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Sergei N. Artemov
Sergei Nikolaevich Artemov (Russian: Сергей Николаевич Артемов) (born December 25, 1951) is a Russian-American researcher in logic and its applications. He currently holds the title of Distinguished Professor[1] at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York[2] where he is the founder and head of its research laboratory for logic and computation.[3][4] His research interests include proof theory and logic in computer science, optimal control and hybrid systems, automated deduction and verification, epistemology, and epistemic game theory. He is best known for his invention of logics of proofs and justifications.Contents1 Research 2 Biography 3 Academic career 4 Awards 5 Selected bibliography 6 References 7 External linksResearch[edit] In the area of proof theory, Artemov established the impossibility of finding a complete axiom system for first-order provability logic (1985) and has pioneered studies of the logic of proofs
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Uralsk
Uralsk
Uralsk
(Russian: Уральск) is the name of several rural localities in Russia:Uralsk, Republic of Bashkortostan, a selo in Uralsky Selsoviet of Uchalinsky District
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CUNY Graduate Center
The Graduate Center of the City University of New York
City University of New York
is a public American research institution and post-graduate university based in New York City. It is the principal doctoral-granting institution of the City University of New York
City University of New York
(CUNY) system. The school is situated in a nine-story landmark building at 365 Fifth Avenue
Fifth Avenue
at the corner of 34th Street in the Midtown neighborhood of Manhattan, across the corner from the Empire State Building. The Graduate Center has 4,600 students, 31 doctoral programs, 14 master's programs, and 30 research centers and institutes
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PostScript
PostScript
PostScript
(PS) is a page description language in the electronic publishing and desktop publishing business
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Doctor Of Sciences
Doktor nauk (Russian and Ukrainian: До́ктор нау́к, Bulgarian: Доктор на науките, Belarusian: Доктар навук, literally translated as "Doctor of Sciences") is a higher doctoral degree which may be earned after the Candidate of Sciences (the latter is informally regarded in Russia
Russia
and many other post-Soviet states as equivalent to the PhD
PhD
obtained in countries in which the PhD
PhD
is not the highest academic degree).Contents1 History 2 Admission 3 See also 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] The "Doktor Nauk" degree was introduced in Russia
Russia
in 1819 and abolished in 1917
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Ph.D.
A Doctor of Philosophy
Philosophy
(PhD, Ph.D., DPhil, or Dr. phil.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries. PhDs are awarded for programs across the whole breadth of academic fields. The completion of a PhD is often a requirement for employment as a university professor, researcher, or scientist in many fields. Individuals who have earned a Doctor of Philosophy
Philosophy
degree may, in most jurisdictions, use the title Doctor (often abbreviated "Dr") or, in non-English speaking countries, variants such as "Dr. phil." with their name, and may use post-nominal letters such as "Ph.D.", "PhD" (depending on the awarding institute). The requirements to earn a PhD degree vary considerably according to the country, institution, and time period, from entry-level research degrees to higher doctorates
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Oral, Kazakhstan
Oral (Kazakh: Орал), Ural'sk (Russian: Уральск) in Russian, formerly known as Yaitsk (Russian: Яицк, until 1775), is a city in northwestern Kazakhstan, at the confluence of the Ural and Chogan rivers close to the Russian border. As it is located on the western bank of the Ural river, it is considered geographically in Europe. It is the capital of the West Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Region. The ethnic composition is dominated by Kazakhs
Kazakhs
(60%) and Russians. Population: 271,900 (2009 Census results);[3] 194,905 (1999 Census results).[3] Oral is an agricultural and industrial centre, and has been an important trade stop since its founding. Barge traffic has passed up and down the Ural River
Ural River
between the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
and the Ural Mountains for centuries
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Intuitionistic Logic
Intuitionistic logic, sometimes more generally called constructive logic, refers to systems of symbolic logic that differ from the systems used for classical logic by more closely mirroring the notion of constructive proof. In particular, systems of intuitionistic logic do not include the law of the excluded middle and double negation elimination, which are fundamental inference rules in classical logic. Formalized intuitionistic logic was originally developed by Arend Heyting to provide a formal basis for Brouwer's programme of intuitionism. From a proof-theoretic perspective, Heyting’s calculus is a restriction of classical logic in which the law of excluded middle and double negation elimination have been removed. Excluded middle and double negation elimination can still be proved for some propositions on a case by case basis, however, but do not hold universally as they do with classical logic. Several systems of semantics for intuitionistic logic have been studied
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Brouwer–Heyting–Kolmogorov Interpretation
In mathematical logic, the Brouwer–Heyting–Kolmogorov interpretation, or BHK interpretation, of intuitionistic logic was proposed by L. E. J. Brouwer
L. E. J. Brouwer
and Arend Heyting, and independently by Andrey Kolmogorov. It is also sometimes called the realizability interpretation, because of the connection with the realizability theory of Stephen Kleene.Contents1 The interpretation 2 Examples 3 What is absurdity? 4 What is a function? 5 ReferencesThe interpretation[edit] The interpretation states what is intended to be a proof of a given formula
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City University Of New York
The City University of New York
City University of New York
(CUNY; pron.: /ˈkjuːni/) is the public university system of New York City, and the largest urban university system in the United States. CUNY and the State University of New York (SUNY) are separate and independent university systems, despite the fact that both public institutions receive funding from New York State
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Russian Language
Russian (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language
East Slavic language
and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and many minor or unrecognised territories throughout Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularly in Eastern Europe, the Baltics, the Caucasus, and Central Asia). It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Latvia, Moldova, Ukraine
Ukraine
and to a lesser extent, the other post-Soviet states.[31][32] Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(which in turn is part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch)
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USSR
The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: [sɐˈvʲɛt͡skʲɪj sɐˈjus] ( listen)), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: [sɐˈjus sɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪx sətsɨəlʲɪsˈtʲitɕɪskʲɪx rʲɪˈspublʲɪk] ( listen)), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics,[a] its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
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Doctoral Advisor
A doctoral advisor (also dissertation director or dissertation advisor) is a member of a university faculty whose role is to guide graduate students who are candidates for a doctorate, helping them select coursework, as well as shaping, refining and directing the students' choice of sub-discipline in which they will be examined or on which they will write a dissertation.[1] Students generally choose advisors based on their areas of interest within their discipline, their desire to work closely with particular graduate faculty, and the willingness and availability of those faculty to work with them. In some countries, the student's advisor serves as the chair of the doctoral examination or dissertation committees. In some cases, though, the person who serves those roles may be different from the faculty member who has most closely advised the student
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Cornell University
Cornell University
University
(/kɔːrˈnɛl/ kor-NEL) is a private and statutory Ivy League
Ivy League
research university located in Ithaca, New York. Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell
Ezra Cornell
and Andrew Dickson White,[7] the university was intended to teach and make contributions in all fields of knowledge—from the classics to the sciences, and from the theoretical to the applied. These ideals, unconventional for the time, are captured in Cornell's motto, a popular 1865 Ezra Cornell quotation: "I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study."[1] The university is broadly organized into seven undergraduate colleges and seven graduate divisions at its main Ithaca campus, with each college and division defining its own admission standards and academic programs in near autonomy
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