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Shaheed Mwaffaq AB
MUWAFFAQ SALTI AIR BASE ( Arabic
Arabic
قاعدة الشهيد موفق السلطي الجوية - الازرق ) is a Royal Jordanian Air Force air base located in Azraq
Azraq
, Zarqa Governorate
Zarqa Governorate
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Current use * 3 See also * 4 References HISTORY First Lieutenant Muwaffaq Salti In 1918, during World War I, T.E. Lawrence
T.E. Lawrence
(also known as Lawrence of Arabia) used the historic castle in Azraq
Azraq
and the plains at that site as a base for use as a landing ground for the aircraft which were supporting the column pushing north towards Syria. The main qualities of the area were its good visibility and fine weather for flying. In 1976, the area was chosen by the Royal Jordanian Air Force for a major new air base. Construction started that same year and in November, 1980, No 1 (Northrop F-5A/B Freedom Fighter 's) and No 11 squadrons (F-5E/F Tiger II's) were deployed there. The air base was officially opened on May 24, 1981. It was named after Lieutenant Muwaffaq Salti who died in battle with the Israeli Air Force on November 13, 1966, during the Battle of Samou . It was initially home to Nos 1 and 25 Mirage squadrons. Between 1997 and 2007 Mirage squadrons were based here
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Azraq, Jordan
AZRAQ (Arabic : الأزرق‎‎ meaning "the blue one") is a small town in Zarqa Governorate
Zarqa Governorate
in central-eastern Jordan
Jordan
, 100 kilometres (62 mi) east of Amman
Amman
. The population of Azraq was 9,021 in 2004. The Muwaffaq Salti Air Base
Muwaffaq Salti Air Base
is located in Azraq. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Demographics * 3 Wildlife reserve * 4 See also * 5 References HISTORYAzraq has long been an important settlement in a remote and now-arid desert area of Jordan. The strategic value of the town and its castle ( Qasr Azraq
Qasr Azraq
) is that it lies in the middle of the Azraq oasis
Azraq oasis
, the only permanent source of fresh water in approximately 12,000 square kilometres of desert. The town is located on a major desert route that would have facilitated trade within the region. The Azraq oasis
Azraq oasis
has a long history beginning in the Lower Palaeolithic
Lower Palaeolithic
period. Many Palaeolithic sites have been documented in the Azraq Wetlands Reserve
Azraq Wetlands Reserve
. During the Epipalaeolithic
Epipalaeolithic
period the oasis was also an important focus of settlement. Azraq street view Nabatean
Nabatean
period settlement activity has also been documented in the area
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Zarqa Governorate
ZARQA GOVERNORATE (Arabic محافظة الزرقاء Muħāfazat az-Zarqāʔ, local dialects ez-Zergā or ez-Zer'a) is the third largest governorate in Jordan
Jordan
by population. The capital of Zarqa governorate is Zarqa
Zarqa
City, which is the largest city in the governorate. It is located 25 kilometres (16 mi) east of the Jordanian capital Amman
Amman
. The second largest city in the governorate is Russeifa . Zarqa
Zarqa
Governorate hosts the largest military and air bases of the Jordanian armed forces. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Demographics * 4 Administrative divisions * 5 Economy * 6 References HISTORY The city of Russeifa
Russeifa
The land of Zarqa
Zarqa
Governorate has been inhabited since the Bronze Age , most prominent were the Ammonite kingdom and the Nabateans , who constructed the fort known as Qasr al Hallabat , which then was used as a fort by the Romans, and then as a desert palace by the Umayyads . The wetlands in Azraq The most significant historical remains are the Umayyad desert palaces, such as Qasr Amra
Qasr Amra
, a World Heritage site, Qasr al Hallabat , Qasr Shabib in the center of the city of Zarqa, as well as the Castle of Azraq
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Jordanian Armed Forces
The JORDANIAN ARMED FORCES (القوات المسلحة الأردنية), also referred to as the ARAB ARMY (الجيش العربي), are the military forces of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
Jordan
. They consist of the ground forces , air force , and navy and is under the direct control of the King of Jordan
King of Jordan
who is the Commander-in-Chief . The current Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is Lieutenant General Mahmoud Freihat , who is also the King's military adviser. The first organized army in Jordan
Jordan
