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Shenyang
Shenyang
Shenyang
([ʂə̀n.jǎŋ]; Chinese: 沈阳), formerly known by its Manchu
Manchu
name Mukden or Fengtian (Chinese: 奉天; pinyin: Fèngtiān), is the provincial capital and the largest city of
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Rosa Rugosa
Rosa rugosa
Rosa rugosa
(rugosa rose, beach rose, Japanese rose, or Ramanas rose) is a species of rose native to eastern Asia, in northeastern China, Japan, Korea
Korea
and southeastern Siberia, where it grows on the coast, often on sand dunes.[1] It should not be confused with Rosa multiflora, which is also known as "Japanese rose". The Latin word "rugosa" means "wrinkled."Contents1 Description 2 Cultivation and uses 3 Invasive species 4 Vernacular names 5 References 6 External linksDescription[edit] Rosa rugosa
Rosa rugosa
is a suckering shrub which develops new plants from the roots and forms dense thickets 1–1.50 m tall with stems densely covered in numerous short, straight prickles 3–10 mm long. The leaves are 8–15 cm long, pinnate with 5–9 leaflets, most often 7, each leaflet 3–4 cm long, with a distinctly corrugated (rugose, hence the species' name) surface
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China Standard Time
The time in China
China
follows a single standard time offset of UTC+08:00 (eight hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time), despite China spanning five geographical time zones. The official national standard time is called Beijing
Beijing
Time (Chinese: 北京时间) domestically [1] and China
China
Standard Time (CST) internationally.[2] Daylight saving time has not been observed since 1991.[3] The special administrative regions (SARs) maintain their own time authorities, with standards called Hong Kong Time
Hong Kong Time
(香港時間) and Macau
Macau
Standard Time (澳門標準時間)
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Manchu Alphabet
The Manchu
Manchu
alphabet is the alphabet used to write the now nearly-extinct Manchu
Manchu
language; a similar script is used today by the Xibe people, who speak a language variably considered as either a dialect of Manchu
Manchu
or a closely related, mutually intelligible, language
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Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Southern MinAmoy TaiwaneseCreator Walter Henry Medhurst Elihu Doty John Van Nest TalmageTime periodsince the 1830sParent systemsEgyptian hieroglyphsProto-SinaiticPhoenician alphabetGreek alphabetLatin alphabetPe̍h-ōe-jīChild systemsTLPA Taiwanese Romanization SystemThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
(pronounced [peʔ˩ ue˩ dzi˨] ( listen), abbreviated POJ, literally vernacular writing, also known as Church Romanization) is an orthography used to write variants of Southern Min
Southern Min
Chinese, particularly Taiwanese Southern Min
Southern Min
and Amoy Hokkien
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Jyutping
Jyutping
Jyutping
(Chinese: 粵拼; Jyutping: Jyut6ping3; Cantonese pronunciation: [jỳːt̚.pʰēŋ]) is a romanisation system for Cantonese
Cantonese
developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK), an academic group, in 1993. Its formal name is The Linguistic Society of Hong Kong Cantonese
Cantonese
Romanisation
Romanisation
Scheme
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Yale Romanization Of Cantonese
The Yale romanization of Cantonese
Cantonese
was developed by Gerard P. Kok for his and Parker Po-fei Huang's textbook Speak Cantonese
Cantonese
initially circulated in looseleaf form in 1952[1] but later published in 1958.[2] Unlike the Yale romanization of Mandarin, it is still widely used in books and dictionaries, especially for foreign learners of Cantonese. It shares some similarities with Hanyu Pinyin
Pinyin
in that unvoiced, unaspirated consonants are represented by letters traditionally used in English and most other European languages to represent voiced sounds. For example, [p] is represented as b in Yale, whereas its aspirated counterpart, [pʰ] is represented as p
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Wade–Giles
Wade–Giles (/ˌweɪd ˈdʒaɪlz/), sometimes abbreviated Wade,[citation needed] is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade, during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles's Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892. Wade–Giles was the system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century, used in standard reference books and in English language books published before 1979. It replaced the Nanking dialect-based romanization systems that had been common until the late 19th century, such as the Postal Romanization (still used in some place-names). In mainland China it has been entirely replaced by the Hànyǔ Pīnyīn system approved in 1958. Outside mainland China, it has mostly been replaced by Pīnyīn, even though Taiwan implements a multitude of Romanization systems in daily life
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Spelling In Gwoyeu Romatzyh
The spelling of Gwoyeu Romatzyh
Gwoyeu Romatzyh
(GR) can be divided into its treatment of initials, finals and tones. GR uses contrasting unvoiced/voiced pairs of consonants to represent aspirated and unaspirated initials in Chinese: for example b and p represent IPA
IPA
[p] and [pʰ]. The letters j, ch and sh represent two different series of initials: the alveolo-palatal and the retroflex sounds. Although these spellings create no ambiguity in practice, readers more familiar with Pinyin should pay particular attention to them: GR ju, for example, corresponds to Pinyin
