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Serer People
Senegal
Senegal
(1.84 million), Gambia
Gambia
(31,900), Mauritania and expats. LANGUAGES Serer proper , Cangin languages , Wolof French ( Senegal
Senegal
and Mauritania), English (Gambia), RELIGION Senegal
Senegal
2002: 90% Islam , 9% Christianity and Serer religion (ƭat Roog) RELATED ETHNIC GROUPS Wolof people , Toucouleur people
Toucouleur people
and Lebou people The SERER PEOPLE are a West African
West African
ethnoreligious group . They are the third largest ethnic group in Senegal
Senegal
making up 15% of the Senegalese population. They are also found in northern Gambia
Gambia
and southern Mauritania
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Marabout
A MARABOUT ( Arabic
Arabic
: مُرابِط‎, translit. murābiṭ, lit. 'one who is attached/garrisoned'‎) is a Muslim religious leader and teacher in West Africa , and (historically) in the Maghreb . The marabout is often a scholar of the Qur\'an , or religious teacher. Others may be wandering holy men who survive on alms, Sufi Murshids ("Guides"), or leaders of religious communities
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Almoravid
The ALMORAVID DYNASTY (Berber : IMṛABḍEN, ⵉⵎⵕⴰⴱⴹⴻⵏ; Arabic
Arabic
: المرابطون‎, Al-Murābiṭūn) was an imperial Berber Muslim
Muslim
dynasty centered in Morocco
Morocco
. It established an empire in the 11th century that stretched over the western Maghreb
Maghreb
and Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
. Founded by Abdallah ibn Yasin , the Almoravid capital was Marrakesh
Marrakesh
, a city the ruling house founded in 1062. The dynasty originated among the Lamtuna and the Gudala , nomadic Berber tribes of the Sahara
Sahara
, traversing the territory between the Draa , the Niger , and the Senegal rivers
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Islamization
Politics portal Islam portal * v * t * e Part of a series on ISLAMIZATION Islamizations LATE ANTIQUITY - MIDDLE AGES - MODERN * Islamization * Spread of Islam * Islamic missionary activity * Islamization of Palestine * Islamization of Jerusalem * Islamization of the Temple Mount * Islamization of Syria * Islamization of Egypt * Islamization of Iran * Islamicisation and Turkicisation of Xinjiang * Islamization of Bosnia and Herzegovina * Islamization of the Sudan region
Islamization of the Sudan region
* Spread of Islam in Southeast Asia * Spread of Islam in Indonesia * Islamization of Albania
Islamization of Albania
* 1981 Meenakshipuram conversion * Conversion to Islam in U.S
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Senegambia
SENEGAMBIA, officially the SENEGAMBIA CONFEDERATION, was a loose confederation in the late 20th century between the West African countries of Senegal
Senegal
and its neighbour The Gambia
The Gambia
, which is almost completely surrounded by Senegal. The confederation was founded on 1 February 1982 following an agreement between the two countries signed on 12 December 1981. It was intended to promote cooperation between the two countries, but was dissolved by Senegal
Senegal
on 30 September 1989 after The Gambia
The Gambia
refused to move closer toward union. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Problems with Senegambia\'s border * 3 Birth of the Confederation
Confederation
* 4 End of the Confederation
Confederation
* 5 References HISTORYAs a political unit, Senegambia was created by dueling French and English colonial forces in the region
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Ethnoreligious Group
An ETHNORELIGIOUS GROUP (or ETHNO-RELIGIOUS GROUP) is an ethnic group whose members are also unified by a common religious background . Ethnoreligious communities define their ethnic identity neither by ancestral heritage nor simply by religious affiliation but often through a combination of both. An ethnoreligious group has a shared history and a cultural tradition of its own. In many cases ethnoreligious groups are ethno-cultural groups with a traditional ethnic religion ; in other cases ethnoreligious groups begin as communities united by a common faith which through endogamy developed cultural and ancestral ties. Some ethnoreligious groups' identities are reinforced by the experience of living within a larger community as a distinct minority . Ethnoreligious groups can be tied to ethnic nationalism if the ethnoreligious group possesses a historical base in a specific region
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Tambacounda
TAMBACOUNDA is the largest city in eastern Senegal
Senegal
, 400 kilometres (250 mi) southeast of Dakar
Dakar
, and is the regional capital of the province of the same name. Its estimated population in 2007 was 78,800. CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 Population and culture * 3 Religion * 4 Transport hub * 5 Agriculture * 6 History * 7 Administration * 8 Sites of interest * 9 Sister cities * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 External links * 12.1 Bibliography GEOGRAPHY Tambacounda
Tambacounda
is situated on the sparsely populated sahélien plains of eastern Senegal. Like most of West Africa, the area has two seasons, the rainy season from June to October, characterized by heat, humidity and storms, and the dry season from November to May. Nearby towns include Madina Maboule, Koukari, Yoro Sankoule, Sambadian, Djidje Kounda, Afia Seno, Saare Boylii and Kanderi Niana
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Ethnic Religion
In religious studies , ETHNIC RELIGION (or INDIGENOUS RELIGION) is the expression of religion associated with a particular ethnic group . Ethnic religions are often distinguished from religions which claim to not be limited in ethnic or national scope, such as Christianity
Christianity
or Islam
Islam
. Ethnic religions do not have to be excluded to independent religions. Some localized denominations of global religions are practiced solely by certain ethnic groups, with ethnic groups like the Assyrians following a unique denominational structure of Christianity known as the Assyrian Church of the East . CONTENTS * 1 Terminology * 2 Usage * 3 See also * 4 References TERMINOLOGYA number of alternative terms have been used instead of "ethnic" or "indigenous" religions