was established on 22 October 1920, and was named the "Mobile Force". At the time it only had 150 men in its ranks. On its third anniversary in 1923, the force was renamed the Arab Legion , consisting of 1,000 men. By the time Jordan became an independent state in 1946, the Arab Legion numbered some 8,000 soldiers in 3 mechanized regiments. In 1956, King Hussein dismissed all British generals and changed the name of the Legion into the "Jordanian Arab Army" in what became known as the Arabization of the Jordanian Army command . The army fought in several wars and battles, mostly against Israel
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Royal Jordanian Air Force
The ROYAL JORDANIAN AIR FORCE (RJAF; Arabic : سلاح الجو الملكي الأردني, transliterated _Silāḥ ul-Jawu al-Malakī ’al-Urdunī_) is the air force branch of the Jordanian Armed Forces . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Early days * 1.2 1960s * 1.3 1970s * 1.4 1980s * 1.5 1991 Persian Gulf War and the 1990s * 1.6 Modern era * 1.7 Operations in Syria 2014–2015 * 2 Mission * 3 Organization * 3.1 Squadrons * 3.2 Royal Jordanian Air Defence * 4 Aircraft * 5 Aircraft * 5.1 Current inventory * 5.2 Retired aircraft * 5.3 Retired aircraft * 6 Personnel * 6.1 Commanders * 6.2 Notable persons * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links HISTORYEARLY DAYS A de havilland Vampire FB.6 illustrating the markings of the Royal Jordanian Air Force Jordan gained independence in 1946, but its first air bases had been set up in 1931 by the Royal Air Force . By 1950, Jordan began to develop a small air arm which came to be known as the ARAB LEGION AIR FORCE (ALAF). The Royal Air Force assisted in training this small air arm and provided equipment. The ALAF's primary fighter was the de Havilland Vampire and a Vickers VC.1 Viking was operated as a VIP aircraft for use by the King of Jordan
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407th Air Expeditionary Group
The 407TH AIR EXPEDITIONARY GROUP (407 AEG) is a provisional United States Air Force unit assigned to the United States Air Forces Central Command 332d Air Expeditionary Wing . It was stationed at Ali Air Base , Iraq until the closure of the base on 16 December 2011. It was activated as part of the 332d Air Expeditionary Wing due to Military intervention against ISIL at Ahmed Al Jaber Air Base . The 407 AEG provided air operations support for coalition air dominance, battlespace control, and security to advance the stabilization of southern Iraq. It provides coalition tactical airlift support with aerial port operations. The 407 AEG was the first Air Force unit to stand up combat operations within Iraq during Operation Iraqi Freedom . The group traces its history back to the World War II
World War II
407TH BOMBARDMENT GROUP (DIVE) which was established 23 March 1943, at Drew Field , Florida. The air echelon was attached to Eleventh Air Force
Eleventh Air Force
in Amchitka
Amchitka
, Alaska, from 19 July to 15 August 1943, where it performed combat operations against the Japanese in the Aleutian Islands
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Above Mean Sea Level
METRES ABOVE MEAN SEA LEVEL (MAMSL) or simply METRES ABOVE SEA LEVEL (MASL or M A.S.L.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level . Mean sea levels are affected by climate change and other factors and change over time. For this and other reasons, recorded measurements of elevation above sea level might differ from the actual elevation of a given location over sea level at a given moment. CONTENTS * 1 Uses * 2 How it is determined * 3 Other measurement systems * 4 Abbreviations * 5 See also * 6 References USES Metres above sea level is the standard measurement of the elevation or altitude of: * Geographic locations such as towns , mountains and other landmarks . * The top of buildings and other structures . * Flying objects such as airplanes or helicopters .HOW IT IS DETERMINEDThe elevation or altitude in metres above sea level of a location, object, or point can be determined in a number of ways. The most common include: * Global Positioning System (GPS), which triangulates a location in reference to multiple satellites . * Altimeters . They typically measure atmospheric pressure , which decreases as altitude increases. * Aerial photography . * Surveying .Accurate measurement of historical mean sea levels is complex
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Asphalt
