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Shell (projectile)
A shell is a payload-carrying projectile that, as opposed to shot, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage sometimes includes large solid projectiles properly termed shot.[1][not verified in body] Solid shot may contain a pyrotechnic compound if a tracer or spotting charge is used
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Shotgun Shell
A shotgun shell is a self-contained cartridge typically loaded with multiple metallic "shot", which are small, generally spherical projectiles. The shells consist of a case mounted on a brass base holding a primer. The shot is typically contained in a small container inside the shell casing.[1] Shot has traditionally been made of lead, but steel, tungsten or bismuth is frequently used due to restrictions on lead.[2] A shotgun shell can contain a single, large projectile known as a shotgun slug. They can also be made with specialty non-lethal rounds such as beanbag rounds, and rubber
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Accuracy And Precision
Precision is a description of random errors, a measure of statistical variability. Accuracy has two definitions:More commonly, it is a description of systematic errors, a measure of statistical bias; as these cause a difference between a result and a "true" value, ISO calls this trueness. Alternatively, ISO defines accuracy as describing a combination of both types of observational error above (random and systematic), so high accuracy requires both high precision and high trueness.In simplest terms, given a set of data points from repeated measurements of the same quantity, the set can be said to be precise if the values are close to each other, while the set can be said to be accurate if their average is close to the true value of the quantity being measured
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Corsica
Corsica
Corsica
(/ˈkɔːrsɪkə/; French: Corse [kɔʁs]; Corsica
Corsica
in Corsican and Italian, pronounced [ˈkorsiga] and [ˈkɔrsika] respectively) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
and one of the 18 regions of France. It is located southeast of the French mainland and west of the Italian Peninsula, with the nearest land mass being the Italian island of Sardinia
Sardinia
to the immediate south. A single chain of mountains makes up two-thirds of the island. While being part of Metropolitan France, Corsica
Corsica
is also designated as a territorial collectivity (collectivité territoriale) by law
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Ming Dynasty
The Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
(/mɪŋ/)[2] was the ruling dynasty of China
China
– then known as the Great Ming Empire
Empire
– for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming, described by Edwin O. Reischauer, John K. Fairbank and Albert M. Craig as "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history",[3] was the last imperial dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Han Chinese
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China
China, officially the People's Republic
People's Republic
of China
China
(PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia
East Asia
and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area,[k][19] depending on the source consulted. China
China
also has the most neighbor countries in the world
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Jiao Yu
Jiao Yu
Jiao Yu
(Chinese: 焦玉; pinyin: Jiāo Yù; Wade–Giles: Chiao Yü) was a Chinese military officer, philosopher, and writer of the Ming dynasty under Zhu Yuanzhang, who founded the dynasty and became known as the Hongwu Emperor. He was entrusted by Zhu as a leading artillery officer for the rebel army that overthrew the Mongol
Mongol
Yuan dynasty, and established the Ming Dynasty.[1] As a senior adviser and general, he was later appointed to the venerable and noble status of the Count
Count
of Dongning.[2] He edited and wrote a famous military treatise that outlined the use of Chinese military technology during the mid 14th century based on his military campaign of 1355 AD.[1] However, descriptions of some gunpowder weapons in his treatise derive from Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
(960–1279 AD) materials on battles against the Khitans, Jurchens and Mongols
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Floruit
Floruit (/ˈflɔːr(j)uɪt, ˈflɒr-/), abbreviated fl. (or occasionally, flor.), Latin
Latin
for "he/she flourished", denotes a date or period during which a person was known to have been alive or active.[1][2] In English, the word may also be used as a noun indicating the time when someone "flourished".[1] Etymology and use[edit] Latin: flōruit is the third-person singular perfect active indicative of the Latin
Latin
verb flōreō, flōrēre "to bloom, flower, or flourish", from the noun flōs, flōris, "flower".[3][2] Broadly, the term is employed in reference to the peak of activity for a person, movement, or such
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Liu Bowen
Liu Ji (July 1, 1311 — May 16, 1375),[1][2] courtesy name Bowen, better known as Liu Bowen, was a Chinese military strategist, philosopher, statesman and poet who lived in the late Yuan and early Ming dynasties. He was born in Qingtian County
Qingtian County
