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Serge (fabric)
SERGE is a type of twill fabric that has diagonal lines or ridges on both sides, made with a two-up, two-down weave . The worsted variety is used in making military uniforms , suits , great coats and trench coats . Its counterpart, silk serge, is used for linings. French serge is a softer, finer variety. The word is also used for a high quality woolen woven fabric. ETYMOLOGY AND HISTORYThe name is derived from Old French serge, itself from Latin serica, from Greek σηρικός (serikos), meaning "silken". The early association of silk serge, Greece, and France is shown by the discovery in Charlemagne
Charlemagne
's tomb of a piece of silk serge dyed with Byzantine motifs, evidently a gift from the Byzantine Imperial Court in the 8th or 9th century AD. It also appears to refer to a form of silk twill produced in the early renaissance in or around Florence, used for clerical cassocks
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Low Countries
The LOW COUNTRIES (Dutch : De Lage Landen or De Nederlanden, French : Les Pays-Bas) is a coastal region in western Europe
Europe
, consisting especially of the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Belgium
Belgium
, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine
Rhine
, Meuse , Scheldt
Scheldt
, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level. This wide area of Western Europe
Europe
roughly stretches from French Gravelines
Gravelines
and Dunkirk at its southwestern point, to the area of Dutch Delfzijl
Delfzijl
and German Eastern Frisia
Eastern Frisia
at its northeastern point, and to Luxembourg
Luxembourg
and French Thionville in the southeast
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Eighty Years' War
Peace of Münster * Spain
Spain
recognises the independence of the Dutch Republic * Spanish retention of the Southern Netherlands BELLIGERENTS United Provinces E
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Calais
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. CALAIS (/ˈkæleɪ/ CAL-ay , traditionally /ˈkælᵻs/ ; French pronunciation: ​ ; Picard : Calés; Dutch : Kales) is a town and major ferry port in northern France
France
in the department of Pas-de-Calais , of which it is a sub-prefecture . Although Calais
Calais
is by far the largest city in Pas-de-Calais, the department's prefecture is the third-largest city of Arras
Arras
. The population of the metropolitan area at the 2010 census was 126,395
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Don Quixote
DON QUIXOTE (/ˌdɒn kiːˈhoʊti/ Spanish: ( listen ), fully titled THE INGENIOUS NOBLEMAN MISTER QUIXOTE OF LA MANCHA (Spanish: EL INGENIOSO HIDALGO DON QUIJOTE DE LA MANCHA ), is a Spanish novel by Miguel de Cervantes
Miguel de Cervantes
Saavedra . Published in two volumes, in 1605 and 1615, Don Quixote
Don Quixote
is considered the most influential work of literature from the Spanish Golden Age and the entire Spanish literary canon. As a founding work of modern Western literature and one of the earliest canonical novels, it regularly appears high on lists of the greatest works of fiction ever published, such as the Bokklubben World Library collection that cites Don Quixote
Don Quixote
as the authors' choice for the "best literary work ever written". The story follows the adventures of a hidalgo named Mr
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Byzantine Empire
The BYZANTINE EMPIRE, also referred to as the EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages , when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul
Istanbul
, which had been founded as Byzantium
Byzantium
). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
Europe

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French Wars Of Religion
Uneasy Catholic- Protestant
Protestant
truce * House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
gains the French throne *
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Calvinism
CALVINISM (also called the REFORMED TRADITION, REFORMED CHRISTIANITY, REFORMED PROTESTANTISM, or the REFORMED FAITH) is a major branch of Protestantism
Protestantism
that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin
John Calvin
and other Reformation-era theologians . Calvinists broke from the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in the 16th century. Calvinism
Calvinism
differs from Lutherans on the real presence of Christ
Christ
in the Eucharist , theories of worship , and the use of God\'s law for believers , among other things. As declared in the Westminster and Second Helvetic confessions, a basic principle is that the Bible
Bible
is to be interpreted by itself, meaning the parts that are harder to understand are examined in the light of other passages where the Bible is more explicit on the matter
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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International Standard Serial Number (identifier)
An INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER (ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication . The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type , a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media . The ISSN system refers to these types as PRINT ISSN (P-ISSN) and ELECTRONIC ISSN (E-ISSN), respectively
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Red Serge
The RED SERGE refers to the jacket of the dress uniform of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police . It consists of a scarlet British-style military pattern tunic , complete with a high-neck collar and blue breeches with yellow stripe identifying a cavalry history. CONTENTS * 1 Constables and non-commissioned officers * 2 Commissioned officers * 3 History * 4 In popular culture * 5 External links CONSTABLES AND NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERSConstables (Cst) and non-commissioned officers (NCOs) wear the red serge tunic with blue gorget patches on their collars and epaulettes of navy blue. Metal collar dogs of the RCMP badge are worn on the neck. Constables and NCOs wear embroidered firearms qualification badges on the bottom of their left sleeve, and their embroidered specialist trade badge on the right sleeve. If a second specialist badge is earned, the least current is worn below the firearms qualification badges
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Huguenot
HUGUENOTS (English pronunciation /ˈhjuːɡənɒt/ or /ˈhjuːɡənoʊ/ ; French : Les huguenots, ) are the ethnoreligious group of French Protestants
Protestants
who follow the Reformed tradition . The term was used frequently to describe members of the Reformed Church of France
France
until the beginning of the 19th century. The term has its origin in 16th-century France. Huguenots were French Protestants mainly from northern France, who were inspired by the writings of John Calvin and endorsed the Reformed tradition of Protestantism, contrary to the largely German Lutheran
Lutheran
population of Alsace
Alsace
, Moselle , and Montbéliard . Hans Hillerbrand in his Encyclopedia of Protestantism claims the Huguenot
Huguenot
community reached as much as 10% of the French population on the eve of the St
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Charlemagne
CHARLEMAGNE (/ˈʃɑːrlᵻmeɪn/ ) or CHARLES THE GREAT (2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered CHARLES I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774 and Emperor of the Romans from 800. He united much of Europe during the early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. He was the first recognised emperor in western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
three centuries earlier. The expanded Frankish state that Charlemagne
Charlemagne
founded is called the Carolingian Empire . Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was the oldest son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon . He became king in 768 following his father's death, initially as co-ruler with his brother Carloman I . Carloman's sudden death in 771 in unexplained circumstances left Charlemagne
Charlemagne
as the undisputed ruler of the Frankish Kingdom
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