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Sequoiadendron Giganteum
Sequoiadendron
Sequoiadendron
giganteum (giant sequoia; also known as giant redwood, Sierra redwood, Sierran redwood, Wellingtonia or simply Big Tree—a nickname used by John Muir[2]) is the sole living species in the genus Sequoiadendron, and one of three species of coniferous trees known as redwoods, classified in the family Cupressaceae
Cupressaceae
in the subfamily Sequoioideae, together with Sequoia sempervirens
Sequoia sempervirens
(coast redwood) and Metasequoia
Metasequoia
glyptostroboides (dawn redwood)
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Sequoia Sempervirens
Sequoia sempervirens
Sequoia sempervirens
/sɪˈkɔɪ.ə sɛmpərˈvaɪrənz/[2] is the sole living species of the genus Sequoia in the cypress family Cupressaceae
Cupressaceae
(formerly treated in Taxodiaceae). Common names include coast redwood, coastal redwood[3] and California redwood.[4] It is an evergreen, long-lived, monoecious tree living 1,200–1,800 years or more.[5] This species includes the tallest living trees on Earth, reaching up to 379 feet (115.5 m) in height (without the roots) and up to 29.2 feet (8.9 m) in diameter at breast height (dbh). These trees are also among the oldest living things on Earth
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Xylem
Xylem
Xylem
is one of the two types of transport tissue in vascular plants, phloem being the other. The basic function of xylem is to transport water from roots to shoots and leaves, but it also transports some nutrients.[1][2] The word "xylem" is derived from the Greek word ξύλον (xylon), meaning "wood"; the best-known xylem tissue is wood, though it is found throughout the plant.[3] The term was introduced by Nägeli
Nägeli
in 1858.[4][5]Contents1 Structure 2 Primary and secondary xylem 3 Main function – upwards water transport3.1 Cohesion-tension theory 3.2 Measurement of pressure4 Evolution 5 Development5.1 Protoxylem and metaxylem 5.2 Patterns of protoxylem and metaxylem6 See also 7 References7.1 General referencesStructure[edit]Cross section of some xylem cellsThe most distinctive xylem cells are the long tracheary elements that transport water
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Volume
Volume
Volume
is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains.[1] Volume
Volume
is often quantified numerically using the SI derived unit, the cubic metre. The volume of a container is generally understood to be the capacity of the container; i. e., the amount of fluid (gas or liquid) that the container could hold, rather than the amount of space the container itself displaces. Three dimensional mathematical shapes are also assigned volumes. Volumes of some simple shapes, such as regular, straight-edged, and circular shapes can be easily calculated using arithmetic formulas
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Dendrochronology
Dendrochronology
Dendrochronology
(or tree-ring dating) is the scientific method of dating tree rings (also called growth rings) to the exact year they were formed in order to analyze atmospheric conditions during different periods in history. Dendrochronology
Dendrochronology
is useful for determining the timing of events and rates of change in the environment (most prominently climate) and also in works of art and architecture, such as old panel paintings on wood, buildings, etc. It is also used in radiocarbon dating to calibrate radiocarbon ages.[1] New growth in trees occurs in a layer of cells near the bark. A tree's growth rate changes in a predictable pattern throughout the year in response to seasonal climate changes, resulting in visible growth rings
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List Of Longest-living Organisms
This is a list of the longest-living organisms, that is, the individuals (in some instances, clones) of a species
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Evergreen
In botany, an evergreen is a plant that has leaves throughout the year, always green. This is true even if the plant retains its foliage only in warm climates, and contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season
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Conifer Cone
A cone (in formal botanical usage: strobilus, plural strobili) is an organ on plants in the division Pinophyta
Pinophyta
(conifers) that contains the reproductive structures. The familiar woody cone is the female cone, which produces seeds. The male cones, which produce pollen, are usually herbaceous and much less conspicuous even at full maturity. The name "cone" derives from the fact that the shape in some species resembles a geometric cone. The individual plates of a cone are known as scales. The male cone (microstrobilus or pollen cone) is structurally similar across all conifers, differing only in small ways (mostly in scale arrangement) from species to species. Extending out from a central axis are microsporophylls (modified leaves). Under each microsporophyll is one or several microsporangia (pollen sacs). The female cone (megastrobilus, seed cone, or ovulate cone) contains ovules which, when fertilized by pollen, become seeds
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Seed
