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Serer People
The Serer people
Serer people
are a West African
West African
ethnoreligious group.[3] They are the third largest ethnic group in
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Jihad
Jihad
Jihad
(English: /dʒɪˈhɑːd/; Arabic: جهاد‎ jihād [dʒɪˈhaːd]) is an Arabic
Arabic
word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.[1][2][3][4] It can have many shades of meaning in an Islamic context, such as struggle against one's evil inclinations, an exertion to conve
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Sufism
Sufism
Sufism
or Taṣawwuf[1] (Arabic: الْتَّصَوُّف; personal noun: صُوفِيّ ṣūfiyy/ṣūfī, مُتَصَوّف mutaṣawwuf), which is often defined as " Islamic
Islamic
mysticism",[2] "the inward dimension of Islam",[3][4] or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",[5][6] is a mystical trend in
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Almoravids
The Almoravid dynasty
Almoravid dynasty
(Berber languages: Imṛabḍen, ⵉⵎⵕⴰⴱⴹⴻⵏ; Arabic: المرابطون‎, Al-Murābiṭūn) was an imperial Berber Muslim
Muslim
dynasty centered in Morocco.[1][2] It established an empire in the 11th century that stretched over the western Maghreb
Maghreb
and Al-Andalus. Founded by Abdallah ibn Yasin, the Almoravid capital was Marrakesh, a city the ruling house founded in 1062. The dynasty originated among the Lamtuna and the Gudala, nomadic Berber tribes of the Sahara, traversing the territory between the Draa, the Niger, and the Senegal rivers.[3] The Almoravids were crucial in preventing the fall of Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
to the Iberian Christian kingdoms, when they decisively defeated a coalition of the Castilian and Aragonese armies at the Battle of Sagrajas in 1086
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Ghana Empire
Location = between river Senegal and river Gambia]]Mali EmpireToday part of  Mali  Mauritania  SenegalThe Ghana Empire (c. 700 until c. 1240), properly known as Awkar (Ghana or Ga'na being the title of its ruler) was located in the area of present-day southeastern Mauritania and western Mali. Complex societies based on trans-Saharan trade with salt and gold had existed in the region since ancient times[1], but the introduction of the camel to the western Sahara in the 3rd century A.D. opened the way to great changes in the area that became the Ghana Empire. By the time of the Muslim conquest of North Africa in the 7th century the camel had changed the ancient, more irregular trade routes into a trade network running from Morocco to the Niger river. The Ghana Empire grew rich from this increased trans-Saharan trade in gold and salt, allowing for larger urban centres to develop
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Senegambia
Senegambia, officially the Senegambia Confederation, was a loose confederation in the late 20th century between the West African countries of Senegal
Senegal
and its neighbour The Gambia, which is almost completely surrounded by Senegal. The confederation was founded on 1 February 1982 following an agreement between the two countries signed on 12 December 1981. It was intended to promote cooperation between the two countries, but was dissolved by Senegal
Senegal
on 30 September 1989 after The Gambia
The Gambia
refused to move closer toward union.Contents1 History 2 Problems with Senegambia's border 3 Birth of the Confederation 4 End of the Confederation 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] As a political unit, Senegambia was created by dueling French and English colonial forces in the region. Competition between the French and the English began in the 16th century when both started to establish trading centers
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Marabout
A marabout (Arabic: مُرابِط‎, translit. murābiṭ, lit. 'one who is attached/garrisoned') is a Muslim religious leader and teacher[1] in West Africa, and (historically) in the Maghreb. The marabout is often a scholar of the Qur'an, or religious teacher. Others may be wandering holy men who survive on alms, Sufi Murshids ("Guides"), or leaders of religious communities
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Almoravid
The Almoravid dynasty
Almoravid dynasty
(Berber languages: Imṛabḍen, ⵉⵎⵕⴰⴱⴹⴻⵏ; Arabic: المرابطون‎, Al-Murābiṭūn) was an imperial Berber Muslim
Muslim
dynasty centered in Morocco.[1][2] It established an empire in the 11th century that stretched over the western Maghreb
Maghreb
and Al-Andalus. Founded by Abdallah ibn Yasin, the Almoravid capital was Marrakesh, a city the ruling house founded in 1062. The dynasty originated among the Lamtuna and the Gudala, nomadic Berber tribes of the Sahara, traversing the territory between the Draa, the Niger, and the Senegal rivers.[3] The Almoravids were crucial in preventing the fall of Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
to the Iberian Christian kingdoms, when they decisively defeated a coalition of the Castilian and Aragonese armies at the Battle of Sagrajas in 1086
