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Shepherdia Canadensis
SHEPHERDIA CANADENSIS, commonly called CANADA BUFFALOBERRY, RUSSET BUFFALOBERRY, SOOPOLALLIE, SOAPBERRY, or FOAMBERRY (Ktunaxa : kupaʔtiǂ, ) is one of a small number of shrubs of the genus Shepherdia that bears edible berries . The fruit is usually red, but one species has yellow berries . The berries have a bitter taste. The species is widespread in all of Canada
Canada
, except in Prince Edward Island , and in the western and northern United States
United States
, including Alaska
Alaska
and Idaho
Idaho
. The plant is a deciduous shrub of open woodlands and thickets, growing to a maximum of 1–4 m (3.3–13.1 ft). CONTENTS * 1 Harvest and consumption * 2 Etymology of "soopolallie" * 3 Gallery * 4 References * 5 External links HARVEST AND CONSUMPTIONSome Canadian First Nations peoples such as Nlaka\'pamux (Thompson), St\'at\'imc (Lillooet), and Secwepemc (Shuswap) in the Province of British Columbia extensively collect the berries
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις _(taxis )_, meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία _(-nomia)_, meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms. With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics , cladistics , and systematics , the Linnaean system has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct
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Plant
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. The term is today generally limited to the GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade VIRIDIPLANTAE (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations , although asexual reproduction is also common. There are about 300–315 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants (see the table below ). Green plants provide most of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecologies, especially on land
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Flowering Plant
sweet bay SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION Kingdom: Plantae Subkingdom: Embryophyta (unranked): Spermatophyta (unranked): ANGIOSPERMS GROUPS (APG IV) Basal angiosperms * Amborellales * Nymphaeales * Austrobaileyales Core angiosperms * magnoliids * Chloranthales * monocots * Ceratophyllales * eudicots SYNONYMS * Anthophyta Cronquist * Angiospermae Lindl. * Magnoliophyta Cronquist , Takht. they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers , endosperm within the seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant that produces seeds within an enclosure, in other words, a fruiting plant. The term "angiosperm" comes from the Greek composite word (_angeion_, "case" or "casing", and _sperma_, "seed") meaning "enclosed seeds", after the enclosed condition of the seeds. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period , during the range 245 to 202 million years ago (mya), and the first flowering plants are known from 160 mya. They diversified extensively during the Lower Cretaceous , became widespread by 120 mya, and replaced conifers as the dominant trees from 100 to 60 mya
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Eudicots
The EUDICOTS, EUDICOTIDAE or EUDICOTYLEDONS are a monophyletic clade of flowering plants that had been called TRICOLPATES or NON-MAGNOLIID DICOTS by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the later evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots. The close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was initially seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters . These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis. Later molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits. The term means "true dicotyledons", as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicots and have characteristics of the dicots. The term "eudicots" has subsequently been widely adopted in botany to refer to one of the two largest clades of angiosperms (constituting over 70% of the angiosperm species), monocots being the other. The remaining angiosperms are sometimes referred to as basal angiosperms or paleodicots, but these terms have not been widely or consistently adopted, as they do not refer to a monophyletic group. The other name for the eudicots is TRICOLPATES, a name which refers to the grooved structure of the pollen
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Rosids
The ROSIDS are members of a large clade (monophyletic group) of flowering plants , containing about 70,000 species , more than a quarter of all angiosperms. The clade is divided into 16 to 20 orders , depending upon circumscription and classification . These orders, in turn, together comprise about 140 families . Fossil rosids are known from the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period. Molecular clock estimates indicate that the rosids originated in the Aptian or Albian stages of the Cretaceous, between 125 and 99.6 million years ago. CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 Relationships * 3 Classification * 3.1 Orders * 4 Phylogeny
Phylogeny
* 5 References * 6 External links NAMEThe name is based upon the name " Rosidae ", which had usually been understood to be a subclass. In 1967, Armen Takhtajan
Armen Takhtajan
showed that the correct basis for the name "Rosidae" is a description of a group of plants published in 1830 by Friedrich Gottlieb Bartling
Friedrich Gottlieb Bartling
. The clade was later renamed "Rosidae" and has been variously delimited by different authors. The name "rosids" is informal and not assumed to have any particular taxonomic rank like the names authorized by the ICBN . The rosids are monophyletic based upon evidence found by molecular phylogenetic analysis. Three different definitions of the rosids were used
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Rosales
