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Sherwood Forest
SHERWOOD FOREST is a royal forest in Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
, England
England
, famous by its historic association with the legend of Robin Hood
Robin Hood
. The area has been wooded since the end of the Ice Age
Ice Age
(as attested by pollen sampling cores ). Today, Sherwood Forest
Sherwood Forest
National Nature Reserve encompasses 423.2 hectares, 1,045 acres (4.23 km2), surrounding the village of Edwinstowe , the site of Thoresby Hall
Thoresby Hall
. The forest that most people associate with Sherwood Forest
Sherwood Forest
is actually named Birklands and Bilhaugh
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Jousting
JOUSTING is a martial game or hastilude between two horsemen wielding lances with blunted tips, often as part of a tournament . The primary aim was to replicate a clash of heavy cavalry , with each participant trying hard to strike the opponent while riding towards him at high speed, if possible breaking the lance on the opponent's shield or jousting armour , or unhorsing him. The joust became an iconic characteristic of the knight in Romantic medievalism . The participants experience close to three and a quarter times their body weight in G-forces when the lances collide with their armor. The term is derived from Old French joster, ultimately from Latin iuxtare "to approach, to meet". The word was loaned into Middle English around 1300, when jousting was a very popular sport among the Anglo-Norman knighthood. The synonym TILT dates ca. 1510
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Jester
A JESTER, COURT JESTER, or FOOL, was historically an entertainer during the medieval and Renaissance
Renaissance
eras who was a member of the household of a nobleman or a monarch employed to entertain him and his guests. A jester was also an itinerant performer who entertained common folk at fairs and markets. Jesters are also modern-day entertainers who resemble their historical counterparts. Jesters in medieval times are often thought to have worn brightly coloured clothes and eccentric hats in a motley pattern and their modern counterparts usually mimic this costume. In medieval times jesters entertained with a wide variety of skills: principal ones included songs, music, and storytelling ; additional ones included acrobatics , juggling , telling jokes , and magic tricks . Much of the entertainment was performed in a comic style and many jesters made contemporary jokes in word or song about people or events well known to their audiences
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Rat-catcher
A RAT-CATCHER is person who practices rat-catching, the occupation of catching rats as a form of pest control . In developed countries the role may be merged with, or the title inflated to, pest control operative or pest technician . Keeping the rat population under control was practiced in Europe to prevent the spread of diseases to man, most notoriously the Black Plague , and to prevent damage to food supplies. Anecdotal reports suggest that some rat-catchers in Europe would raise rats instead of catching them in order to increase their eventual payment from the town or city they were employed by. This, and the practice of rat-fights, could have led to rat-breeding and the adoption of the rat as a pet—the fancy rat . A famous rat-catcher from Victorian England was Jack Black , who is known through Henry Mayhew 's interview for London Labour and the London Poor
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Alchemy
ALCHEMY is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe
Europe
, Africa
Africa
and Asia
Asia
. It aimed to purify, mature, and perfect certain objects. Common aims were chrysopoeia , the transmutation of "base metals " (e.g., lead ) into "noble metals " (particularly gold ); the creation of an elixir of immortality ; the creation of panaceas able to cure any disease; and the development of an alkahest , a universal solvent . The perfection of the human body and soul was thought to permit or result from the alchemical magnum opus and, in the Hellenistic and western tradition, the achievement of gnosis . In Europe, the creation of a philosopher\'s stone was variously connected with all of these projects
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River Idle
The RIVER IDLE is a river in Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
, England. Its source is the confluence of the River Maun
River Maun
and River Meden , near Markham Moor . From there, it flows north through Retford
Retford
and Bawtry before entering the River Trent
River Trent
at Stockwith near Misterton . The county boundary with South Yorkshire
South Yorkshire
follows the river for a short distance near Bawtry, and the border with Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
does the same at Idle Stop. Originally, it flowed northwards from Idle Stop to meet the River
River
Don on Hatfield Chase , but was diverted eastwards by drainage engineers in 1628
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Dukeries
THE DUKERIES is an area of the county of Nottinghamshire so called because it contained four ducal seats. It is south of Worksop , which has been called its "gateway". The ducal seats were: * Worksop Manor : a home of the Dukes of Norfolk , and nearest to Worksop; * Welbeck Abbey : seat of the Dukes of Portland and * Thoresby Hall : seat of the Dukes of Kingston (later of the Earls Manvers ); * Clumber House : seat of the Dukes of Newcastle A fifth large country house , Rufford Abbey in this area belonged to the 2nd to 8th Savile baronets , their later-to-be ennobled heirs (with the territorial designation of Halifax), then from 1888 until 1938 to 1st to 3rd Lords Savile . Welbeck Woodhouse is a further notable mansion, in the former park (grounds) of Welbeck Abbey and was built by Lord Portland in the 1930s
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English Nature
ENGLISH NATURE was the United Kingdom government agency that promoted the conservation of wildlife , geology and wild places throughout England between 1990 and 2006. It was a non-departmental public body funded by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) and gave statutory advice, grants and issued licences. The Nature Conservancy Council (NCC) (formerly the Nature Conservancy) was established by the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949 to cover nature conservation issues across the whole of Great Britain
Great Britain