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction in seed plants, the spermatophytes, including the gymnosperm and angiosperm plants. Seeds are the product of the ripened ovule, after fertilization by pollen and some growth within the mother plant. The embryo is developed from the zygote and the seed coat from the integuments of the ovule. Seeds have been an important development in the reproduction and success of gymnosperm and angiosperm plants, relative to more primitive plants such as ferns, mosses and liverworts, which do not have seeds and use water-dependent means to propagate themselves. Seed plants now dominate biological niches on land, from forests to grasslands both in hot and cold climates. The term "seed" also has a general meaning that antedates the above—anything that can be sown, e.g. "seed" potatoes, "seeds" of corn or sunflower "seeds"
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Bole (botany)
In botany, the trunk (or bole) is the stem and main wooden axis of a tree,[1] which is an important feature in tree identification, and which often differs markedly from the bottom of the trunk to the top, depending on the species. The trunk is the most important part of the tree for timber production. Trunks occur both in "true" woody plants as well as non-woody plants such as palms and other monocots, though the internal physiology is different in each case. In all plants, trunks thicken over time due to formation of secondary growth (or in monocots, pseudo-secondary growth). Trunks can be vulnerable to damage, including sunburn
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Osmotic Pressure
Osmotic pressure
Osmotic pressure
is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of its pure solvent across a semipermeable membrane.[1] It is also defined as the measure of the tendency of a solution to take in pure solvent (which belongs to the solution under discussion) by osmosis. Potential osmotic pressure is the maximum osmotic pressure that could develop in a solution if it were separated from its pure solvent by a selectively permeable membrane
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Capillarity
Capillary action
Capillary action
(sometimes capillarity, capillary motion, capillary effect, or wicking) is the ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of, or even in opposition to, external forces like gravity. The effect can be seen in the drawing up of liquids between the hair of a paint-brush, in a thin tube, in porous materials such as paper and plaster, in some non-porous materials such as sand and liquefied carbon fiber, or in a cell. It occurs because of intermolecular forces between the liquid and surrounding solid surfaces
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Air Root
Aerial roots are roots above the ground. They are almost always adventitious. They are found in diverse plant species, including epiphytes such as orchids, tropical coastal swamp trees such as mangroves, the resourceful banyan trees, the warm-temperate rainforest rātā (Metrosideros robusta) and pōhutukawa (M. excelsa) trees of New Zealand and vines such as Common Ivy (Hedera helix) and poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans).Contents1 Types of aerial roots1.1 "Stranglers" 1.2 Pneumatophores 1.3 Haustorial roots 1.4 Propagative roots2 Aerial root pumping and physiology 3 See also 4 ReferencesTypes of aerial roots[edit] This plant organ that is found in so many diverse plant families has different specializations that suit the plant habitat
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Cherokee Syllabary
ᏣᎳᎩ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ Tsalagi GawonihisdiStatusHistory Cherokee
Cherokee
syllabary SequoyahGrammarVerbsWriting System Cherokee
Cherokee
syllabaryPhonologyv t eThis article contains Cherokee
Cherokee
syllabic characters. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Cherokee
Cherokee
syllabics.History of the alphabet Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCE Proto-Sinaitic
Proto-Sinaitic
19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c. BCEPhoenician 12 c. BCEPaleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCESamaritan 6 c. BCE Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCETifinaghPaleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c
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Generals Highway
The Generals Highway
Highway
is a highway that connects State Route 180 and State Route 198 through Sequoia National Park, Giant Sequoia National Monument, and Kings Canyon National Park
Kings Canyon National Park
in the Sierra Nevada of California.[1]Contents1 Route description 2 History 3 Major intersections 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksRoute description[edit]Switchbacks on Generals HighwayIt is named after two of the largest and most famous Giant Sequoia trees, the General Sherman and General Grant trees. The highway is notoriously steep, narrow, winding, and difficult to drive, especially its southern section from Hospital Rock to Giant Forest
Giant Forest
within Sequoia National Park. This section also consists of numerous switchbacks, and has a speed limit of 10 MPH
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California
Native languages as of 2007English 57.4%[2] Spanish 28.5%[3] Chinese 2.8%[3] Filipino 2.2%[3]Demonym CalifornianCapital SacramentoLargest city Los AngelesLargest metro Greater Los Angeles
Los Angeles
AreaArea Ranked 3rd • Total 163,696 sq mi (423,970 km2) • Width 250 miles (400 km) • Length 770 miles (1,240 km) • % water 4.7 • Latitude 32°32′ N to 42° N • Longitude 114°8′ W to 124°26′ W
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