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Set Dance
A COUNTRY DANCE is any of a large number of social dances of the British Isles in which couples dance together in a figure or "set", each dancer dancing to his or her partner and each couple dancing to the other couples in the set. A set consists most commonly of two or three couples, sometimes four and rarely five or six. Often dancers follow a "caller" who names each change in the figures. Introduced to France and then Germany and Italy in the course of the 17th century, country dances gave rise to the contradanse, one of the significant dance forms in classical music . Introduced to America by French immigrants, it remains popular in the United States as contra dance and had great influence upon Latin American music as contradanza . The Anglais (from the French word meaning "English") or Angloise is another term for the English country dance. A Scottish country dance may be termed an Ecossaise . Irish set dance is also related
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Thomas Hardy
THOMAS HARDY, OM (2 June 1840 – 11 January 1928) was an English novelist and poet. A Victorian realist in the tradition of George Eliot , he was influenced both in his novels and in his poetry by Romanticism
Romanticism
, especially William Wordsworth
William Wordsworth
. He was highly critical of much in Victorian society, especially on the declining status of rural people in Britain, such as those from his native South West England . While Hardy wrote poetry throughout his life and regarded himself primarily as a poet, his first collection was not published until 1898. Initially, therefore, he gained fame as the author of such novels as Far from the Madding Crowd (1874), The Mayor of Casterbridge (1886), Tess of the d\'Urbervilles (1891), and Jude the Obscure (1895). During his lifetime, Hardy's poetry was acclaimed by younger poets (particularly the Georgians ) who viewed him as a mentor
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Charles Dickens
CHARLES JOHN HUFFAM DICKENS (/ˈdɪkᵻnz/ ; 7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's best-known fictional characters and is regarded by many as the greatest novelist of the Victorian era . His works enjoyed unprecedented popularity during his lifetime, and by the 20th century critics and scholars had recognised him as a literary genius. His novels and short stories enjoy lasting popularity. Born in Portsmouth
Portsmouth
, Dickens left school to work in a factory when his father was incarcerated in a debtors\' prison . Despite his lack of formal education, he edited a weekly journal for 20 years, wrote 15 novels, five novellas, hundreds of short stories and non-fiction articles, lectured and performed extensively, was an indefatigable letter writer, and campaigned vigorously for children's rights, education, and other social reforms
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Scotland
SCOTLAND (/ˈskɒt.lənd/ ; Scots : ; Scottish Gaelic : Alba
Alba
( listen )) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
. It shares a border with England
England
to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean , with the North Sea to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea
Irish Sea
to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides . The Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707
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Virginia Reel (dance)
THE VIRGINIA REEL is a folk dance that dates from the 17th century. Though the reel may have its origins in Scottish country dance and the Highland reel, and perhaps have an even earlier influence from an Irish dance
Irish dance
called the Rinnce Fada , it is generally considered to be an English country dance
English country dance
. The dance was most popular in America from 1830–1890. The Virginia reel was a popular dance, and in each area there would be slight differences. This has given rise to a large number of dances called the Virginia reel. All of the versions have certain similarities, such as the reel figure. CONTENTS * 1 The dance * 2 Variations * 3 Step * 4 Calls * 5 Music * 6 References THE DANCEDescribed below is one version of the Virginia reel. The dancers line up in two lines of 5-7 couples, partners facing each other
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Danzon
DANZóN is the official musical genre and dance of Cuba
Cuba
. It is also an active musical form in Mexico
Mexico
, and is still much loved in Puerto Rico . Written in 2 4 time, the danzón is a slow, formal partner dance , requiring set footwork around syncopated beats, and incorporating elegant pauses while the couples stand listening to virtuoso instrumental passages, as characteristically played by a charanga or tipica ensemble. The danzón evolved from the Cuban contradanza , or habanera (literally, ' Havana
Havana
-dance'). The contradanza, which had English and French roots in the country dance and contredanse , was probably introduced to Cuba
Cuba
by the Spanish, who ruled the island for almost four centuries (1511–1898), contributing many thousands of immigrants
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Jane Austen
JANE AUSTEN (/ˈdʒeɪn ˈɒstɪn/ ; 16 December 1775 – 18 July 1817) was an English novelist known primarily for her six major novels, which interpret, critique and comment upon the British landed gentry at the end of the 18th century. Austen's plots often explore the dependence of women on marriage in the pursuit of favourable social standing and economic security. Her works critique the novels of sensibility of the second half of the 18th century and are part of the transition to 19th-century literary realism. With the publications of Sense and Sensibility
Sense and Sensibility
(1811), Pride and Prejudice (1813), Mansfield Park
Mansfield Park
(1814) and Emma (1815), she achieved success as a published writer. She wrote two additional novels, Northanger Abbey
Northanger Abbey
and Persuasion , both published posthumously in 1818, and began another, eventually titled Sanditon , but died before its completion
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Les Lanciers
LES LANCIERS or THE LANCERS is a square dance , a variant of the Quadrille
Quadrille
, a set dance performed by four couples, particularly popular in the 18th and 19th centuries. It is a composite dance made up of five figures or tours, each performed four times so that each couple dances the lead part. It exists in many variants in several countries. Widespread though it was throughout Europe, Les Lanciers
