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Shandong Problem
The Shandong Problem
Shandong Problem
(simplified Chinese: 山东问题; traditional Chinese: 山東問題; pinyin: Shāndōng wèntí) refers to the dispute over Article 156 of the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
in 1919, which dealt with the concession of the Shandong Peninsula. During the First World War, China supported the Allies on condition that the Kiautschou Bay concession, Imperial Germany's concession on the Shandong peninsula, would be returned to China. However, in 1915, China, forced by Japanese ultimatum, reluctantly agreed to a reduced set of "Thirteen Demands" from Japan's original Twenty-One Demands which, among other things, acknowledged Japanese control of former German holdings. Britain and France promised Japan it could keep these holdings. In late 1918, China reaffirmed the transfer to Germany and accepted payments from Japan
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History Of China
The earliest known written records of the history of China
China
date from as early as 1250 BC,[1][2] from the Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
(c. 1600–1046 BC).[3] Ancient historical texts such as the Records of the Grand Historian (c. 100 BC) and the Bamboo Annals (296 BC) describe a Xia dynasty (c. 2070–1600 BC) before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period, and Shang
Shang
writings do not indicate the existence of the Xia.[3][4] The Shang
Shang
ruled in the Yellow River
Yellow River
valley, which is commonly held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic
Neolithic
civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River
Yellow River
and Yangtze
Yangtze
River
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Economic History Of China
The economic history of China
China
is covered in the following articles:Economic history of China
China
before 1912Economy of the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
(206 BC – 220 AD) Economy of the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
(960–1279) Economy of the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
(1368–1644)Economic history of China
China
(1912–49), i.e. of mainland China
China
between 1912 and 1949.Economic history of Taiwan
Taiwan
(1949–present), i.e. of the Republic of China
China
on Taiwan
Taiwan
since 1945.Economic history of China
China
(1949–present), i.e
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Ming Dynasty
The Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
(/mɪŋ/)[2] was the ruling dynasty of China
China
– then known as the Great Ming Empire
Empire
– for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming, described by Edwin O. Reischauer, John K. Fairbank and Albert M. Craig as "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history",[3] was the last imperial dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Han Chinese
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Qing Dynasty
Tael
Tael
(liǎng)Preceded by Succeeded byLater JinShunSouthern MingDzungarRepublic of ChinaMongoliaThe Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing (English: /tʃɪŋ/), was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
and succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for the modern Chinese state. It was the fourth largest empire in world history. The dynasty was founded by the Jurchen Aisin Gioro
Aisin Gioro
clan in Manchuria. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing "Banners", military-social units that included Jurchen, Han Chinese, and Mongol elements
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Republic Of China (1912–1949)
The Republic
Republic
of China
China
was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia
Mongolia
and Taiwan. It was founded in 1912, after the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty, was overthrown in the Xinhai Revolution. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, former leader of the Beiyang Army. His party, then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. Song was assassinated shortly after, and the Beiyang Army
Beiyang Army
led by Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
maintained full control of the government in Beijing. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan tried to reinstate the monarchy, before resigning after popular unrest
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History Of The People's Republic Of China
The history of the People's Republic of China
China
details the history of mainland China
China
since October 1, 1949, when, after a near complete victory by the Chinese Communist Party
Chinese Communist Party
(CCP) in the Chinese Civil War, Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
proclaimed the People's Republic of China
China
(PRC) from atop Tiananmen
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Chinese Historiography
Chinese historiography
Chinese historiography
is the study of the techniques and sources used by historians to develop the recorded history of China.Contents1 Overview of Chinese history 2 Key organizing concepts2.1 Dynastic cycle 2.2 Multi-ethnic history 2.3 Marxism 2.4 Modernization 2.5 Hydraulic despotism 2.6 Convergence 2.7 Anti-imperialism 2.8 Republican 2.9 Postmodernism3 Recent trends 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References and further reading 7 External linksOverview of Chinese history[edit] The recording of Chinese history
Chinese history
dates back to the Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
(c. 1600–1046 BC). Although they are not literature as such, many written examples survive of ceremonial inscriptions, divinations and records of family names, which were carved or painted onto tortoise shell or bones.[1][2] The oldest surviving history texts of China were compiled in the Shujing (Book of Documents, 書經)