ASPHALT /ˈæsˌfɔːlt, -ˌfɑːlt/ , also known as BITUMEN /ˈbɪtʃəmᵻn, bᵻˈtuːmᵻn/ , is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum . It may be found in natural deposits or may be a refined product, and is classed as a pitch . Before the 20th century, the term ASPHALTUM was also used. The word is derived from the Ancient Greek ἄσφαλτος _ásphaltos_. The primary use (70%) of asphalt is in road construction, where it is used as the glue or binder mixed with aggregate particles to create asphalt concrete . Its other main uses are for bituminous waterproofing products, including production of roofing felt and for sealing flat roofs. The terms "asphalt" and "bitumen" are often used interchangeably to mean both natural and manufactured forms of the substance. In American English , "asphalt" (or "asphalt cement") is commonly used for a refined residue from the distillation process of selected crude oils. Outside the United States, the product is often called "bitumen", and geologists worldwide often prefer the term for the naturally occurring variety. Common colloquial usage often refers to various forms of asphalt as "tar ", as in the name of the La Brea Tar Pits . Naturally occurring asphalt is sometimes specified by the term "crude bitumen"
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Arabic
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS ARABIC TEXT . Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols .ARABIC ( Arabic : العَرَبِيَّة‎‎, _al-ʻarabiyyah_ (_ listen ) or Arabic : عَرَبِيّ‎‎ ʻarabī_ (_ listen ) or ) is a Central Semitic language complex that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca _ of the Arab world . It is named after the Arabs , a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti- Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. The modern written language ( Modern Standard Arabic ) is derived from Classical Arabic . It is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (_fuṣḥā_), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam . Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary . However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties
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Azraq
AZRAQ (Arabic : الأزرق‎‎ meaning "the blue one") is a small town in Zarqa Governorate
Zarqa Governorate
in central-eastern Jordan
Jordan
, 100 kilometres (62 mi) east of Amman
Amman
. The population of Azraq was 9,021 in 2004. The Muwaffaq Salti Air Base is located in Azraq. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Demographics * 3 Wildlife reserve * 4 See also * 5 References HISTORYAzraq has long been an important settlement in a remote and now-arid desert area of Jordan. The strategic value of the town and its castle ( Qasr Azraq
Qasr Azraq
) is that it lies in the middle of the Azraq oasis , the only permanent source of fresh water in approximately 12,000 square kilometres of desert. The town is located on a major desert route that would have facilitated trade within the region. The Azraq oasis has a long history beginning in the Lower Palaeolithic
Lower Palaeolithic
period. Many Palaeolithic sites have been documented in the Azraq Wetlands Reserve . During the Epipalaeolithic
Epipalaeolithic
period the oasis was also an important focus of settlement. Azraq street view Nabatean
Nabatean
period settlement activity has also been documented in the area
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T.E. Lawrence
First World War * Arab Revolt
Arab Revolt
* Siege of Medina * Battle of Aqaba * Capture of Damascus
Capture of Damascus
* Battle of Megiddo AWARDS Companion of the Order of the Bath Distinguished Service Order Knight of the Legion of Honour (France) Croix de guerre (France) THOMAS EDWARD LAWRENCE, CB , DSO (16 August 1888 – 19 May 1935) was a British archaeologist , military officer, diplomat, and writer. He was renowned for his liaison role during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign and the Arab Revolt
Arab Revolt
against the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
during the First World War . The breadth and variety of his activities and associations, and his ability to describe them vividly in writing, earned him international fame as LAWRENCE OF ARABIA—a title used for the 1962 film based on his wartime activities. Lawrence was born out of wedlock in Tremadog
Tremadog
, Wales, in August 1888 to Thomas Chapman (who became, in 1914, Sir Thomas Chapman, 7th Baronet ), an Anglo-Irish nobleman from County Westmeath
County Westmeath
, and Sarah Junner, a Scottish governess who was herself illegitimate. Chapman had left his wife and first family in Ireland to live with Junner, and they called themselves Mr and Mrs Lawrence
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Northrop F-5
