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Sherwood Forest
Sherwood Forest
Sherwood Forest
is a royal forest in Nottinghamshire, England, famous by its historic association with the legend of Robin Hood. The area has been wooded since the end of the Ice Age
Ice Age
(as attested by pollen sampling cores). Today, Sherwood Forest
Sherwood Forest
National Nature Reserve encompasses 423.2 hectares,[1] 1,045 acres (4.23 km2), surrounding the village of Edwinstowe, the site of Thoresby Hall. The forest that most people associate with Sherwood Forest
Sherwood Forest
is actually named Birklands and Bilhaugh. It is a remnant of an older, much larger, royal hunting forest, which derived its name from its status as the shire (or sher) wood of Nottinghamshire, which extended into several neighbouring counties (shires), bordered on the west along the River Erewash
River Erewash
and the Forest of East Derbyshire
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English Heritage
English Heritage
English Heritage
(officially the English Heritage
English Heritage
Trust) is a registered charity that manages the National Heritage Collection.[3] This comprises over 400 of England's historic buildings, monuments and sites spanning more than 5,000 years of history. Within its portfolio are Stonehenge, Dover Castle, Tintagel Castle
Tintagel Castle
and the best preserved parts of Hadrian's Wall
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Fire Eating
Fire eating
Fire eating
is the act of putting a flaming object into the mouth and extinguishing it. A fire eater can be an entertainer, a street performer, part of a sideshow or a circus act but has also been part of spiritual tradition in India.Contents1 Physics 2 History and hazards 3 Famous fire eaters 4 Guinness World Records 5 Fire-eating tricks5.1 Vapor tricks 5.2 Transfers 5.3 Extinguishes 5.4 Others6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksPhysics[edit] Fire eating
Fire eating
relies on the quick extinction of the fire in the mouth or on the touched surfaces and on the short term cooling effects of water evaporation at the surface on the source of fire (usually with a low percentage of alcohol mixed in the water) or saliva in the mouth. This allows for igniting a damp handkerchief or a bill of money without it burning. Closing the mouth, or covering it with a slap of the hand cuts off the oxygen to the fire
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Hectare
The hectare (/ˈhɛktɛər, -tɑːr/; SI symbol: ha) is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to 100 ares (10,000 m2) or 1 square hectometre (hm2) and primarily used in the measurement of land as a metric replacement for the imperial acre.[1] An acre is about 0.405 hectare and one hectare contains about 2.47 acres. In 1795, when the metric system was introduced, the "are" was defined as 100 square metres and the hectare ("hecto-" + "are") was thus 100 "ares" or ​1⁄100 km2. When the metric system was further rationalised in 1960, resulting in the International System of Units (SI), the are was not included as a recognised unit
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Birch
A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula (/ˈbɛtjʊlə/),[2] in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams. It is closely related to the beech-oak family Fagaceae. The genus Betula contains 30 to 60 known taxa of which 11 are on the IUCN 2011 Green List of Threatened Species. They are a typically rather short-lived pioneer species widespread in the Northern Hemisphere, particularly in northern areas of temperate climates and in boreal climates.[3]Contents1 Description1.1 Flower and fruit2 Taxonomy2.1 Subdivision 2.2 Etymology3 Ecology 4 Uses4.1 Cultivation 4.2 Medical 4.3 Paper 4.4 Tonewood5 Culture 6 See also 7 References 8 Sources 9 External linksDescription[edit]The front and rear sides of a piece of birch bark Birch
Birch
species are generally small to medium-sized trees or shrubs, mostly of northern temperate and boreal climates
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Dukeries
The Dukeries is an area of the county of Nottinghamshire so called because it contained four ducal seats. It is south of Worksop, which has been called its "gateway". The ducal seats were:Worksop Manor: a home of the Dukes of Norfolk, and nearest to Worksop; Welbeck Abbey: seat of the Dukes of Portland and Thoresby Hall: seat of the Dukes of Kingston (later of the Earls Manvers); Clumber House: seat of the Dukes of NewcastleA fifth large country house, Rufford Abbey in this area belonged to the 2nd to 8th Savile baronets, their later-to-be ennobled heirs (with the territorial designation of Halifax), then from 1888 until 1938 to 1st to 3rd Lords Savile
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River Idle
The River
River
Idle is a river in Nottinghamshire, England. Its source is the confluence of the River Maun
River Maun
and River
River
Meden, near Markham Moor. From there, it flows north through Retford
Retford
and Bawtry
Bawtry
before entering the River Trent
River Trent
at Stockwith near Misterton. The county boundary with South Yorkshire
South Yorkshire
follows the river for a short distance near Bawtry, and the border with Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
does the same at Idle Stop. Originally, it flowed northwards from Idle Stop to meet the River
River
Don on Hatfield Chase, but was diverted eastwards by drainage engineers in 1628. Most of the land surrounding the river is a broad flood plain
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Jousting
Jousting
Jousting
is a martial game or hastilude between two horsemen wielding lances with blunted tips, often as part of a tournament. The primary aim was to replicate a clash of heavy cavalry, with each participant trying hard to strike the opponent while riding towards him at high speed, if possible breaking the lance on the opponent's shield or jousting armour, or unhorsing him. The joust became an iconic characteristic of the knight in Romantic medievalism. The participants experience close to three and a quarter times their body weight in G-forces when the lances collide with their armor.[1] The term is derived from Old French joster, ultimately from Latin iuxtare "to approach, to meet". The word was loaned into Middle English around 1300, when jousting was a very popular sport among the Anglo-Norman knighthood. The synonym tilt dates ca