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Timeline Of Chinese History
This is a timeline of Chinese history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in China
China
and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of China. See also the list of rulers of China, Chinese emperors family tree, dynasties in Chinese history and years in China. Dates prior to 841 BC, the beginning of the Gonghe Regency, are provisional and subject to dispute. This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries. Prehistory / Millennia: 3rd BC · 2nd BC–1st BC · 1st–2nd · 3rd · See also · Further reading · External links Prehistoric China[edit]Year Date Event780000 BC Peking Man
Peking Man
died in modern Zhoukoudian.125000-80000 BCH
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Dynasties In Chinese History
The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese History.Contents1 Background 2 Dynasties of China 3 See also 4 References 5 Sources 6 External linksBackground[edit] As one might incorrectly infer from viewing historical timelines, it is not usually the case that one dynasty transitions abruptly and smoothly into another. Rather, dynasties were often established before the complete overthrow of an existing reign, or continued for a time after they had been defeated. For example, the conventional date 1645 marks the year in which the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
armies overthrew the preceding Ming dynasty, according to the dynastic cycle of China. However, the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
was established in 1636 (or even 1616, albeit under a different name), while the last Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
pretender was not deposed until 1663
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Linguistic History Of China
The languages of China
China
are the languages that are spoken in China. The predominant language in China, which is divided into seven major language groups ( classified as dialects by the Chinese government for political reasons), is known as Hanyu (simplified Chinese: 汉语; traditional Chinese: 漢語; pinyin: Hànyǔ). and its study is considered a distinct academic discipline in China.[5] Hanyu, or Han language, spans eight primary varieties, that differ from each other morphologically and phonetically to such a degree that they will often be mutually unintelligible, similarly to English and German or Danish. The languages most studied and supported by the state include Chinese, Mongolian, Tibetan, Uyghur and Zhuang
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History Of Chinese Art
Chinese art
Chinese art
is visual art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists. The Chinese art
Chinese art
in the Republic of China
Republic of China
(Taiwan) and that of overseas Chinese can also be considered part of Chinese art
Chinese art
where it is based in or draws on Chinese heritage and Chinese culture
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History Of Education In China
The history of education in China began with the birth of the Chinese civilization. Nobles often set up educational establishments for their offspring. Establishment of the imperial examinations (advocated in the Warring States period, originated in Han, founded in Tang) was instrumental in the transition from an aristocratic to a meritocratic government
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Jin Dynasty (1115–1234)
The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin (/dʒɪn/),[2] lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China. Its name is sometimes written as Kin, Jurchen Jin or Jinn in English to differentiate it from an earlier Jìn dynasty of China
China
whose name is identical when transcribed without tone marker diacritics in the Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
system for Standard Chinese.[3] It is also sometimes called the "Jurchen dynasty" or the "Jurchen Jin", because its founding Emperor Taizu of Jin (reign 1115–1123) was of Wanyan
Wanyan
Jurchen descent. The Jin emerged from Taizu's rebellion against the Liao dynasty (907–1125), which held sway over northern China
China
until the nascent Jin drove the Liao to the Western Regions, where they became known as the Western Liao
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History Of Science And Technology In China
Ancient Chinese scientists and engineers made significant scientific innovations, findings and technological advances across various scientific disciplines including the natural sciences, engineering, medicine, military technology, mathematics, geology and astronomy. Among the earliest inventions were the abacus, the "shadow clock," and the first items such as Kongming lanterns.[1] The Four Great Inventions – the compass, gunpowder, papermaking, and printing – were among the most important technological advances, only known to Europe by the end of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
1000 years later
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Legal History Of China
The origin of the current law of the People's Republic of China can be traced back to the period of the early 1930s, during the establishment of the Chinese Soviet Republic. In 1931 the first supreme court was established. Though the contemporary legal system and laws have no direct links to traditional Chinese law, their impact and influence of historical norms still exist. In the period between 1980 and 1987,important progress was made in replacing the rule of men with the rule of law. Laws
Laws
originally passed in 1979 and earlier were amended and augmented, and law institutes and university law departments that had been closed during the Cultural Revolution were opened to train lawyers and court personnel
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