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Serer People
Senegal (1.84 million), Gambia (31,900), Mauritania and expats. LANGUAGES Serer proper , Cangin languages , Wolof French ( Senegal and Mauritania), English (Gambia), RELIGION Senegal 2002: 90% Islam , 9% Christianity and Serer religion (ƭat Roog) RELATED ETHNIC GROUPS Wolof people , Toucouleur people and Lebou people The SERER PEOPLE are a West African ethnoreligious group . They are the third largest ethnic group in Senegal making up 15% of the Senegalese population. They are also found in northern Gambia and southern Mauritania. The Serer people originated in the Senegal River valley at the border of Senegal and Mauritania, moved south in the 11th and 12th century, then again in the 15th and 16th centuries as their villages were invaded and they were subjected to religious pressures. They have had a sedentary settled culture and have been known for their farming expertise. The Serer people have been historically noted as a matrilineal ethnic group that long resisted the expansion of Islam, fought against jihads in the 19th century, then opposed the French colonial rule
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Fatou Diome
FATOU DIOME (born 1968 in Niodior) is a Franco- Senegalese
Senegalese
writer, known for her bestselling novel The Belly of the Atlantic, published in 2001. Her work explores immigrant life in France
France
, and the relationship between France
France
and Africa. Fatou Diome
Fatou Diome
currently lives in Strasbourg
Strasbourg
, France. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Works * 3 Bibliography * 4 References * 5 External links * 5.1 fr BIOGRAPHY Fatou Diome
Fatou Diome
was born in Niodior on the island of the same name in the Sine-Saloum Delta. She was raised by her grandmother and went to school and became passionate about French literature. At the age of 13 she left Niodior and continued her education in M\'Bour . Later she moved to Dakar
Dakar
to study at the university, supporting herself by working as a housekeeper. In 1990 she married a Frenchman and moved to France
France
. Rejected by her traditional Serer family and by his family, she divorced two years later. In 1994 Diome moved to Strasbourg
Strasbourg
to study at the University of Strasbourg
Strasbourg
. She is currently working on her Ph.D. in French language and literature. The title of her Ph.D
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Léopold Senghor
LéOPOLD SéDAR SENGHOR (9 October 1906 – 20 December 2001) was a Senegalese poet , politician, and cultural theorist who for two decades served as the first president of Senegal
Senegal
(1960–80). Ideologically an African socialist , he was associated with the Négritude movement. He was the founder of the Senegalese Democratic Bloc party. Senghor was the first African elected as a member of the Académie française . He is regarded by many as one of the most important African intellectuals of the 20th century. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Early years: 1906–28 * 3 "Sixteen years of wandering": 1928–1944 * 3.1 Academic career * 3.2 Military service * 4 Political career: 1945–1982 * 4.1 Colonial France
France
* 4.2 Political changes * 4.3 Senegal
Senegal
* 4.4 Francophonie * 5 Académie française: 1983–2001 * 6 Death * 7 Legacy * 8 Honors * 9 Poetry * 10 Négritude * 11 Works of Senghor * 12 See also * 13 References * 14 Further reading * 15 External links BIOGRAPHYSenghor's first marriage was to Ginette Éboué, daughter of Félix Éboué . His second wife, Colette Hubert, who was from France, became Senegal's first First Lady upon independence in 1960. Senghor had three sons between his two marriages
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Senegal
Coordinates : 14°N 14°W / 14°N 14°W / 14; -14 Republic of Senegal _République du Sénégal_ (French ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Un Peuple, Un But, Une Foi" (French ) "One People, One Goal, One Faith" ANTHEM: _ Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons _ _Everyone strum your koras , strike the balafons _ Location of Senegal (dark blue) in the African Union (light blue) Capital and largest city Dakar 14°40′N 17°25′W / 14.667°N 17.417°W / 14.667; -17.417 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES French NATIONAL LANGUAGES * Balanta-Ganja * Hassaniya Arabic * Jola-Fonyi * Mandinka * Mandjak * Mankanya * Noon *
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The Gambia
THE GAMBIA (/ˈɡæmbi.ə/ ( listen )), officially the REPUBLIC OF THE GAMBIA, is a country in West Africa that is entirely surrounded by Senegal except for its coastline on the Atlantic Ocean at its western end. It is the smallest country in mainland Africa . The Gambia is situated on either side of the Gambia River , the nation's namesake, which flows through the centre of The Gambia and empties into the Atlantic Ocean. Its area is 10,689 square kilometres (4,127 sq mi) with a population of 1,882,450 at the April 2013 census (provisional). Banjul is the Gambian capital, and the largest cities are Serekunda and Brikama . The Gambia shares historical roots with many other West African nations in the slave trade , which was the key factor in the placing and keeping of a colony on the Gambia River , first by the Portuguese, during which era it was known as _A Gâmbia_. Later, on 25 May 1765, The Gambia was made a part of the British Empire when the government formally assumed control, establishing the Province of Senegambia. In 1965, The Gambia gained independence under the leadership of Dawda Jawara , who ruled until Yahya Jammeh seized power in a bloodless 1994 coup
