Etymology 4 Notes 5 External linksOverview[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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University Of Houston
The University of Houston
Houston
(UH) is a state research university and the flagship institution of the University of Houston
Houston
System.[6] Founded in 1927, UH is the third-largest university in Texas
Texas
with nearly 44,000 students.[4] Its campus spans 667 acres in southeast Houston, and was known as University of Houston–University Park from 1983 to 1991.[7][8] The Carnegie Foundation classifies UH as a doctoral degree-granting institution with "highest research activity."[9][10][11] The U.S. News & World Report ranks the university No. 192 in its National University Rankings, and No
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William Sager
William W. Sager (born August 22, 1954, in Washington, DC) is a marine geophysicist from the University of Houston. Before joining the Houston faculty in 2013, he held the Jane and R. Ken Williams ’45 Chair in Ocean Drilling Science at Texas A&M University from 2003 to 2012.[1] He is best known for his discovery of Tamu Massif—the largest volcano on Earth. Sager began studying Tamu Massif near the end of the 1990s at the Texas A&M College of Geosciences. He and his team published their findings in the September 2013 issue of Nature Geoscience.[2] Sager did his undergraduate studies in physics at Duke University, graduating magna cum laude in 1976. He went on to graduate studies at the University of Hawaii, finishing his doctorate in marine geophysics in 1983
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Volcanic Crater
A volcanic crater is a roughly circular depression in the ground caused by volcanic activity.[1] It is typically a bowl-shaped feature within which occurs a vent or vents. During volcanic eruptions, molten magma and volcanic gases rise from an underground magma chamber, through a tube-shaped conduit, until they reach the crater's vent, from where the gases escape into the atmosphere and the magma is erupted as lava. A volcanic crater can be of large dimensions, and sometimes of great depth. During certain types of explosive eruptions, a volcano's magma chamber may empty enough for an area above it to subside, forming a type of larger depression known as a caldera. Geomorphology[edit] In most volcanoes, the crater is situated at the top of a mountain formed from the erupted volcanic deposits such as lava flows and tephra. Volcanoes that terminate in such a summit crater are usually of a conical form
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Lava Lake
Lava lakes are large volumes of molten lava, usually basaltic, contained in a volcanic vent, crater, or broad depression
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Fumarole
A fumarole (or fumerole - the word ultimately comes from the Latin fumus, "smoke") is an opening in a planet's crust, often in areas surrounding volcanoes, which emits steam and gases such as carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen sulfide. The steam forms when superheated water condenses as its pressure drops when it emerges from the ground. The name solfatara, from the Italian solfo, "sulfur" (via the Sicilian language
Sicilian language
- compare to the volcano Solfatara), is given to fumaroles that emit sulfurous gases. Fumaroles may occur along tiny cracks or long fissures, in chaotic clusters or fields, and on the surfaces of lava flows and of thick deposits of pyroclastic flows
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