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Serbian Language
SERBIAN (српски / _srpski_, pronounced ) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs . It is the official language of Serbia and one of the three official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina . In addition, it is a recognized minority language in Montenegro , Croatia , Macedonia , Romania , Hungary , Slovakia , and the Czech Republic . Standard Serbian is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian (more specifically on Šumadija-Vojvodina and Eastern Herzegovinian dialects ), which is also the basis of Standard Croatian , Bosnian , and Montenegrin . The other dialect spoken by Serbs is Torlakian in southeastern Serbia, which is transitional to Macedonian and Bulgarian
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common _ancestral language_ or _parental language_, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the _daughter languages_ within a language family as being _genetically related_. Estimates of the number of living languages vary from 5,000 to 8,000, depending on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects . The 2013 edition of Ethnologue catalogs just over 7,000 living human languages. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people
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Indo-European Languages
_Pontic Steppe_ * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture _Caucasus_ * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo _Eastern Europe_ * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni _Northern Europe_* Corded ware * Baden
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Balto-Slavic Languages
The BALTO-SLAVIC LANGUAGES are a branch of the Indo-European family of languages . It traditionally comprises the Baltic and Slavic languages . Baltic and Slavic languages share several linguistic traits not found in any other Indo-European branch, which points to a period of common development. Most Indo-Europeanists classify Baltic and Slavic languages into a single branch, even though some details of the nature of their relationship remain in dispute in some circles, usually due to political controversies. Some linguists, however, have recently suggested that Balto-Slavic should be split into three equidistant groups: Eastern Baltic, Western Baltic (which is extinct) and Slavic. A Proto-Balto-Slavic language is reconstructable by the comparative method , descending from Proto-Indo-European by means of well-defined sound laws , and out of which modern Slavic and Baltic languages descended
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Slavic Languages
The SLAVIC LANGUAGES (also called SLAVONIC LANGUAGES) are the Indo-European languages native to the Slavic peoples , originally from Eastern Europe . They are thought to descend from a proto-language called Proto-Slavic spoken during the Early Middle Ages , which in turn is thought to have descended from the earlier Proto-Balto-Slavic language , linking the Slavic languages to the Baltic languages in a Balto-Slavic group within the Indo-European family. The Slavic languages are divided intro three subgroups: East , West , and South , which together constitute more than twenty languages
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South Slavic Languages
The SOUTH SLAVIC LANGUAGES are one of three branches of the Slavic languages . There are approximately 30 million speakers, mainly in the Balkans . These are separated geographically from speakers of the other two Slavic branches (West and East ) by a belt of German , Hungarian and Romanian speakers. The first South Slavic language to be written (the first attested Slavic language) was the variety spoken in Thessalonica , now called Old Church Slavonic , in the ninth century. It is retained as a liturgical language in some South Slavic Orthodox churches in the form of various local Church Slavonic traditions
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Western South Slavic Languages
The SOUTH SLAVIC LANGUAGES are one of three branches of the Slavic languages . There are approximately 30 million speakers, mainly in the Balkans . These are separated geographically from speakers of the other two Slavic branches (West and East ) by a belt of German , Hungarian and Romanian speakers. The first South Slavic language to be written (the first attested Slavic language) was the variety spoken in Thessalonica , now called Old Church Slavonic , in the ninth century. It is retained as a liturgical language in some South Slavic Orthodox churches in the form of various local Church Slavonic traditions
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Serbo-Croatian
Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics (Croatian) Board for Standardization of the Serbian Language (Serbian) University of Sarajevo (Bosnian) LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 sh (deprecated) ISO 639-2 scr, scc (deprecated) ISO 639-3 hbs – inclusive code Individual codes: srp – Serbian hrv – Croatian bos – Bosnian bun – Bunjevac svm – Slavomolisano kjv – Kajkavian GLOTTOLOG moli1249 LINGUASPHERE 53-AAA-g Areas where Serbo-Croatian is spoken by a plurality of speakers (as of 2005). ------------------------- NOTE: a Kosovo independence disputed, see 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters
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Shtokavian Dialect