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Mauritania
Coordinates : 20°N 12°W / 20°N 12°W / 20; -12 Islamic Republic
Republic
of Mauritania الجمهورية الإسلامية الموريتانية (Arabic ) _al-Jumhūrīyah al-Islāmīyah al-Mūrītānīyah_ _République islamique de Mauritanie_ (French ) Flag Seal MOTTO: شرف إخاء عدل (Arabic) "Honor, Fraternity, Justice" ANTHEM: نشيد وطني موريتاني _" National anthem of Mauritania "_ Location of Mauritania
Mauritania
(green) in
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Serer Language
SERER, sometimes called SERER-SINE "Serer proper" (_Seereer-Siin_, etc.) after its prestige dialect , is a language of the Senegambian branch of Niger–Congo spoken by 1.2 million people in Senegal and 30,000 in the Gambia . It is the principal language of the Serer people . CONTENTS * 1 Classification * 2 Phonology * 2.1 Consonants * 3 Serer greetings * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 Bibliography CLASSIFICATIONSerer is one of the Senegambian languages , which are characterized by consonant mutation . The traditional classification of Atlantic is that of Sapir (1971), which found that Serer was closest to Fulani . However, a widely cited misreading of the data by Wilson (1989) inadvertently exchanged Serer for Wolof . Dialects of Serer are Serer Sine (the prestige dialect ), Segum, Fadyut-Palmerin, Dyegueme (Gyegem), and Niominka . They are mutually intelligible . Not all Serer people speak Serer. About 200,000 speak Cangin languages . Because the speakers are ethnically Serer, these are commonly thought to be Serer dialects
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Cangin Languages
The CANGIN LANGUAGES are spoken by 200,000 people (as of 2007) in a small area east of Dakar
Dakar
, Senegal
Senegal
. They are the languages spoken by the Serer people who do not speak the Serer language (Serer-Sine). Because the people are ethnically Serer, the Cangin languages
Cangin languages
are commonly thought to be dialects of the Serer language. However, they are not closely related; Serer is closer to Fulani than it is to Cangin. The languages are: Safen , or Saafi-Saafi, the language of the Saafi people . Spoken inland from the Petite Côte, an area southeast of Dakar. The largest Cangin language, with over 100,000 speakers and growing (2007). Lehar (Laalaa), the language of the Serer-Laalaa (or Serer-Lehar), spoken in a small area north of Thiès
Thiès
. Noon , the language of the Serer-Noon , spoken around Thiès
Thiès
. Palor , the language of the Palor people , spoken in a small area between Rufisque and Thies
Thies
. Ndut , the language of the Serer-Ndut people , spoken in the Mont-Roland, an area northwest of Thies
Thies
and in the Kingdom of Biffeche on the Senegal
Senegal
River
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Wolof Language
WOLOF (/ˈwɒlɒf/ ) is a language of Senegal , the Gambia and Mauritania , and the native language of the Wolof people . Like the neighbouring languages Serer and Fula , it belongs to the Senegambian branch of the Niger–Congo language family . Unlike most other languages of Sub-Saharan Africa , Wolof is not a tonal language . Wolof originated as the language of the Lebu people . It is the most widely spoken language in Senegal, spoken natively by the Wolof people (40% of the population) but also by most other Senegalese as a second language. Wolof dialects vary geographically and between rural and urban areas. " Dakar -Wolof", for instance, is an urban mixture of Wolof, French , and Arabic . "Wolof" is the standard spelling and may refer to the Wolof people or to Wolof culture. Variants include the older French _Ouolof_ and the principally Gambian _Wollof_, _Jolof_, _jollof_, etc., now typically refers either to the Jolof Empire or to jollof rice , a common West African rice dish. Now-archaic forms include _Volof_ and _Olof_. The English language is believed to have adopted some Wolof words, such as _banana _, via Spanish or Portuguese , and _yum/yummy_, from Wolof _nyam_ "to taste"; _nyam_ in Barbadian English meaning "to eat" (also compare Seychellois Creole _nyanmnyanm_, also meaning "to eat")
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Islam
ISLAM (/ˈɪslɑːm/ ) is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion which professes that there is only one and incomparable God ( Allah ) and that Muhammad is the last messenger of God. It is the world\'s second-largest religion and the fastest-growing major religion in the world , with over 1.8 billion followers or 24.1% of the global population, known as Muslims . Muslims make up a majority of the population in 49 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful , all-powerful , unique , and has guided mankind through prophets , revealed scriptures and natural signs . The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran , viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example (called the _sunnah _, composed of accounts called _hadith _) of Muhammad (c. 570–8 June 632 CE). Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed many times before through prophets including Adam , Abraham , Moses , and Jesus . As for the Quran, Muslims consider it to be the unaltered and final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions , Islam also teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous are punished in hell
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Christianity
