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Shenyang
SHENYANG ( ; Chinese : 沈阳), formerly known by its Manchu name MUKDEN or as FENGTIAN (Chinese : 奉天; pinyin : Fèngtiān), is the provincial capital and largest city of Liaoning
Liaoning
Province , People\'s Republic of China
China
, as well as the largest city in Northeast China by urban population. According to the 2010 census, the city's urban area has 6.3 million inhabitants, while the total population of the Shenyang
Shenyang
municipality, which holds the administrative status of a sub-provincial city , is up to 8.1 million. Shenyang's city region includes the ten metropolitan districts of Shenyang
Shenyang
proper, the county-level city of Xinmin , and two counties of Kangping and Faku . In the 17th century, Shenyang
Shenyang
was conquered by the Manchu people and briefly used as the capital of the Qing dynasty
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Chinese Postal Romanization
POSTAL ROMANIZATION was a system of transliterating Chinese place names developed by the Imperial Post Office in the early 1900s. The system was in common use until the 1980s. For major cities and other places that already had widely accepted European names, traditional spellings were retained. With regard to other place names, the post office revised policy several times. Spellings given could reflect the local pronunciation, Nanjing pronunciation, or Beijing
Beijing
pronunciation. Although pronunciation-based arguments were made for each option, using postal romanization to determine any form of Chinese pronunciation was limited by the fact that the system dropped all dashes, diacritics, and apostrophes, to facilitate telegraphic transmission
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Bopomofo
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE * Hieratic 32 c. BCE * Demotic 7 c. BCE * Meroitic 3 c. BCE* Proto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCE * Ugaritic 15 c. BCE* Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE * Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE* Phoenician 12 c. BCE * Paleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCE * Samaritan 6 c. BCE* Libyco-Berber 3 c. BCE * Tifinagh * Paleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE* Aramaic 8 c. BCE * Kharoṣṭhī 4 c. BCE* Brāhmī 4 c. BCE * Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see) * E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE * Hangul
Hangul
(core letters only) 1443* Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CE * Canadian syllabics 1840 * Hebrew 3 c. BCE* Pahlavi 3 c. BCE * Avestan 4 c. CE * Palmyrene 2 c. BCE* Syriac 2 c. BCE * Nabataean 2 c. BCE * Arabic 4 c. CE * N\'Ko 1949 CE* Sogdian 2 c. BCE * Orkhon (old Turkic) 6 c
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Spelling In Gwoyeu Romatzyh
The SPELLING OF GWOYEU ROMATZYH (GR) can be divided into its treatment of initials , finals and tones . GR uses contrasting unvoiced/voiced pairs of consonants to represent aspirated and unaspirated initials in Chinese: for example b and p represent IPA
IPA
and . The letters j, ch and sh represent two different series of initials: the alveolo-palatal and the retroflex sounds. Although these spellings create no ambiguity in practice, readers more familiar with Pinyin
Pinyin
should pay particular attention to them: GR ju, for example, corresponds to Pinyin
Pinyin
zhu, not ju (which is spelled jiu in GR). Many of the finals in GR are similar to those used in other romanizations . Distinctive features of GR include the use of iu for the close front rounded vowel spelled ü or simply u in Pinyin. Final -y represents certain allophones of i: GR shy and sy correspond to Pinyin
Pinyin
shi and si respectively
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Pinus Tabuliformis
PINUS TABULIFORMIS, also called MANCHURIAN RED PINE, SOUTHERN CHINESE PINE or CHINESE RED PINE, is a pine native to northern China from Liaoning
Liaoning
west to Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
and Gansu
Gansu
, and south to Shandong , Henan
Henan
and Shaanxi
Shaanxi
, and also northern Korea
Korea
. In some older texts the name is spelled "Pinus tabulaeformis". CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Uses and cultivation * 3 References * 4 Further reading * 5 External links DESCRIPTION Pinus tabuliformis
Pinus tabuliformis
is a medium-sized evergreen tree 20–30 m tall, with a flat-topped crown when mature (whence the scientific name, 'table-shaped'). The growth rate is fast when young, but slows with age. The grey-brown bark fissures at an early age compared to other trees
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Gross Domestic Product
GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly). Nominal GDP estimates are commonly used to determine the economic performance of a whole country or region, and to make international comparisons. Nominal GDP per capita does not, however, reflect differences in the cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries; therefore using a basis of GDP per capita at purchasing power parity (PPP) is arguably more useful when comparing differences in living standards between nations
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UTC+8
UTC+08:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +08:00. In ISO 8601 the associated time would be written as 2017-08-09T20:35:52+08:00. With an estimated population of 1.708 billion living within the time zone, roughly 24% of the world population, it is the most populous time zone in world, as well as a possible candidate for ASEAN Common Time . This time zone is used in all Chinese-speaking countries, giving international Chinese websites the same time. The southern-half of Vietnam ( Republic of Vietnam ) was formerly part of this time zone prior to the communist takeover of the South on April 30, 1975, making it 1 hour ahead of North Vietnam . After 1975, the whole country came under the North Vietnamese time zone, UTC+07:00
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Telephone Numbering Plan