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Sufism
SUFISM or TAṣAWWUF ( Arabic
Arabic
: التصوف‎‎), which is often defined as " Islamic
Islamic
mysticism ," "the inward dimension of Islam
Islam
," or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam
Islam
," is a mystical trend in Islam
Islam
"characterized ... values, ritual practices, doctrines and institutions" which began very early on in Islamic
Islamic
history and which represents "the main manifestation and the most important and central crystallization of" mystical practice in Islam. Although the overwhelming majority of Sufis, both pre-modern and modern, have been adherents of Sunni Islam
Islam
, there nevertheless also developed certain strands of Sufi
Sufi
practice within the ambit of Shia Islam
Islam
during the late medieval period
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Almoravids
The ALMORAVID DYNASTY (Berber : IMṛABḍEN, ⵉⵎⵕⴰⴱⴹⴻⵏ; Arabic
Arabic
: المرابطون‎, Al-Murābiṭūn) was an imperial Berber Muslim
Muslim
dynasty centered in Morocco
Morocco
. It established an empire in the 11th century that stretched over the western Maghreb and Al-Andalus . Founded by Abdallah ibn Yasin , the Almoravid capital was Marrakesh , a city the ruling house founded in 1062. The dynasty originated among the Lamtuna and the Gudala , nomadic Berber tribes of the Sahara , traversing the territory between the Draa , the Niger , and the Senegal rivers. The Almoravids were crucial in preventing the fall of Al-Andalus to the Iberian Christian kingdoms, when they decisively defeated a coalition of the Castilian and Aragonese armies at the Battle of Sagrajas in 1086
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Christianity
CHRISTIANITY is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus
Jesus
Christ
Christ
, who serves as the focal point of the Christian
Christian
faith . It is the world\'s largest religion , with over 2.4 billion followers, or 33% of the global population, known as Christians
Christians
. Christians
Christians
make up a majority of the population in 158 countries and territories . They believe that Jesus
Jesus
is the Son of God and the savior of humanity whose coming as the Messiah
Messiah
(the Christ
Christ
) was prophesied in the Old Testament . Christian theology is summarized in creeds such as the Apostles\' Creed
Creed
and Nicene Creed
Creed

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Pulaar Language
PULAAR is a Fula language spoken primarily as a first language by the Fula and Toucouleur peoples in the Senegal
Senegal
River valley area traditionally known as Futa Tooro and further south and east. Pulaar speakers, known as Haalpulaar\'en live in Senegal
Senegal
, Mauritania
Mauritania
, the Gambia , and western Mali
Mali
. According to Ethnologue there are several dialect differences, but all are mutually intelligible. Pulaar is not to be confused with Pular , another variety of Fula spoken in Guinea
Guinea
(including the Fouta Djallon region). The Pulaar and Pular varieties of Fula are to some extent mutually intelligible, but require a separate literature
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Jihad
JIHAD (English: /dʒɪˈhɑːd/ ; Arabic
Arabic
: جهاد‎‎ jihād ) is an Arabic
Arabic
word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim. It can have many shades of meaning in an Islamic context, such as struggle against one's evil inclinations, an exertion to convert unbelievers, or efforts toward the moral betterment of society, though it is most frequently associated with war. In classical Islamic law , the term refers to armed struggle against unbelievers, while modernist Islamic scholars generally equate military jihad with defensive warfare. In Sufi
Sufi
and pious circles, spiritual and moral jihad has been traditionally emphasized under the name of greater jihad. The term has gained additional attention in recent decades through its use by terrorist groups
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Arabic
ARABIC ( Arabic
Arabic
: العَرَبِيَّة‎‎, al-ʻarabiyyah ( listen ) or Arabic
Arabic
: عَرَبِيّ‎‎ ʻarabī ( listen ) or ) is a Central Semitic language complex that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world . It is named after the Arabs , a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. The modern written language ( Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic
) is derived from Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic
. It is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media
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Mauritania
Coordinates : 20°N 12°W / 20°N 12°W / 20; -12 Islamic Republic
Republic
of Mauritania الجمهورية الإسلامية الموريتانية (Arabic ) al-Jumhūrīyah al-Islāmīyah al-Mūrītānīyah République islamique de Mauritanie (French ) Flag Seal MOTTO: شرف إخاء عدل (Arabic) "Honor, Fraternity, Justice" ANTHEM: نشيد وطني موريتاني " National anthem of Mauritania "<
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Cheikh Anta Diop
CHEIKH ANTA DIOP (29 December 1923 – 7 February 1986) was a historian , anthropologist , physicist , and politician who studied the human race's origins and pre-colonial African culture . Though Diop is sometimes referred to as an Afrocentrist , he predates the concept and thus was not himself an Afrocentric scholar. However, Diopian thought, as it is called, is paradigmatic to Afrocentricity. His work was greatly controversial and throughout his career, Diop argued that there was a shared cultural continuity across African peoples that was more important than the varied development of different ethnic groups shown by differences among languages and cultures over time. Diop's work has posed important questions about the cultural bias inherent in scientific research. Cheikh Anta Diop
Cheikh Anta Diop
University (formerly known as the University of Dakar), in Dakar
Dakar
, Senegal
Senegal
, is named after him
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