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Jester
A jester, court jester, or fool, was historically an entertainer during the medieval and Renaissance
Renaissance
eras who was a member of the household of a nobleman or a monarch employed to entertain him and his guests. A jester was also an itinerant performer who entertained common folk at fairs and markets. Jesters are also modern-day entertainers who resemble their historical counterparts. Jesters in medieval times are often thought to have worn brightly coloured clothes and eccentric hats in a motley pattern and their modern counterparts usually mimic this costume. Jesters entertained with a wide variety of skills: principal among them were song, music, and storytelling, but many also employed acrobatics, juggling, telling jokes, and magic tricks
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Rat-catcher
A rat-catcher is a person who practices rat-catching as a professional form of pest control. Keeping the rat population under control was practiced in Europe to prevent the spread of diseases, most notoriously the Black Plague, and to prevent damage to food supplies. In modern developed countries, such a professional is otherwise known as a pest control operative or pest technician.Contents1 Anecdotal history 2 Techniques2.1 Ratters 2.2 Conditions and risks3 Rat-catchers in art 4 Rat-catchers in fiction4.1 Folklore 4.2 Comics 4.3 Film 4.4 Television 4.5 Literature5 See also 6 References 7 External linksAnecdotal history[edit]This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Alchemy
Alchemy
Alchemy
is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa
Africa
and Asia. It aimed to purify, mature, and perfect certain objects.[1][2][n 1] Common aims were chrysopoeia, the transmutation of "base metals" (e.g., lead) into "noble metals" (particularly gold); the creation of an elixir of immortality; the creation of panaceas able to cure any disease; and the development of an alkahest, a universal solvent.[3] The perfection of the human body and soul was thought to permit or result from the alchemical magnum opus and, in the Hellenistic and western tradition, the achievement of gnosis.[2] In Europe, the creation of a philosopher's stone was variously connected with all of these projects. In English, the term is often limited to descriptions of European alchemy, but similar practices existed in the Far East, the Indian subcontinent, and the Muslim world
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Folklore
Folklore
Folklore
is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group. These include oral traditions such as tales, proverbs and jokes. They include material culture, ranging from traditional building styles to handmade toys common to the group. Folklore
Folklore
also includes customary lore, the forms and rituals of celebrations such as Christmas
Christmas
and weddings, folk dances and initiation rites. Each one of these, either singly or in combination, is considered a folklore artifact. Just as essential as the form, folklore also encompasses the transmission of these artifacts from one region to another or from one generation to the next
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English Nature
English Nature was the United Kingdom government agency that promoted the conservation of wildlife, geology and wild places throughout England between 1990 and 2006. It was a non-departmental public body funded by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) and gave statutory advice, grants and issued licences. The Nature Conservancy Council
Nature Conservancy Council
(NCC) (formerly the Nature Conservancy) was established by the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949 to cover nature conservation issues across the whole of Great Britain. The NCC was split into four by the Environmental Protection Act 1990—its English duties being given to English Nature. In Scotland, its functions were merged with those of the Countryside Commission for Scotland to form Scottish Natural Heritage, and similarly in Wales there was a merger to form the Countryside Council for Wales
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Victorian Era
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era
Victorian era
was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. The era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period, and its later half overlaps with the first part of the Belle Époque
Belle Époque
era of continental Europe. Defined according to sensibilities and political concerns, the period is sometimes considered to begin with the passage of the Reform Act 1832
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Cutting (plant)
A plant cutting is a piece of a plant that is used in horticulture for vegetative (asexual) propagation. A piece of the stem or root of the source plant is placed in a suitable medium such as moist soil. If the conditions are suitable, the plant piece will begin to grow as a new plant independent of the parent, a process known as striking. A stem cutting produces new roots, and a root cutting produces new stems. Some plants can be grown from leaf pieces, called leaf cuttings, which produce both stems and roots. The scions used in grafting are also called cuttings.Contents1 Technique 2 Types 3 Improving results3.1 Providing the right soil 3.2 Providing the right humidity4 See also 5 References 6 External linksTechnique[edit]Softwood cuttings of elm (Ulmus) are kept under a water mist to prevent them from drying out while they form roots.Cuttings from a variety of succulents.Some plants form roots much more easily than others
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Cloning
In biology, cloning is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects, plants or animals reproduce asexually. Cloning
Cloning
in biotechnology refers to processes used to create copies of DNA
DNA
fragments (molecular cloning), cells (cell cloning), or organisms (organism cloning). The term also refers to the production of multiple copies of a product such as digital media or software. The term clone, invented by J. B. S. Haldane, is derived from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word κλών klōn, "twig", referring to the process whereby a new plant can be created from a twig
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