Barbeyaceae Cannabaceae (hemp family) Dirachmaceae Elaeagnaceae (oleaster / Russian olive family) Moraceae (mulberry family) Rhamnaceae (buckthorn family) Rosaceae (rose family) Ulmaceae (elm family) Urticaceae (nettle family) SYNONYMS Rhamnales Rosanae Urticales ROSALES is an order of flowering plants . It is sister to a clade consisting of Fagales and Cucurbitales . It contains about 7700 species , distributed into about 260 genera . Rosales comprise nine families , the type family being the rose family, Rosaceae . The largest of these families are Rosaceae (90/2500) and Urticaceae (54/2600). The order Rosales is divided into three clades that have never been assigned a taxonomic rank . The basal clade consists of the family Rosaceae; another clade consists of four families, including Rhamnaceae; and the third clade consists of the four urticalean families. The order Rosales is strongly supported as monophyletic in phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences , such as those carried out by members of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group . In their APG III system of plant classification , they defined Rosales as consisting of the nine families listed in the box on the right
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Elaeagnaceae
The ELAEAGNACEAE are a plant family , the OLEASTER FAMILY, of the order Rosales comprising small trees and shrubs , native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, south into tropical Asia and Australia. The family has about 60 species in three genera. They are commonly thorny , with simple leaves often coated with tiny scales or hairs. Most of the species are xerophytes (found in dry habitats ); several are also halophytes , tolerating high levels of soil salinity . The Elaeagnaceae
Elaeagnaceae
often harbor nitrogen-fixing actinomycetes of the genus Frankia in root nodules , making them useful for soil reclamation. This characteristic, together with their production of plentiful seeds, often results in the Eleagnaceae being viewed as weeds. PHYLOGENYModern molecular phylogenetics suggest the following relationships: Rhamnaceae (outgroup ) Elaeagnaceae Elaeagnus Shepherdia Hippophae REFERENCES * ^ A B Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society (PDF)format= requires url= (help ). 161 (2): 105–121. doi :10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x . * ^ Christenhusz, M. J. M. & Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. Magnolia Press
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Shepherdia
See text SHEPHERDIA, commonly called BUFFALOBERRY or bullberry, is a genus of small shrubs in the Elaeagnaceae family. The plants are native to northern and western North America. They are non-legume nitrogen fixers . CONTENTS * 1 Species * 2 Fruit * 2.1 Wildlife * 2.2 Culinary * 3 References * 4 External links SPECIESThe genus has three species: * Shepherdia argentea — silver buffaloberry * Shepherdia canadensis — Canada buffaloberry * Shepherdia rotundifolia — roundleaf buffaloberry, endemic to southern Utah and northern Arizona
Arizona
FRUITThe berry is recognizable by being a dark shade of red, with little white dots on them. They are rough to the touch, and are found on both trees and shrubs. WILDLIFEThe plants have rather bitter-tasting berries. The fruit are often eaten by bears , which by legend, prefer the berries to maintain fat stores during hibernation . Buffaloberries are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including Ectropis crepuscularia (recorded from S. canadensis) and Coleophora elaeagnisella . CULINARYBuffaloberries are sour and can be made into jam, pie, jelly, syrup, soups, or prepared like cranberry sauce with sugar added. REFERENCES * ^ "Shepherdia". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA
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Binomial Nomenclature
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE (also called BINOMINAL NOMENCLATURE or BINARY NOMENCLATURE) is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms , although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a BINOMIAL NAME (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a BINOMEN, BINOMINAL NAME or a SCIENTIFIC NAME; more informally it is also called a LATIN NAME. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus _ Homo _ and within this genus to the species _ Homo sapiens _. The _formal_ introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus , effectively beginning with his work _ Species Plantarum _ in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin , in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book _Pinax theatri botanici_ (English, _Illustrated exposition of plants_) many names of genera that were later adopted by Linnaeus. The application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the _ International Code of Zoological Nomenclature _ (_ICZN_) for animals and the _International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants _ (_ICN_)
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Carl Linnaeus
CARL LINNAEUS (/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/ ; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as CARL VON LINNé (Swedish pronunciation: ( listen )), was a Swedish botanist , physician , and zoologist , who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature . He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin , and his name is rendered in Latin as CAROLUS LINNæUS (after 1761 CAROLUS A LINNé). Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland , in southern Sweden . He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University , and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published a first edition of his _ Systema Naturae _ in the Netherlands. He then returned to Sweden, where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala . In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to collect and classify animals, plants, and minerals, and published several volumes. At the time of his death, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe
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Thomas Nuttall
