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Shaolin Monastery
The SHAOLIN MONASTERY (Chinese : 少林寺; pinyin : Shàolín sì), also known as the SHAOLIN TEMPLE, is a Chan ("Zen") Buddhist temple in Dengfeng County , Henan
Henan
Province , China
China
. Dating back 1,500 years when founded by Fang Lu-Hao, Shaolin Temple is the main temple of the Shaolin school of Buddhism
Buddhism
to this day. Shaolin Monastery
Shaolin Monastery
and its Pagoda
Pagoda
Forest were inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in 2010 as part of the "Historic Monuments of Dengfeng "
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Emperor Xiaowen Of Northern Wei China
EMPEROR XIAOWEN OF NORTHERN WEI ((北)魏孝文帝) (October 13, 467 – April 26, 499), personal name né TUOBA HONG (拓拔宏), later YUAN HONG (元宏), or TOBA HUNG II, was an emperor of the Northern Wei from September 20, 471 to April 26, 499. Emperor
Emperor
Xiaowen implemented a drastic policy of sinicization , intending to centralize the government and make the multi-ethnic state more easy to govern. These policies included changing artistic styles to reflect Chinese preferences and forcing the population to speak the language and to wear Chinese clothes . He compelled his own Xianbei people and others to adopt Chinese surnames , and changed his own family surname from Tuoba to Yuan. He also encouraged intermarriage between Xianbei
Xianbei
and Han
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Northern Wei
The NORTHERN WEI (Chinese : 北魏; pinyin : Běi Wèi; Wade–Giles : Pei3 Wei4), also known as the TUOBA WEI (拓跋魏), LATER WEI (後魏), or YUAN WEI (元魏), was a dynasty founded by the Tuoba clan of the Xianbei , which ruled northern China from 386 to 534 (de jure until 535), during the period of the Southern and Northern Dynasties . Described as "part of an era of political turbulence and intense social and cultural change", the Northern Wei
Northern Wei
Dynasty is particularly noted for unifying northern China in 439: this was also a period of introduced foreign ideas; such as Buddhism
Buddhism
, which became firmly established. During the Taihe period (477-499) of Emperor Xiaowen , court advisers instituted sweeping reforms and introduced changes that eventually led to the dynasty moving its capital from Datong
Datong
to Luoyang
Luoyang
, in 494
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India
INDIA, officially the REPUBLIC OF INDIA (Bhārat Gaṇarājya), is a country in South Asia
South Asia
. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people ), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal
Bengal
on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan
Pakistan
to the west; China
China
, Nepal
Nepal
, and Bhutan
Bhutan
to the northeast; and Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India
India
is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the Maldives
Maldives

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Sacred Mountains Of China
The SACRED MOUNTAINS OF CHINA are divided into several groups. The Five Great Mountains (simplified Chinese : 五岳; traditional Chinese : 五嶽; pinyin : Wǔyuè) refers to five of the most renowned mountains in Chinese history, and they were the subjects of imperial pilgrimage by emperors throughout ages. They are associated with the absolute God and the five main cosmic deities of Chinese traditional religion . The group associated with Buddhism is referred to as the Four Sacred Mountains of Buddhism (Chinese : 四大佛教名山), and the group associated with Taoism
Taoism
is referred to as the Four Sacred Mountains of Taoism
Taoism
(Chinese : 四大道教名山)
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Daoxuan
DàOXUāN (Chinese : 道宣; Wade-Giles : Tao-hsüan; CE 596-667) was the Chinese Buddhist monk and patriarch of the Vinaya school, who wrote both the Continued Biographies of Eminent Monks (續高僧傳 Xù gāosēng zhuàn) and Standard Design for Buddhist Temple Construction . In legends he is attributed with the transmission of the Buddha relic Daoxuans tooth, one of the four tooth relics enshrined in the capital of Chang'an during the Tang dynasty. He is said to have received the relic during a night visit from a divinity associated with Indra. REFERENCES * ^ Buswell 2013 , p. 215. * ^ Strong 2007 , p. 187.BIBLIOGRAPHY * Buswell, Robert Jr ; Lopez, Donald S. Jr. , eds. (2013). Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. p. 215. ISBN 9780691157863 . * Chen Jinhua (2002)
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Li Zicheng
LI ZICHENG (22 September 1606 – 1645), born LI HONGJI, nicknamed "DASHING KING", was a Chinese rebel leader who overthrew the Ming dynasty in 1644 and ruled over China briefly as the emperor of the short-lived Shun dynasty before his death a year later. CONTENTS * 1 Early years * 2 As a general under Gao Yingxiang * 3 Battles of Luoyang, Nanyang and Kaifeng
Kaifeng
* 4 From the Battle of Xiangyang to the creation of the Shun dynasty * 5 Battle of Beijing
Beijing
and Battle of Shanhai Pass * 6 The decline and death of Li * 7 Historiography * 8 In popular culture * 9 Notes * 10 External links EARLY YEARSLi was born in Mizhi County , Yulin , Shaanxi
Shaanxi
in the late Ming dynasty . Initially a shepherd, he started learning horse riding and archery at the age of 20, and had also worked in a wine shop and as a blacksmith's apprentice
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Yongzheng Emperor
The YONGZHENG EMPEROR (Chinese : 雍正帝) (13 December 1678 – 8 October 1735), born YINZHEN (胤禛), was the fifth emperor of the Manchu -led Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
and the third Qing emperor to rule over China proper. He reigned from 1723 to 1735. A hard-working ruler, the Yongzheng Emperor's main goal was to create an effective government at minimal expense. Like his father, the Kangxi Emperor , the Yongzheng Emperor used military force to preserve the dynasty's position. His reign was known for being despotic, efficient, and vigorous. Although the Yongzheng Emperor's reign was much shorter than that of both his father (the Kangxi Emperor) and his son (the Qianlong Emperor ), the Yongzheng era was a period of peace and prosperity. The Yongzheng Emperor
Yongzheng Emperor
cracked down on corruption and reformed the financial administration
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Luoyang