A TELEPHONE NUMBERING PLAN is a type of numbering scheme used in telecommunication to assign telephone numbers to subscriber telephones or other telephony endpoints. Telephone numbers are the addresses of participants in a telephone network, reachable by a system of destination code routing. Telephone numbering plans are defined in each of administrative regions of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) and they are also present in private telephone networks. Numbering plans may follow a variety of design strategies which have often arisen from the historical evolution of individual telephone networks and local requirements. A broad division is commonly recognized, distinguishing open numbering plans and closed numbering plans. A closed numbering plan imposes a fixed number of digits assigned to every telephone, while an open numbering plan features a variable length of telephone numbers assigned to stations
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Wade–Giles
WADE–GILES (/ˌweɪd ˈdʒaɪlz/ ), sometimes abbreviated WADE, is a Romanization
Romanization
system for Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin Chinese
. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade , during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles 's Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892. Wade–Giles was the system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century, used in standard reference books and in English language books published before 1979. It replaced the Nanking dialect -based romanization systems that had been common until the late 19th century, such as the Postal Romanization
Postal Romanization
(still used in some place-names). In mainland China it has been entirely replaced by the Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
system approved in 1958
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Yale Romanization Of Cantonese
The YALE ROMANIZATION OF CANTONESE was developed by Gerard P. Kok for his and Parker Po-fei Huang's textbook Speak Cantonese
Cantonese
(1958). Unlike the Yale romanization of Mandarin , it is still widely used in books and dictionaries, especially for foreign learners of Cantonese
Cantonese
. It shares some similarities with Hanyu Pinyin
Pinyin
in that unvoiced, unaspirated consonants are represented by letters traditionally used in English and most other European languages to represent voiced sounds. For example, is represented as b in Yale, whereas its aspirated counterpart, is represented as p. Because of this, the Yale romanization is easy for English speakers to pronounce without much training
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Symbols
A SYMBOL is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship. Symbols allow people to go beyond what is known or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different concepts and experiences. All communication (and data processing) is achieved through the use of symbols. Symbols take the form of words, sounds, gestures, ideas or visual images and are used to convey other ideas and beliefs. For example, a red octagon may be a symbol for "STOP". On a map, a blue line might represent a river. Numerals are symbols for numbers . Alphabetic letters may be symbols for sounds. Personal names are symbols representing individuals. A red rose may symbolize love and compassion. The variable 'x', in a mathematical equation, may symbolize the position of a particle in space. In cartography , an organized collection of symbols forms a legend for a map
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Replacement Character
SPECIALS is a short Unicode
Unicode
block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane
Basic Multilingual Plane
, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode
Unicode
10.0: * U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text * U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) * U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block * U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document . * U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character * U+FFFE not a character. * U+FFFF not a character.FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode
Unicode
character at all
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Romanization
ROMANIZATION (also spelled ROMANISATION: see spelling differences ), in linguistics , is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script , or a system for doing so. Methods of romanization include transliteration , for representing written text, and transcription , for representing the spoken word, and combinations of both. Transcription methods can be subdivided into phonemic transcription, which records the phonemes or units of semantic meaning in speech, and more strict phonetic transcription, which records speech sounds with precision
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Manchu Alphabet
The MANCHU ALPHABET is the alphabet used to write the now nearly-extinct Manchu language
Manchu language
; a similar script is used today by the Xibe people, who speak a language variably considered as either a dialect of Manchu
Manchu
or a closely related, mutually intelligible , language. It is written vertically from top to bottom, with columns proceeding from left to right
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Jyutping
JYUTPING (Chinese : 粵拼; Jyutping: Jyut6ping3; Cantonese pronunciation: ) is a romanisation system for Cantonese
Cantonese
developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK), an academic group, in 1993. Its formal name is THE LINGUISTIC SOCIETY OF HONG KONG CANTONESE ROMANISATION SCHEME. The LSHK promotes the use of this romanisation system. The name Jyutping
Jyutping
(itself the Jyutping
Jyutping
romanisation of its Chinese name, 粵拼) is a contraction consisting of the first Chinese characters of the terms Jyut6jyu5 (粵語, meaning " Cantonese
Cantonese
speech") and ping3jam1 (拼音 "phonetic alphabet")
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Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Southern Min Amoy Taiwanese CREATOR Walter Henry Medhurst Elihu Doty John Van Nest Talmage TIME PERIOD 1830s–present CHILD SYSTEMS TLPA Taiwanese Romanization System THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.PE̍H-ōE-Jī (pronounced ( listen ), abbreviated POJ, literally vernacular writing, also known as CHURCH ROMANIZATION) is an orthography used to write variants of Southern Min Chinese, particularly Taiwanese Southern Min and Amoy Hokkien . Developed by Western missionaries working among the Chinese diaspora in Southeast Asia in the 19th century and refined by missionaries working in Xiamen and Tainan , it uses a modified Latin alphabet and some diacritics to represent the spoken language
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