THOMAS NUTTALL (5 January 1786 – 10 September 1859) was an English botanist and zoologist who lived and worked in America from 1808 until 1841. Nuttall was born in the village of Long Preston , near Settle in the West Riding of Yorkshire and spent some years as an apprentice printer in England. Soon after going to the United States he met Professor Benjamin Smith Barton in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
. Barton encouraged his strong interest in natural history. CONTENTS * 1 The Genera of North American Plants * 2 Manual of the Ornithology of the United States and of Canada * 3 Named after him * 4 Named by him * 5 References * 6 External links THE GENERA OF NORTH AMERICAN PLANTSIn 1810 he travelled to the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
and in 1811 travelled on the Astor Expedition led by William Price Hunt on behalf of John Jacob Astor up the Missouri River . Nuttall was accompanied by the English botanist John Bradbury , who was collecting plants on behalf of Liverpool
Liverpool
botanical gardens. Nuttall and Bradbury left the party at the trading post with the Arikara Indians in South Dakota
South Dakota
, and continued farther upriver with Ramsay Crooks . In August they returned to the Arikara post and joined Manuel Lisa 's group on a return to St. Louis
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature , a SYNONYM is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce , which he called _Pinus abies_. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is _Picea abies_. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription , position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature ). A synonym cannot exist in isolation: it is always an alternative to a different scientific name. Given that the correct name of a taxon depends on the taxonomic viewpoint used (resulting in a particular circumscription, position and rank) a name that is one taxonomist's synonym may be another taxonomist's correct name (and _vice versa_). Synonyms may arise whenever the same taxon is described and named more than once, independently
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Kutenai Language
The KUTENAI LANGUAGE (English: /ˈkuːtəneɪ, -tneɪ, -ni/ ), also KOOTENAI, KOOTENAY and KTUNAXA, is named after and is spoken by some of the Kutenai people Native American / First Nations , indigenous to the area of North America
North America
that is now Montana
Montana
and Idaho
Idaho
, United States, and British Columbia , Canada. It is a language isolate, unrelated to the Salishan family of languages spoken by neighboring tribes on the coast and in the interior Plateau. Alongside, they also speak ʾa·qanⱡiⱡⱡitnam ' Ktunaxa
Ktunaxa
Sign Language'. CONTENTS * 1 Classification * 2 Typology * 3 Current status * 4 History of description * 5 Sounds * 5.1 Consonant phonemes * 5.2 Vowel
Vowel
phonemes * 6 Grammar * 6.1 Syntax * 6.1.1 Word order * 6.1.2 Inverse * 6.1.3 Clause typing * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Bibliography * 10 External links * 10.1 Ktunaxa
Ktunaxa
language learning resources CLASSIFICATIONKutenai is a language isolate . There have been attempts to place Kutenai in either a Macro-Algonquian or Macro-Salishan language family, most recently with Salish, but they have not been generally accepted as proven. TYPOLOGYLike other languages in the area, Kutenai has a rich inventory of consonants and a small inventory of vowels
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Berry (botany)
In botany , a BERRY is a fleshy fruit without a stone produced from a single flower containing one ovary . Berries so defined include grapes , currants , and tomatoes , as well as cucumbers , eggplants (aubergines) and bananas , but exclude certain fruits commonly called berries, such as strawberries and raspberries . The berry is the most common type of fleshy fruit in which the entire outer layer of the ovary wall ripens into a potentially edible "pericarp ". Berries may be formed from one or more carpels from the same flower (i.e. from a simple or a compound ovary). The seeds are usually embedded in the fleshy interior of the ovary, but there are some non-fleshy exceptions, such as peppers , with air rather than pulp around their seeds. Many berries are edible, but others, such as the fruits of the potato and the deadly nightshade , are poisonous to humans. Some berries, such as the white and red mulberry , are poisonous when unripe, but are edible in their ripe form. A plant that bears berries is said to be BACCIFEROUS or BACCATE (a fruit that resembles a berry, whether it actually is a berry or not, can also be called "baccate"). In everyday English, a "berry " is any small edible fruit. Berries are usually juicy, round, brightly coloured, sweet or sour , and do not have a stone or pit, although many pips or seeds may be present
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Berry
Japanese barberries * Bilberry * Red currants * Honeysuckle * Gooseberries * Cloudberry * Highbush blueberries * Blackberries Various berries In everyday language, a BERRY is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit . Berries are usually juicy, rounded, brightly colored, sweet or sour, and do not have a stone or pit, although many pips or seeds may be present. Common examples are strawberries , raspberries , blueberries , red currants, and blackcurrants . In Britain, SOFT FRUIT is a horticultural term for such fruits. The scientific usage of the term "berry" differs from common usage. In scientific terminology, a berry is a fruit produced from the ovary of a single flower in which the outer layer of the ovary wall develops into an edible fleshy portion (pericarp ). The definition includes many fruits that are not commonly known as berries, such as grapes , tomatoes , cucumbers , eggplants (aubergines) and bananas . Fruits excluded by the botanical definition include strawberries, raspberries, and blackberries , which are aggregate fruits , and mulberries , which are multiple fruits . A plant bearing berries is said to be _bacciferous_ or _baccate_. While many berries are edible, some are poisonous to humans, such as deadly nightshade and pokeweed
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