CHRISTIANITY is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ , who serves as the focal point of the Christian faith . It is the world\'s largest religion , with over 2.4 billion followers, or 33% of the global population, known as Christians . Christians make up a majority of the population in 158 countries and territories . They believe that Jesus is the Son of God and the savior of humanity whose coming as the Messiah (the Christ ) was prophesied in the Old Testament . Christian theology is summarized in creeds such as the Apostles\' Creed and Nicene Creed . These professions of faith state that Jesus suffered , died , was buried , descended into hell , and rose from the dead, in order to grant eternal life to those who believe in him and trust in him for the remission of their sins . The creeds further maintain that Jesus physically ascended into heaven, where he reigns with God the Father in the unity of the Holy Spirit , and that he will return to judge the living and the dead and grant eternal life to his followers. His incarnation , earthly ministry, crucifixion and resurrection are often referred to as "the gospel ", meaning "good news"
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Serer Religion
The SERER RELIGION, or _A ƭAT ROOG_ ("the way of the Divine"), is the original religious beliefs, practices, and teachings of the Serer people of Senegal in western Africa . The Serer people believe in a universal supreme deity called Roog (or _Rog_). In the Cangin languages , Roog is referred to as _Koox_ (var : _Kooh_ ), Kopé Tiatie Cac , Kokh Kox , etc. The Serer people are found throughout the Senegambia region . Serer religious practices encompass ancient chants and poems, veneration of and offerings to deities as well as spirits (pangool ), astronomy , Initiation rites, medicine , cosmology and the history of the Serer people
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Wolof People
The WOLOF PEOPLE (UK : /woʊlɒf/ ) are a West African ethnic group found in northwestern Senegal , The Gambia , and southwestern coastal Mauritania . In Senegal, the Wolof are the largest ethnic group (~ 39%), while elsewhere they are a minority. They refer to themselves as Wolof, and speak the Wolof language – a West Atlantic branch of the Niger-Congo family of languages. Their early history is unclear and based on oral traditions that link the Wolof to the Almoravids . The earliest documented mention of the Wolof is found in the records of 15th-century Portuguese financed Italian traveller Alvise Cadamosto , who mentioned well established Islamic Wolof chiefs advised by Muslim counselors and divines. The Wolof belonged to the medieval era Wolof Empire of Senegambia region. Details of the pre-Islamic religious traditions of Wolof are unknown, and their oral traditions state them to have been adherents of Islam since the founding king of Jolof . However, historical evidence left by Islamic scholars and European travelers suggest that Wolof warriors and rulers did not convert to Islam, while accepting and relying on Muslim clerics as counselors and administrators. In and after the 18th century, the Wolofs were impacted by the violent jihads in West Africa, which triggered internal disagreements among the Wolof on Islam
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Toucouleur People
The TOUCOULEUR PEOPLE, also called TUKULOR or HAALPULAAR , are a West African ethnic group. They are found mostly in Futa Tooro region of Senegal
Senegal
, with some in Mali
Mali
and Mauritania
Mauritania
. The Toucouleur have been Muslims who embraced Islam
Islam
in the 11th century, their early and strong Islamic heritage is a matter of great pride for them. They have been influential in the spread of Islam
Islam
to West Africa
West Africa
in the medieval era, later founded the vast Toucouleur Empire
Toucouleur Empire
in the 19th century under El Hadj Umar Tall that led a religious war against their neighboring ethnic groups and the French colonial forces. They speak the Pulaar language , and are distinct from but related to the Fula , Wolof and Serer people . The Toucouleur are traditionally sedentary, settled primarily in the Senegal
Senegal
River valley, with farming, fishing and raising cattle as their main activities. The Toucouleur society has been patrilineal, polygynous and with high social stratification that included slavery and caste system. There are an estimated 1 million Toucouleur people
Toucouleur people
in West Africa
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Lebou People
The LEBU (LEBOU, Lébou) are an ethnic group of Senegal
Senegal
, West Africa , living on the peninsula of Cap-Vert . The Lebu are primarily a fishing community, but they have a substantial business in construction supplies. They speak Lebu Wolof , which is closely related to Wolof proper but is not intelligible with it. Their political and spiritual capital is at Layene, situated in the Yoff neighborhood of northern Dakar
Dakar
. They have a religious sect and theocracy, the Layene , headquartered there. The traditional date of the founding of Yoff
Yoff
is 1430. Although they were conquered by the Kingdoms of Jolof (Diolof) and Cayor
Cayor
, and later the French in the 19th century, and were incorporated into modern Senegal
Senegal
, since 1815 they have had a special legal autonomy as a special kind of "theocratic republic". Lebu society emphasizes piety and respect for elders. Lebu families include not only living people but also associated ancestral spirits. The Lebu are noted for their public exorcism dances and rituals, often attended by tourists. In addition to Yoff
Yoff
, other Lebu centres are nearby Ouakam
Ouakam
, Cambérène and Ngor
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West African
WEST AFRICA, also called WESTERN AFRICA and the WEST OF AFRICA, is the westernmost subregion of Africa
Africa

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