Pinyin
zhu, not ju (which is spelled jiu in GR). Many of the finals in GR are similar to those used in other romanizations. Distinctive features of GR include the use of iu for the close front rounded vowel spelled ü or simply u in Pinyin
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Bopomofo
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCEProto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c. BCEPhoenician 12 c. BCEPaleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCESamaritan 6 c. BCE Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCETifinaghPaleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c. BCE Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CECanadian syllabics 1840Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCEAvestan 4 c. CEPalmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCENabataean 2 c. BCEArabic 4 c. CEN'Ko 1949 CESogdian 2 c. BCEOrkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CEOld Hungarian c. 650 CEOld UyghurMongolian 1204 CEMandaic 2 c. CEGreek 8 c. BCEEtruscan 8 c. BCELatin 7 c
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Chinese Postal Romanization
Postal romanization[1] was a system of transliterating Chinese place names developed by the Imperial Post Office in the early 1900s. The system was in common use until the 1980s. For major cities and other places that already had widely accepted European names, traditional spellings were retained.[2] With regard to other place names, the post office revised policy several times. Spellings given could reflect the local pronunciation, Nanjing pronunciation, or Beijing pronunciation
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Pinus Tabuliformis
Pinus tabuliformis, also called Manchurian red pine,[3] Southern Chinese pine[4] or Chinese red pine[citation needed], is a pine native to northern China
China
from Liaoning
Liaoning
west to Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
and Gansu, and south to Shandong, Henan
Henan
and Shaanxi, and also northern Korea. In some older texts the name is spelled "Pinus tabulaeformis".Contents1 Description 2 Uses and cultivation 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External linksDescription[edit] Pinus tabuliformis
Pinus tabuliformis
is a medium-sized evergreen tree 20–30 m tall, with a flat-topped crown when mature (whence the scientific name, 'table-shaped'). The growth rate is fast when young, but slows with age. The grey-brown bark fissures at an early age compared to other trees
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Gross Domestic Product
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product
(GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time. Nominal GDP estimates are commonly used to determine the economic performance of a whole country or region, and to make international comparisons
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Symbols
A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship. Symbols allow people to go beyond what is known or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different concepts and experiences. All communication (and data processing) is achieved through the use of symbols. Symbols take the form of words, sounds, gestures, ideas or visual images and are used to convey other ideas and beliefs. For example, a red octagon may be a symbol for "STOP". On a map, a blue line might represent a river. Numerals are symbols for numbers. Alphabetic letters may be symbols for sounds. Personal names are symbols representing individuals. A red rose may symbolize love and compassion
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Telephone Numbering Plan
A telephone numbering plan is a type of numbering scheme used in telecommunication to assign telephone numbers to subscriber telephones or other telephony endpoints.[1] Telephone numbers are the addresses of participants in a telephone network, reachable by a system of destination code routing. Telephone numbering plans are defined in each of administrative regions of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) and they are also present in private telephone networks. For public number systems, geographic location plays a role in the sequence of numbers assigned to each telephone subscriber. Numbering plans may follow a variety of design strategies which have often arisen from the historical evolution of individual telephone networks and local requirements. A broad division is commonly recognized, distinguishing open numbering plans and closed numbering plans[discuss]
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UTC+8
UTC+08:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +08:00. In ISO 8601 the associated time would be written as 2018-04-08T19:44:16+08:00. With an estimated population of 1.708 billion living within the time zone[citation needed], roughly 24% of the world population, it is the most populous time zone in world, as well as a possible candidate for ASEAN Common Time. This time zone is used in all Chinese-speaking countries, giving international Chinese websites the same time. The southern-half of Vietnam (Republic of Vietnam) was formerly part of this time zone prior to the communist takeover of the South on April 30, 1975, making it 1 hour ahead of North Vietnam
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