. The NCC was split into four by the Environmental Protection Act 1990 —its English duties being given to English Nature. In Scotland, its functions were merged with those of the Countryside Commission for Scotland to form Scottish Natural Heritage , and similarly in Wales there was a merger to form the Countryside Council for Wales
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Natural England
NATURAL ENGLAND is a non-departmental public body in the United Kingdom sponsored by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs . It is responsible for ensuring that England
England
's natural environment, including its land, flora and fauna , freshwater and marine environments , geology and soils, are protected and improved. It also has a responsibility to help people enjoy, understand and access the natural environment
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Hectare
The HECTARE (/ˈhɛktɛər/ or /ˈhɛktɑːr/ ; symbol: ha) is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to 100 ares (10,000 m2) and primarily used in the measurement of land as a metric replacement for the imperial acre . An acre is about 0.405 hectare and one hectare contains about 2.47 acres. In 1795, when the metric system was introduced, the "are" was defined as 100 square metres and the hectare ("hecto- " + "are") was thus 100 "ares" or  1⁄100 km2. When the metric system was further rationalised in 1960, resulting in the International System of Units (SI), the are was not included as a recognised unit. The hectare, however, remains as a non-SI unit accepted for use with the SI units, mentioned in Section 4.1 of the SI Brochure as a unit whose use is "expected to continue indefinitely"
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Fire Eating
FIRE EATING is the act of putting a flaming object into the mouth and extinguishing it. A FIRE EATER can be an entertainer , a street performer , part of a sideshow or a circus act but has also been part of spiritual tradition in India
India
. CONTENTS * 1 Physics
Physics
* 2 History and hazards * 3 Famous fire eaters * 4 Guinness World Records * 5 Fire-eating tricks * 5.1 Vapor tricks * 5.2 Transfers * 5.3 Extinguishes * 5.4 Others * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links PHYSICS Fire eating
Fire eating
relies on the quick extinction of the fire in the mouth or on the touched surfaces and on the short term cooling effects of water evaporation at the surface on the source of fire (usually with a low percentage of alcohol mixed in the water) or saliva in the mouth. This allows for igniting a damp handkerchief or a bill of money without it burning
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Folklore
FOLKLORE is expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group. These include oral traditions such as tales , proverbs and jokes . They include material culture , ranging from traditional building styles to handmade toys common to the group. Folklore
Folklore
also includes customary lore , the forms and rituals of celebrations such as Christmas
Christmas
and weddings, folk dances and initiation rites. Each one of these, either singly or in combination, is considered a folklore artifact . Just as essential as the form, folklore also encompasses the transmission of these artifacts from one region to another or from one generation to the next
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Anglo Saxon
The ANGLO-SAXONS were a people who inhabited Great Britain
Great Britain
from the 5th century . They comprise people from Germanic tribes
Germanic tribes
who migrated to the island from continental Europe
Europe
, their descendants, and indigenous British groups who adopted some aspects of Anglo-Saxon culture and language. Historically, the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
period denotes the period in Britain between about 450 and 1066, after their initial settlement and up until the Norman conquest . The early Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
period includes the creation of an English nation , with many of the aspects that survive today, including regional government of shires and hundreds . During this period, Christianity was established and there was a flowering of literature and language. Charters and law were also established
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Mercia
MERCIA ( Old English
Old English
: Miercna rīce) was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
Heptarchy
Heptarchy
. The name is a Latinisation of the Old English Mierce or Myrce, meaning "border people" (see March ). The kingdom was centred on the valley of the River Trent
River Trent
and its tributaries, in the region now known as the English Midlands
English Midlands
. The kingdom's "capital" was the town of Tamworth , which was the seat of the Mercian Kings from at least around AD 584, when King Creoda built a fortress at the town
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Northumbria
The KINGDOM OF NORTHUMBRIA (/nɔːrˈθʌmbriə/ ; Old English : Norþhymbra rīce, "kingdom of the Northumbrians") was a medieval Anglian kingdom in what is now northern England and south-east Scotland
Scotland
, which subsequently became an earldom in a unified English kingdom . The name reflects the approximate southern limit to the kingdom's territory, the Humber
Humber
estuary . Northumbria
Northumbria
was formed by Æthelfrith in central Great Britain in Anglo-Saxon times. At the beginning of the 7th century, the two kingdoms of Bernicia and Deira were unified. (In the 12th century writings of Henry of Huntingdon , the kingdom was defined as one of the Heptarchy
Heptarchy
of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms)
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English Heritage
ENGLISH HERITAGE (officially the ENGLISH HERITAGE TRUST) is a registered charity that manages the National Heritage Collection. This comprises over 400 of England's historic buildings, monuments and sites spanning more than 5,000 years of history. Within its portfolio are Stonehenge
Stonehenge
, Dover Castle , Tintagel Castle and the best preserved parts of Hadrian\'s Wall . English Heritage
English Heritage
also manages the London Blue Plaques scheme, which links influential historical figures to particular buildings. When originally formed in 1983, English Heritage
English Heritage
was the operating name of an executive non-departmental public body of the British Government , officially titled the Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission for England, that ran the national system of heritage protection and managed a range of historic properties
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