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Seven-string Guitar
The SEVEN-STRING GUITAR adds one additional string, commonly used to extend the bass range (usually a low B) but it can also be used to extend the treble range of the 6 string guitar. The additional string is added in one of two different ways: by increasing the width of the fingerboard such that the additional string may be fretted by the left hand; or, by leaving the fingerboard unchanged and adding a "floating" bass string. In the latter case, the extra bass string lies next to the existing bass strings, but free of the fingerboard in similar fashion as the archlute and theorbo . Such unfrettable bass strings were historically known as diapasons or bourdons. Some types of seven-string guitars are specific to certain cultures such as the Russian and Brazilian guitars
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Archlute
The ARCHLUTE (Spanish archilaúd, Italian arciliuto, German Erzlaute, Russian Архилютня) is a European plucked string instrument developed around 1600 as a compromise between the very large theorbo , the size and re-entrant tuning of which made for difficulties in the performance of solo music, and the Renaissance
Renaissance
tenor lute , which lacked the bass range of the theorbo. Essentially a tenor lute with the theorbo's neck-extension, the archlute lacks the power in the tenor and the bass that the theorbo's large body and typically greater string length provide
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Theorbo
The THEORBO is a plucked string instrument of the lute family, with an extended neck and a second pegbox . Like a lute, a theorbo has a curved-back sound box (a hollow box) with a wooden top, typically with a sound hole, and a neck extending out from the soundbox. As with the lute, the player plucks or strums the strings with one hand while "fretting" (pressing down) the strings with the other hand; pressing the strings in different places on the neck produces different pitches (notes), thus enabling the performer to play chords , basslines and melodies . It is related to the liuto attiorbato, the French théorbe des pièces, the archlute , the German baroque lute, and the angélique or angelica. A theorbo differs from a regular lute in that the theorbo has a much longer neck which extends beyond the regular fingerboard/neck and a second pegbox at the end of the extended neck. Low-register bass strings are added on the extended neck
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Russian Guitar
The RUSSIAN GUITAR (sometimes referred to as a "Gypsy guitar") is an acoustic seven-string guitar that was developed in Russia
Russia
toward the end of the 18th century: it shares most of its organological features with the Spanish guitar, although some historians insist on English guitar ascendancy. It is known in Russian as the semistrunnaya gitara (семиструнная гитара), or affectionately as the semistrunka (семиструнка), which translates to "seven-stringer." These guitars are most commonly tuned to an Open G chord as follows: D2 G2 B2 D3 G3 B3 D4. In classical literature, the lowest string (D) occasionally is tuned down to the C
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Renaissance
The RENAISSANCE (UK : /rᵻˈneɪsəns/ , US : /rɛnəˈsɑːns/ ) was a period in European history , from the 14th to the 17th century, regarded as the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and modern history . It started as a cultural movement in Italy
Italy
in the Late Medieval period and later spread to the rest of Europe, marking the beginning of the Early Modern Age . The intellectual basis of the Renaissance
Renaissance
was its own invented version of humanism , derived from the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras
Protagoras
, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, architecture, politics, science and literature. Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete
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Course (music)
A COURSE, on a stringed musical instrument , is two or more adjacent strings that are closely spaced relative to the other strings, and typically played as a single string. The strings in each course are typically tuned in unison or an octave . Course may also refer to a single string normally played on its own on an instrument with other multi-string courses, for example the bass (lowest) string on a nine string baroque guitar . An instrument with at least one (multiple string) course is referred to as coursed, while one whose strings are all played individually is uncoursed
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UNISON
In music , UNISON is two or more musical parts sounding the same pitch or at an octave interval, usually at the same time. Rhythmic patterns which are homorhythmic are also called unison. CONTENTS * 1 Interval of the unison * 2 "In unison" * 3 Synthesizer
Synthesizer
* 4 See also * 5 Sources * 6 Further reading INTERVAL OF THE UNISON unison INVERSE octave NAME OTHER NAMES perfect unison, prime, perfect prime ABBREVIATION P1 SIZE SEMITONES 0 INTERVAL CLASS 0 JUST INTERVAL 1:1 CENTS EQUAL TEMPERAMENT 0 24 EQUAL TEMPERAMENT 0 JUST INTONATION 0Two pitches that are the same or two that move as one. UNISON or PERFECT UNISON (also called a PRIME, or PERFECT PRIME ) may refer to the (pseudo-)interval formed by a tone and its duplication (in German, Unisono, Einklang, or Prime), for example C–C, as differentiated from the second , C–D, etc
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Baroque
The BAROQUE (US : /bəˈroʊk/ or UK : /bəˈrɒk/ ) is a period of artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance, theatre, and music. The style began around 1600 in Rome
Rome
and Italy
Italy
, and spread to most of Europe. The popularity and success of the Baroque
Baroque
style was encouraged by the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
, which had decided at the time of the Council of Trent , in response to the Protestant Reformation , that the arts should communicate religious themes with direct and emotional involvement. The aristocracy viewed the dramatic style of Baroque art and architecture as a means of impressing visitors by projecting triumph, power, and control
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Reentrant Tuning