The NORTHROP F-5A AND F-5B FREEDOM FIGHTER and the F-5E AND F-5F TIGER II are part of a supersonic light fighter family, initially designed in the late 1950s by Northrop Corporation . Being smaller and simpler than contemporaries such as the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II , the F-5 cost less to both procure and operate, making it a popular export aircraft. The F-5 started life as a privately funded light fighter program by Northrop in the 1950s. The design team wrapped a small, highly aerodynamic fighter around two compact and high-thrust General Electric J85 engines, focusing on performance and low cost of maintenance. Though primarily designed for the day air superiority role, the aircraft is also a capable ground-attack platform. The F-5A entered service in the early 1960s. During the Cold War , over 800 were produced through 1972 for U.S. allies. Though the USAF had no acknowledged need for a light fighter, it did procure roughly 1,200 Northrop T-38 Talon trainer aircraft, which were directly based on the F-5A. After winning the International Fighter Aircraft competition in 1970, a program aimed at providing effective low-cost fighters to American allies, Northrop introduced the second-generation F-5E Tiger II in 1972
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Israeli Air Force
The ISRAELI AIR FORCE (IAF; Hebrew : זְרוֹעַ הָאֲוִיר וְהֶחָלָל‎, _Zroa HaAvir VeHahalal_, "Air and Space Arm", commonly known as חֵיל הָאֲוִיר‎, _Kheil HaAvir_, "Air Corps") operates as the aerial warfare branch of the Israel Defense Forces . It was founded on May 28, 1948, shortly after the Israeli Declaration of Independence . As of May 2012 Aluf Amir Eshel serves as the Air Force Commander. The Israeli Air Force formed on May 28, 1948, using commandeered or donated civilian aircraft and obsolete and surplus World War II combat-aircraft. Eventually, more aircraft were procured, including Boeing B-17s , Bristol Beaufighters , de Havilland Mosquitoes and P-51D Mustangs . The Israeli Air Force played an important part in Operation _Kadesh_ , Israel's part in the 1956 Suez Crisis , dropping paratroopers at the Mitla Pass . On June 5, 1967, the first day of the Six-Day War , the Israeli Air Force executed Operation _Focus_ , crippling the opposing Arab air forces and attaining air supremacy for the remainder of the war. Shortly after the end of the Six-Day War, Egypt initiated the War of Attrition , and the Israeli Air Force undertook repeated bombings of strategic targets deep within enemy territory
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Samu Incident
The SAMU INCIDENT or BATTLE OF SAMU was a large cross-border assault on 13 November 1966 by Israeli military
Israeli military
on the Jordanian -controlled West Bank
West Bank
village of Samu in response to an al- Fatah
Fatah
land mine attack two days earlier near the West Bank
West Bank
border, which killed 3 Israeli soldiers on a border patrol. It purportedly originated from Jordanian territory. It was the largest Israeli military
Israeli military
operation since the 1956 Suez Crisis
1956 Suez Crisis
and is considered to have been a contributing factor to the outbreak of the Six-Day War in 1967. Since 1965 Jordan
Jordan
had an active campaign to curb Fatah
Fatah
sabotage activities. The handling of the incident was widely criticised in Israeli political and military circles, and the United Nations
United Nations
responded with United Nations
United Nations
Security Council Resolution 228
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Belgian Air Component
The BELGIAN AIR COMPONENT (Dutch : Luchtcomponent, French : Composante air) is the air arm of the Belgian Armed Forces
Belgian Armed Forces
. The Belgian military aviation was founded in 1909 and is one of the world's oldest air services. The commander is Major General
Major General
aviator Frederik Vansina, appointed on 23 July 2009. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Foundation and early years * 1.2 World War I * 1.2.1 Aircraft procurement difficulties * 1.2.2 Operational summary * 1.3 Between the world wars * 1.4 World War II * 1.5 The Cold War * 1.6 Post-Cold War reforms – COMOPSAIR * 1.7 Retired aircraft * 1.8 1990s * 1.9 2000s * 1.10 2010s * 1.10.1 Joint air policing * 2 Current Structure * 3 Aircraft * 3.1 Current inventory * 4 Future * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 Bibliography * 8 External links HISTORYFOUNDATION AND EARLY YEARSThe Belgian military aviation was founded in 1909 as a branch of the Belgian Army, carrying the name Compagnie des Ouvriers et Aérostiers. King Albert 's interest in the military use of aircraft was the main impetus for its formation. Coincidentally, in the civil aviation sector, Baron
Baron
Pierre de Caters earned the first civil pilot's brevet that same year. Caters would promptly establish an aviation school
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