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Serer Religion
The SERER RELIGION, or A ƭAT ROOG ("the way of the Divine"), is the original religious beliefs, practices, and teachings of the Serer people of Senegal
Senegal
in western Africa
Africa
. The Serer people believe in a universal supreme deity called Roog
Roog
(or Rog). In the Cangin languages , Roog
Roog
is referred to as Koox (var : Kooh ), Kopé Tiatie Cac
Kopé Tiatie Cac
, Kokh Kox , etc. The Serer people are found throughout the Senegambia
Senegambia
region . Serer religious practices encompass ancient chants and poems, veneration of and offerings to deities as well as spirits (pangool ), astronomy , Initiation
Initiation
rites, medicine , cosmology and the history of the Serer people
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Senegambia Confederation
SENEGAMBIA, officially the SENEGAMBIA CONFEDERATION, was a loose confederation in the late 20th century between the West African countries of Senegal
Senegal
and its neighbour The Gambia , which is almost completely surrounded by Senegal. The confederation was founded on 1 February 1982 following an agreement between the two countries signed on 12 December 1981. It was intended to promote cooperation between the two countries, but was dissolved by Senegal
Senegal
on 30 September 1989 after The Gambia refused to move closer toward union. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Problems with Senegambia\'s border * 3 Birth of the Confederation
Confederation
* 4 End of the Confederation
Confederation
* 5 References HISTORYAs a political unit, Senegambia was created by dueling French and English colonial forces in the region
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Inlet
An INLET is an indentation of a shoreline, usually long and narrow, such as a small bay or arm, that often leads to an enclosed body of salt water , such as a sound , bay , lagoon , or marsh . CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 See also * 3 Notes * 4 References * 5 External links OVERVIEWIn sea coasts, an inlet usually refers to the actual connection between a bay and the ocean and is often called an "entrance" or a recession in the shore of a sea, lake, or river. A certain kind of inlet created by glaciation is a fjord , typically but not always in mountainous coastlines and also in montane lakes. Complexes of large inlets or fjords may be called sounds , e.g., Puget Sound , Howe Sound , Karmsund (sund is Scandinavian for "sound")
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Tassili N'Ajjer
TASSILI N\'AJJER (Berber : Tasili n Ajjer, Arabic : طاسيلي ناجر‎‎, English: Plateau of the Rivers) is a heavily eroded sandstone rock formation in the Sahara desert, located on a vast plateau that encompasses southeastern Algeria
Algeria
, western Libya
Libya
and northern Niger
Niger
. It features over 300 rock arches, dense clusters of eroded sandstone rock pillars, and steep cliffs and gorges, where water pools permanently at the surface. Tassili n'Ajjer
Tassili n'Ajjer
covers an area of over 72,000 km2 (28,000 sq mi)
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Cosmology
COSMOLOGY (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe . Physical cosmology is the scholarly and scientific study of the origin, large-scale structures and dynamics, and ultimate fate of the universe , as well as the scientific laws that govern these realities. The term cosmology was first used in English in 1656 in Thomas Blount 's Glossographia, and in 1731 taken up in Latin by German philosopher Christian Wolff , in Cosmologia Generalis. Religious or mythological cosmology is a body of beliefs based on mythological , religious , and esoteric literature and traditions of creation myths and eschatology . Physical cosmology is studied by scientists, such as astronomers and physicists , as well as philosophers , such as metaphysicians , philosophers of physics , and philosophers of space and time
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Medicine
MEDICINE (British English /ˈmɛdsᵻn/ ( listen ); American English /ˈmɛdᵻsᵻn/ ( listen )) is the science and practice of the diagnosis , treatment , and prevention of disease . The word "medicine" is derived from Latin
Latin
medicus, meaning "a physician". Medicine
Medicine
encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness . Contemporary medicine applies biomedical sciences , biomedical research , genetics , and medical technology to diagnose , treat, and prevent injury and disease, typically through pharmaceuticals or surgery , but also through therapies as diverse as psychotherapy , external splints and traction , medical devices , biologics , and ionizing radiation , amongst others
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Initiation
INITIATION is a rite of passage marking entrance or acceptance into a group or society. It could also be a formal admission to adulthood in a community or one of its formal components. In an extended sense it can also signify a transformation in which the initiate is 'reborn' into a new role. Examples of initiation ceremonies might include Hindu diksha , Christian baptism or confirmation , Jewish bar or bat mitzvah , acceptance into a fraternal organization , secret society or religious order , or graduation from school or recruit training . A person taking the initiation ceremony in traditional rites, such as those depicted in these pictures, is called an initiate
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Astronomy
ASTRONOMY (from Greek : αστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It applies mathematics , physics , and chemistry , in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution . Objects of interest include planets , moons , stars , galaxies , and comets ; while the phenomena include supernova explosions , gamma ray bursts , and cosmic microwave background radiation . More generally, all astronomical phenomena that originate outside Earth\'s atmosphere are within the purview of astronomy. A related but distinct subject, physical cosmology , is concerned with the study of the Universe as a whole. Astronomy