LUOYANG, formerly romanized as LOYANG, is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River
Yellow River
in Central China
Central China
. It is a prefecture-level city in western Henan
Henan
province. It borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the east, Pingdingshan to the southeast, Nanyang to the south, Sanmenxia to the west, Jiyuan to the north, and Jiaozuo to the northeast. As of the final 2010 census, Luoyang
Luoyang
had a population of 6,549,941 inhabitants with 1,857,003 people living in the built-up (or metro) area made of the city's five urban districts, all of which except the Jili District are not urbanized yet
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Kangxi Emperor
The KANGXI EMPEROR (4 May 1654 – 20 December 1722) was the fourth emperor of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
, the first to be born on Chinese soil south of the Shanhai Pass near Beijing
Beijing
, and the second Qing emperor to rule over that part of China, from 1661 to 1722. The Kangxi Emperor's reign of 61 years makes him the longest-reigning emperor in Chinese history (although his grandson, the Qianlong Emperor , had the longest period of de facto power) and one of the longest-reigning rulers in the world . However, since he ascended the throne at the age of seven, actual power was held for six years by four regents and his grandmother, the Grand Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang . The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
is considered one of China's greatest emperors
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Ming Dynasty
The MING DYNASTY was the ruling dynasty of China
China
– then known as the GREAT MING EMPIRE – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol -led Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
. The Ming, described by Edwin O. Reischauer , John K. Fairbank and Albert M. Craig as "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last imperial dynasty in China
China
ruled by ethnic Han Chinese . Although the primary capital of Beijing
Beijing
fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng (who established the Shun dynasty , soon replaced by the Manchu -led Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
), regimes loyal to the Ming throne – collectively called the Southern Ming
Southern Ming
– survived until 1683
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Ryuchi Matsuda
RYUCHI MATSUDA (松田 隆智, June 6, 1938 – July 24, 2013) was the Japanese author behind A Historical Outline of Chinese Martial Arts and a manga called Kenji (supposedly based on his life story). According to Dr. Kenji Tokitsu , author and practitioner of Japanese martial arts , Matsuda is known for introducing and publicising various Chinese martial arts
Chinese martial arts
in Japan. When he was young, Matsuda learned karate and other traditional Japanese martial arts. Later he learned some Chinese martial arts
Chinese martial arts
such as Chen-style taijiquan , Baji Boxing , Northern Mantis Boxing , Bagua Palm , and Yen Ching Boxing . At some point he became a Tibetan Buddhist monk, and his research and writing covered both Buddhism
Buddhism
and martial arts
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Red Turban Rebellion
A TURBAN (from Persian دولبند‌, dulband; via Middle French turbant) is a type of headwear based on cloth winding. Featuring many variations, it is worn as customary headwear by men of various countries. Communities with prominent turban-wearing traditions can be found in the Indian Subcontinent
Indian Subcontinent
, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
, the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
, the Middle East
Middle East
, the Near East
Near East
, Central Asia , North Africa
North Africa
, the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
, the Sahel
Sahel
, North America
North America
, and parts of the Swahili Coast
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Shunzhi Emperor
The SHUNZHI EMPEROR (15 March 1638 – 5 February 1661), formerly romanized as the SHUN-CHIH EMPEROR, was the third emperor of the Qing dynasty and the first Qing emperor to rule over China
China
, from 1644 to 1661. A committee of Manchu princes chose him to succeed his father, Hong Taiji
Hong Taiji
(1592–1643), in September 1643, when he was five years old. The princes also appointed two co-regents: Dorgon
Dorgon
(1612–1650), the 14th son of the Qing dynasty's founder Nurhaci
Nurhaci
(1559–1626), and Jirgalang (1599–1655), one of Nurhaci's nephews, both of whom were members of the Qing imperial clan
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Himeji Castle
HIMEJI CASTLE (姫路城, Himeji-jō) is a hilltop Japanese castle complex located in the city of Himeji, Hyōgo , Japan. The castle is regarded as the finest surviving example of prototypical Japanese castle architecture, comprising a network of 83 buildings with advanced defensive systems from the feudal period . The castle is frequently known as Hakuro-jō or Shirasagi-jō ("White Egret Castle" or "White Heron
Heron
Castle") because of its brilliant white exterior and supposed resemblance to a bird taking flight. Himeji
Himeji
Castle dates to 1333, when Akamatsu Norimura built a fort on top of Himeyama hill. The fort was dismantled and rebuilt as Himeyama Castle in 1346, and then remodeled into Himeji
Himeji
Castle two centuries later
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Qing Dynasty
Tael (liǎng) PRECEDED BY SUCCEEDED BY Later Jin Shun Southern Ming
Southern Ming
Tungning (Ming Zheng) Dzungar Republic of China Mongolia
Mongolia
Formosa The QING DYNASTY, also known as the QING EMPIRE, officially the GREAT QING (English: /tʃɪŋ/ ), was the last imperial dynasty of China , established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
and succeeded by the Republic of China . The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for the modern Chinese state . The dynasty was founded by the Jurchen Aisin Gioro clan in Manchuria . In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci
Nurhaci
, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing "Banners ", military-social units that included Jurchen, Han Chinese, and Mongol elements
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