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Islamization
PoliticalHizb ut-Tahrir Iranian Revolution Jamaat-e-Islami Millî Görüş Muslim Brotherhood List of Islamic political partiesMilitantMilitant Islamism
Islamism
based inMENA region South Asia Southeast Asia Sub-Saharan AfricaKey textsReconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam (Iqbal 1930s)Principles of State and Government (Asad 1961)Ma'alim fi al-Tariq ("Milestones") (Qutb 1965)Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist ("Velayat-e faqih") (Khomeini 1970)Heads of stateAli Khamenei Omar al-Bashir Muammar Gaddafi Ruhollah Khomeini Mohamed Morsi Mohammad
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Pulaar
Pulaar is a Fula language spoken primarily as a first language by the Fula and Toucouleur peoples in the Senegal River valley area traditionally known as Futa Tooro and further south and east. Pulaar speakers, known as Haalpulaar'en live in Senegal, Mauritania, the Gambia, and western Mali. According to Ethnologue there are several dialect differences, but all are mutually intelligible. Pulaar is not to be confused with Pular, another variety of Fula spoken in Guinea (including the Fouta Djallon region). The Pulaar and Pular varieties of Fula are to some extent mutually intelligible, but require a separate literature. Pulaar is written in a Latin script, but historically was written in an Arabic script known as "Ajami script" (see Fula alphabets). Linguistic features[edit] Main article: Fula language The negative accomplished verb form ends in -aani
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Cheikh Anta Diop
Cheikh Anta Diop
Cheikh Anta Diop
(29 December 1923 – 7 February 1986) was a Senegalese historian, anthropologist, physicist, and politician who studied the human race's origins and pre-colonial African culture. Though Diop is sometimes referred to as an Afrocentrist, he predates the concept and thus was not himself an Afrocentric scholar
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Pulaar Language
Pulaar is a Fula language spoken primarily as a first language by the Fula and Toucouleur peoples in the Senegal
Senegal
River valley area traditionally known as Futa Tooro
Futa Tooro
and further south and east. Pulaar speakers, known as Haalpulaar'en live in Senegal, Mauritania, the Gambia, and western Mali. According to Ethnologue
Ethnologue
there are several dialect differences, but all are mutually intelligible. Pulaar is not to be confused with Pular, another variety of Fula spoken in Guinea
Guinea
(including the Fouta Djallon
Fouta Djallon
region)
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Arabic
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎) al-ʻarabiyyah [ʔalʕaraˈbijːah] ( listen) or (Arabic: عَرَبِيّ‎) ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] ( listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[4] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic
Arabic
is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form (Modern Standard Arabic) [5]. The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic
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Tambacounda
Tambacounda is the largest city in eastern Senegal, 400 kilometres (250 mi) southeast of Dakar, and is the regional capital of the province of the same name. Its estimated population in 2007 was 78,800.Contents1 Geography 2 Population and culture 3 Religion 4 Transport hub 5 Agriculture 6 History 7 Administration 8 Sites of interest 9 Sister cities 10 See also 11 References 12 External links12.1 BibliographyGeography[edit] Tambacounda is situated on the sparsely populated sahélien plains of eastern Senegal
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Cayor
Cayor (Wolof: Kajoor; French: Cayor) was the largest and most powerful kingdom (1549–1879) that split off from the Jolof Empire
Jolof Empire
in what is now Senegal. Cayor was located in northern and central Senegal, southeast of Walo, west of the kingdom of Jolof, and north of Baol
Baol
and the Kingdom of Sine. In 1549, the damel (dammeel in Wolof,[1] often translated into European languages as "king") Dece Fu Njogu became independent from Jolof and set Cayor's capital at Mbul. The French, under governor Louis Faidherbe, annexed Cayor in 1868; Cayor re-established independence in 1871. France invaded again and annexed Cayor again in 1879, when it ceased to be a sovereign state
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Kingdom Of Saloum
Kingdom
Kingdom
may refer to:Contents1 Monarchy 2 Taxonomy 3 Arts and media3.1 Television 3.2 Music 3.3 Other media4 People 5 Other 6 See alsoMonarchy[edit] Further information: List of kingdoms A type of monarchy:A realm ruled bya king a queen regnantTaxonomy[edit] Kingdom
Kingdom
(taxonomy), a category in biological taxonomyArts and media[edit] Television[edit] Kingdom
Kingdom
(UK TV series), a 2007 British television drama starring Stephen Fry Kingdom
Kingdom
(U.S
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