Les Lanciers
became less fashionable by the beginning of 20th the century. It has survived as a popular dance in Denmark
Denmark
to the present day, having been introduced from England
England
in 1860. The Danish dance took its current form before the 1st World War. From the bourgeoisie of Copenhagen
Copenhagen
it spread through dancing schools in provincial towns and through the landed gentry
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Beauchamp-Feuillet Notation
BEAUCHAMP–FEUILLET NOTATION is a system of dance notation used in Baroque dance
Baroque dance
. eight bars of a dance recorded and published by Feuillet in 1700 The notation was commissioned by Louis XIV (who had founded the Académie Royale de Danse
Académie Royale de Danse
in 1661), and devised in the 1680s by Pierre Beauchamp . The notation system was first described in detail in 1700 by Raoul-Auger Feuillet in Chorégraphie. Feuillet also then began a programme of publishing complete notated dances. It was used to record dances for the stage and domestic use throughout the eighteenth century, being modified by Pierre Rameau
Pierre Rameau
in 1725, and surviving into at least the 1780s in various modified forms
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John Essex
JOHN ESSEX (born c.1680 - died 1744, London
London
) was an English dancer, choreographer and author who promoted the recording of dance steps through notation as well as performing in London
London
theatre. In 1728 he published his major work The Dancing-Master, or, The Art of Dancing Explained, a translation of Pierre Rameau
Pierre Rameau
's Le maître à danser (1725). CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Notes * 3 References * 4 External links LIFEHe is first mentioned in record in 1702 as a dancer at Drury Lane Theatre , performing serious and comic dances. In 1703 he left after a dispute with the manager, Christopher Rich . He set up as an independent dance teacher and teacher of music in Rood Lane (off Fenchurch Street) in the parish of St Dionis Backchurch
St Dionis Backchurch
in the City of London
London

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Quadrille
The QUADRILLE is a dance that was fashionable in late 18th- and 19th-century Europe and its colonies. Performed by four couples in a rectangular formation, it is related to American square dancing . The Lancers , a variant of the quadrille, became popular in the late 19th century and was still danced in the 20th century in folk-dance clubs. A derivative found in the Francophone Lesser Antilles
Lesser Antilles
is known as kwadril , and the dance is also still found in Madagascar
Madagascar
and is within old Jamaican / Caribbean culture. The quadrille consists of a chain of four to six contredanses , courtly versions of English country dances that had been taken up at the court of Louis XIV
Louis XIV
and spread across Europe. Latterly the quadrille was frequently danced to a medley of opera melodies
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Cotillion
The COTILLION (also COTILLON or "FRENCH COUNTRY DANCE") is a social dance , popular in 18th-century Europe and America. Originally for four couples in square formation , it was a courtly version of an English country dance , the forerunner of the quadrille and, in the United States, the square dance . It was for some fifty years regarded as an ideal finale to a ball but was eclipsed in the early 19th century by the quadrille. It became so elaborate that it was sometimes presented as a concert dance performed by trained and rehearsed dancers. The later "German" cotillion included more couples as well as plays and games. HISTORY A mid-17th century painting by Jacob Duck
Jacob Duck
, called The Cotillion, is the earliest possible reference to a dance with this name
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Mambo (dance)
MAMBO is a Latin dance
Latin dance
of Cuba
Cuba
. Mambo was invented during the 1930s by the native Cuban musician and composer Arsenio Rodríguez
Arsenio Rodríguez
, developed in Havana
Havana
by Cachao
Cachao
and made popular by Dámaso Pérez Prado and Benny Moré . CONTENTS * 1 History of dance form * 2 Americanization * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORY OF DANCE FORMIn the late 1940s, Perez Prado came up with the dance for the mambo music and became the first person to market his music as "mambo", meaning "conversation with the gods" in the Kongo language
Kongo language
, spoken by Congolese . After Havana
Havana
, Prado moved his music to Mexico, where his music and the dance was adopted. The original mambo dance was characterized by freedom and complicated foot-steps
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Cha-cha-cha (dance)
The CHA-CHA-CHá, or simply CHA-CHA in the U.S., is a dance of Cuban origin. It is danced to the music of the same name introduced by Cuban composer and violinist Enrique Jorrin in the early 1950's. This rhythm was developed from the danzón-mambo . The name of the dance is an onomatopoeia derived from the shuffling sound of the dancers' feet. CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Description * 2.1 Basic step of cha-cha-chá * 2.2 Hip movement * 3 International Latin style cha-cha * 4 References * 5 External links ORIGIN Cha-cha rhythm In the early 1950s, Enrique Jorrín worked as a violinist and composer with the charanga group Orquesta América . The group performed at dance halls in Havana where they played danzón , danzonete, and danzon-mambo for dance-orientated crowds. Jorrín noticed that many of the dancers at these gigs had difficulty with the syncopated rhythms of the danzón-mambo
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English Folk Dance And Song Society
The ENGLISH FOLK DANCE AND SONG SOCIETY (EFDSS) was formed in 1932 when two organisations merged: the Folk-Song Society and the English Folk Dance Society. The EFDSS, a member-based organisation, was incorporated as a Company
Company
limited by guarantee (No. 297142) in 1935 and became a Registered Charity (No. 305999) in England and Wales in 1963. The Folk-Song Society, founded in London in 1898, focused on collecting and publishing, primarily folk songs of Britain and Ireland although there was no formal limitation. Participants included Lucy Broadwood , Kate Lee , Cecil Sharp , Percy Grainger
Percy Grainger
, Ralph Vaughan Williams , George Butterworth
George Butterworth
, George Barnet Gardiner , Henry Hammond, Anne Gilchrist and Ella Leather
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