On a stringed instrument , a break in an otherwise ascending (or descending) order of string pitches is known as a RE-ENTRY. A RE-ENTRANT TUNING, therefore, is a tuning where the strings (or more properly the courses ) are not all ordered from the lowest pitch to the highest pitch (or vice versa). Most common re-entrant tunings have only one re-entry. In the case of the soprano ukulele, for example, the re-entry is between the third and fourth strings, while in the case of the Venezuelan cuatro it is between the first and second strings
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Napoleon Coste
Claude Antoine Jean Georges NAPOLéON COSTE (27 June 1805 – 17 February 1883) was a French guitarist and composer. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 List of works * 2.1 Works published with opus numbers * 2.2 Works without opus numbers * 3 Sources * 3.1 Instruments * 3.2 Sheet music * 4 Bibliography * 5 References * 6 External links BIOGRAPHY Napoléon Coste was born in Amondans (Doubs ), near Besançon
Besançon
, France. He was first taught the guitar by his mother, an accomplished player. As a teenager he became a teacher of the instrument and appeared in many (just three) concerts in the Franche-Comté
Franche-Comté
. In 1829, at the age of 24, he moved to Paris where he studied under Fernando Sor
Fernando Sor
and quickly established himself as the leading French virtuoso guitarist
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Choro
CHORO (Portuguese pronunciation: , "cry" or "lament"), also popularly called CHORINHO ("little cry" or "little lament"), is an instrumental Brazilian popular music genre which originated in 19th century Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
. Despite its name, the music often has a fast and happy rhythm. It is characterized by virtuosity, improvisation and subtle modulations , and is full of syncopation and counterpoint . Choro
Choro
is considered the first characteristically Brazilian genre of urban popular music. The serenaders who play choros are known as CHORõES
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Open G Tuning
Among alternative tunings for the guitar, an OPEN G TUNING is an open tuning that features the G-major chord ; its open notes are selected from the notes of a G-major chord, such as the G-major triad (G,B,D). For example, a popular open-G tuning is D-G-D-G-B-D (low to high). An open-G tuning allows a G-major chord to be strummed on all six strings with neither fretting of the left hand nor a capo. Like other open tunings, it allows the eleven major chords besides G major each to be strummed by barring at most one finger on exactly one fret. Open tunings are common in blues and folk music , and they are used in the playing of slide and bottleneck guitars . CONTENTS * 1 Repetitive variants for special instruments * 2 Overtones of the fundamental note G * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References REPETITIVE VARIANTS FOR SPECIAL INSTRUMENTS The seven-string Russian guitar uses the open-G tuning D-G-B-D-G-B-D
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Russia
Coordinates : 60°N 90°E / 60°N 90°E / 60; 90 Russian Federation Российская Федерация (Russian ) _Rossiyskaya Federatsiya_ Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: " "_Gosudarstvenny gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii _" (transliteration ) "State Anthem of the Russian Federation" Location of Russia (green) Russian-administered Crimea (disputed ; light green)a Capital and largest city Moscow 55°45′N 37°37′E / 55.750°N 37.617°E / 55.750; 37.617 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Russian RECOGNISED NATIONA
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Cittern
The CITTERN or CITHREN (Fr . _cistre_, It . _cetra_, Ger . _zitter, zither_, Sp . _cistro, cedra, cítola_) is a stringed instrument dating from the Renaissance
Renaissance
. Modern scholars debate its exact history, but it is generally accepted that it is descended from the Medieval
Medieval
citole , or cytole . It looks much like the modern-day flat-back mandolin and the modern Irish bouzouki . Its flat-back design was simpler and cheaper to construct than the lute . It was also easier to play, smaller, less delicate and more portable. Played by all classes, the cittern was a premier instrument of casual music-making much as is the guitar today
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Kobza
The KOBZA (Ukrainian : кобза) is a Ukrainian folk music instrument of the lute family ( Hornbostel-Sachs classification number 321.321-5+6), a relative of the Central European mandora . The term kobza however, has also been applied to a number of other Eastern European instruments distinct from the Ukrainian kobza. CONTENTS * 1 Construction * 2 History * 3 Etymology * 3.1 Other instruments known as kobza * 4 The modern Ukrainian kobza * 4.1 The fretless kobza * 4.2 The modern fretted kobza * 5 Gallery * 6 See also * 7 Additional informations * 7.1 References * 7.2 Bibliography * 8 External links CONSTRUCTIONThe Ukrainian kobza was traditionally gut-strung, lute-like stringed musical instrument with a body hewn from a single block of wood. Instruments with a staved assembly also exist. The kobza has a medium length neck which may or may not have tied-on frets, which were usually made of gut
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Torban
The TORBAN (торбан, also teorban or Ukrainian theorbo) is a Ukrainian musical instrument that combines the features of the Baroque Lute
Lute
with those of the psaltery . The Тorban differs from the more common European Bass lute known as the Theorbo in that it had additional short treble strings (known as prystrunky ) strung along the treble side of the soundboard. It appeared ca. 1700, probably influenced by the central European Theorbo and the Angelique which Cossack mercenaries would have encountered in the Thirty Years\' War , although the likelier possibility is that certain Tuliglowski, a paulite monk, was its inventor. The Torban was manufactured and used mainly in Ukraine, but also occasionally encountered in neighbouring Poland and Russia (only 3 luthiers could be identified from the surviving instruments)
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