SHTOKAVIAN or ŠTOKAVIAN (/ʃtɒˈkɑːviən, -ˈkæv-/ ; Serbo-Croatian : _štokavski / штокавски_, pronounced ) is the prestige dialect of the pluricentric Serbo-Croatian language, and the basis of its Bosnian , Croatian , Serbian , and Montenegrin standards. It is a part of the South Slavic dialect continuum . Its name comes from the form for the interrogatory pronoun for "what" in Western Shtokavian, _što_ (it is _šta_ in Eastern Shtokavian). This is in contrast to Kajkavian and Chakavian (_kaj_ and _ča_ also meaning "what"). Shtokavian is spoken in Serbia , Montenegro , Bosnia and Herzegovina , Slovenia , the major part of Croatia , and the southern part of Austria ’s Burgenland
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Eastern Herzegovinian Dialect
The EASTERN HERZEGOVINIAN DIALECT (/ˌhɛərtsəɡəˈviːniən, ˌhɜːr-, -ɡoʊ-, -ˈvɪ-/ , Serbo-Croatian : _istočnohercegovački_/источнохерцеговачки or _istočnohercegovačko-krajiški_/источнохерцеговачко-крајишки) is the most widespread subdialect of the Shtokavian dialect of Serbo-Croatian , both by territory and the number of speakers. It is the dialectal basis for all modern literary Serbo-Croatian standards: Bosnian , Croatian , Serbian , and Montenegrin (the latter only partially codified). DISTRIBUTIONIt covers large areas of Croatia , Bosnia-Herzegovina , Serbia and Montenegro . It is also spoken in four villages in White Carniola , Slovenia ( Miliči , Bojanci , Marindol and Paunoviči ), the inhabitants of which are descendants of Uskoci
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Writing System
A WRITING SYSTEM is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication . While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages , writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer . The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium , such as paper or electronic storage , although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display , in sand, or by skywriting . The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets , syllabaries , or logographies . Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category
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Cyrillic Script
The CYRILLIC SCRIPT /sᵻˈrɪlɪk/ is a writing system used for various alphabets across eastern Europe and north and central Asia. It is based on the Early Cyrillic alphabet developed during the 9th century AD at the Preslav Literary School in the First Bulgarian Empire . It is the basis of alphabets used in various languages, past and present, in parts of southeastern Europe and northern Eurasia , especially those of Slavic origin, and non-Slavic languages influenced by Russian. As of 2011 , around 252 million people in Eurasia use it as the official alphabet for their national languages, with Russia accounting for about half of them. With the accession of Bulgaria to the European Union on 1 January 2007, Cyrillic became the third official script of the European Union , following the Latin script and Greek script
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Serbian Cyrillic Alphabet
The SERBIAN CYRILLIC ALPHABET (Serbian : српска ћирилица/_srpska ćirilica_, pronounced ) is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for the Serbian language , developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić . It is one of the two alphabets used to write standard modern Serbian , Bosnian and Montenegrin , the other being Latin . Karadžić based his alphabet on the previous " Slavonic-Serbian " script, following the principle of "_write as you speak and read as it is written_", removing obsolete letters and letters representing iotified vowels , introducing ⟨J⟩ from the Latin alphabet instead, and adding several consonant letters for sounds specific to Serbian phonology. During the same period, Croatian linguists led by Ljudevit Gaj adapted the Latin alphabet, in use in western South Slavic areas, using the same principles
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Latin Script
LATIN or ROMAN script is a set of graphic signs (script ) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
, used by the Etruscans . Several Latin-script alphabets exist which differ in graphemes, collation and phonetic values from the classical Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
. The Latin
Latin
script is the basis of the International Phonetic Alphabet and the 26 most widespread letters are the letters contained in the ISO basic Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
. Latin
Latin
script is the basis for the largest number of alphabets of any writing system and is the most widely adopted writing system in the world (commonly used by about 70% of the world's population)
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Gaj's Latin Alphabet
GAJ\'S LATIN ALPHABET ( Serbo-Croatian : abeceda, latinica, or gajica) is the form of the Latin script used for Serbo-Croatian (Bosnian , Croatian , Serbian , and Montenegrin ). It was devised by Croatian linguist Ljudevit Gaj in 1835, based on Jan Hus
Jan Hus
's Czech alphabet . A slightly reduced version is used as the script of the Slovene language , and a modified version is used for the romanization of the Macedonian language . Pavao Ritter Vitezović had proposed an idea for the orthography of the Croatian language, stating that every sound should have only one letter. Gaj's alphabet is currently used in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia
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Yugoslav Braille
YUGOSLAV BRAILLE is a family of closely related braille alphabets used for the Bosnian , Serbian , Croatian , Slovene , and Macedonian languages. It is based on the unified international braille conventions, with the letters corresponding to their Latin transliterations
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