Astronomy
is the oldest of the natural sciences. The early civilizations in recorded history , such as the Babylonians , Greeks , Indians , Egyptians , Nubians
Nubians
, Iranians , Chinese , and Maya performed methodical observations of the night sky
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Creator Deity
A CREATOR DEITY or CREATOR GOD (often called THE CREATOR) is a deity or god responsible for the creation of the Earth
Earth
, world , and universe . In monotheism , the single God
God
is often also the creator. A number of monolatristic traditions separate a secondary creator from a primary transcendent being, identified as a primary creator
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Africa
AFRICA is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent (the first being Asia
Asia
). At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth\'s total surface area and 20.4% of its total land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population . The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, both the Suez Canal and the Red Sea along the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The continent includes Madagascar
Madagascar
and various archipelagos . It contains 54 fully recognised sovereign states (countries ), nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition
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Adansonia Digitata
ADANSONIA DIGITATA (BAOBAB) is the most widespread of the Adansonia species, and is native to the African continent. The long-lived pachycauls are typically found in dry, hot savannahs of sub-Saharan Africa , where they dominate the landscape, and reveal the presence of a watercourse from afar. Their growth rate is determined by ground water or rainfall, and their maximum age, which is subject to much conjecture, seems to be in the order of 1,500 years. They have traditionally been valued as sources of food, water, health remedies or places of shelter and are steeped in legend and superstition. European explorers of old were inclined to carve their names on baobabs, and many are defaced by modern graffiti. Common names for the baobab include DEAD-RAT TREE (from the appearance of the fruit), MONKEY-BREAD TREE (the soft, dry fruit is edible), UPSIDE-DOWN TREE (the sparse branches resemble roots) and CREAM OF TARTAR TREE (cream of tartar )
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Animism
ANIMISM (from Latin
Latin
anima, "breath , spirit , life ") is the religious belief that objects, places, and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence. Potentially, animism perceives all things—animals, plants, rocks, rivers, weather systems, human handiwork, and perhaps even words—as animated and alive. Animism
Animism
is the oldest known type of belief system in the world that even predates paganism . It is still practiced in a variety of forms in many traditional societies. Animism
Animism
is used in the anthropology of religion as a term for the belief system of many indigenous tribal peoples , especially in contrast to the relatively more recent development of organized religions . Although each culture has its own different mythologies and rituals, "animism" is said to describe the most common, foundational thread of indigenous peoples' "spiritual" or "supernatural" perspectives
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Wealth
WEALTH is the abundance of valuable resources or valuable material possessions . This includes the core meaning as held in the originating old English word weal, which is from an Indo-European word stem. An individual, community, region or country that possesses an abundance of such possessions or resources to the benefit of the common good is known as wealthy. The modern concept of wealth is of significance in all areas of economics , and clearly so for growth economics and development economics yet the meaning of wealth is context-dependent. At the most general level, economists may define wealth as "anything of value" that captures both the subjective nature of the idea and the idea that it is not a fixed or static concept. Various definitions and concepts of wealth have been asserted by various individuals and in different contexts
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Lord
LORD is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority , control, or power over others acting like a master, a chief, or a ruler . The
The
appellation can also denote certain persons who hold a title of the peerage in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, or are entitled to courtesy titles . The
The
collective "Lords" can refer to a group or body of peers
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Devil
The DEVIL (from Greek : διάβολος or diábolos slanderer or accuser) is, according to Christianity
Christianity
, the primary opponent of God . Christianity
Christianity
identifies the Devil
Devil
(" Satan
Satan
") with the Serpent who tempted Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
to eat the forbidden fruit , and describes him as a "fallen angel " who terrorizes the world through evil, is the antithesis of Truth , and shall be condemned, together with the fallen angels who follow him, to eternal fire at the Last Judgement
Last Judgement
. Islam identifies the Devil
Devil
("Shaitan") with all those who oppose Allah
Allah
. Some non-Abrahamic religions contain figures similar to the Devil, such as the Buddhist demon Mara and the Zoroastrian spirit Angra Mainyu
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