(present-day Wencheng County, Wenzhou, Zhejiang)
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Cast Iron
Cast iron
Cast iron
is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.[1] Its usefulness derives from its relatively low melting temperature. The alloy constituents affect its colour when fractured: white cast iron has carbide impurities which allow cracks to pass straight through, grey cast iron has graphite flakes which deflect a passing crack and initiate countless new cracks as the material breaks, and ductile cast iron has spherical graphite "nodules" which stop the crack from further progressing. Carbon
Carbon
(C) ranging from 1.8–4 wt%, and silicon (Si) 1–3 wt% are the main alloying elements of cast iron. Iron alloys with lower carbon content (~0.8%) are known as steel. While this technically makes the Fe–C–Si system ternary, the principle of cast iron solidification can be understood from the simpler binary iron–carbon phase diagram
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Ingolstadt
Ingolstadt
Ingolstadt
(German pronunciation: [ˈɪŋɡɔlˌʃtat] ( listen); Austro-Bavarian [ˈɪŋl̩ʃtɔːd]) is a city in the Free State of Bavaria, in the Federal Republic of Germany. It is located along the banks of the River Danube, in the centre of Bavaria
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Germany
Coordinates: 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9Federal Republic
Republic
of Germany Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German)[a]FlagCoat of armsMotto:  "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" (de facto) "Unity and Justice and Freedom"Anthem: "Deutschlandlied" (third verse only)[b] "Song of Germany"Location of  Germany  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Location of
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Bitumen
Asphalt, also known as bitumen (UK: /ˈbɪtʃəmən/, US: /bɪˈtjuːmən, baɪ-/),[1] is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum. It may be found in natural deposits or may be a refined product, and is classed as a pitch. Before the 20th century, the term asphaltum was also used.[2] The word is derived from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
ἄσφαλτος ásphaltos.[3] The primary use (70%) of asphalt is in road construction, where it is used as the glue or binder mixed with aggregate particles to create asphalt concrete. Its other main uses are for bituminous waterproofing products, including production of roofing felt and for sealing flat roofs.[4] The terms "asphalt" and "bitumen" are often used interchangeably to mean both natural and manufactured forms of the substance
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History Of Gunpowder
Gunpowder
Gunpowder
is the first physical explosive. Before its invention, many incendiary and burning devices had been used, including Greek fire. The invention of gunpowder is attributed to experimentation in Chinese alchemy by Taoists in the pursuit of immortality, and is popularly listed as one of the "Four Great Inventions" of China. It was invented during the late Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
(9th century) but the earliest record of a written formula appeared in the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
(11th century). Knowledge of gunpowder spread rapidly throughout the Old World possibly as a result of the Mongol conquests
Mongol conquests
during the 13th century, with written formula for it appearing in the 1267 Opus Majus
Opus Majus
treatise by Roger Bacon
Roger Bacon
and a 1280 treatise by Hasan al-Rammah
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Direct Fire
Direct fire
Direct fire
refers to the launching of a projectile directly at a target within the line-of-sight of the firer.[1] The firing weapon must have a sighting device and an unobstructed view to the target, which means no objects or friendly units can be between it and the target. A weapon engaged in direct fire exposes itself to return fire from the target.[2] This is in contrast to indirect fire, which refers to firing a projectile on a ballistic trajectory or delivering munitions by guided or unguided missiles. Indirect fire
Indirect fire
does not need a direct line of sight to the target because the shots are normally directed by a forward observer
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Propellant
A propellant or propellent is a chemical substance used in the production of energy or pressurized gas that is subsequently used to create movement of a fluid or to generate propulsion of a vehicle, projectile, or other object. Common propellants are energetic materials and consist of a fuel like gasoline, jet fuel, rocket fuel, and an oxidizer. Propellants are burned or otherwise decomposed to produce the propellant gas. Other propellants are simply liquids that can readily be vaporized. In rockets and aircraft, propellants are used to produce a gas that can be directed through a nozzle, thereby producing thrust. In rockets, rocket propellant produces an exhaust, and the exhausted material is usually expelled under pressure through a nozzle. The pressure may be from a compressed gas, or a gas produced by a chemical reaction. The exhaust material may be a gas, liquid, plasma, or, before the chemical reaction, a solid, liquid, or gel
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