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Senile Plaques
Senile plaques
Senile plaques
(also known as neuritic plaques) are extracellular deposits of amyloid beta in the grey matter of the brain.[1][2] Degenerative neural structures and an abundance of microglia and astrocytes can be associated with senile plaque deposits. These deposits can also be a byproduct of senescence (ageing). However, large numbers of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are characteristic features of Alzheimer's disease. Abnormal neurites in senile plaques are composed primarily of paired helical filaments, a component of neurofibrillary tangles.[3] The plaques are variable in shape and size, but are on average 50 µm in size.[4] In Alzheimer's disease they are primarily composed of amyloid beta peptides
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Immunostain
In biochemistry, immunostaining is any use of an antibody-based method to detect a specific protein in a sample
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Transmembrane
A transmembrane protein (TP) is a type of integral membrane protein that spans the entirety of the biological membrane to which it is permanently attached. Many transmembrane proteins function as gateways to permit the transport of specific substances across the biological membrane. They frequently undergo significant conformational changes to move a substance through the membrane. Transmembrane proteins are polytopic proteins that aggregate and precipitate in water
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Teofil Simchowicz
Teofil Simchowicz
Teofil Simchowicz
(June 3, 1879 - December 31, 1957) was a Polish neurologist who was born in Ciechanowiec
Ciechanowiec
near Warsaw, Poland. He studied medicine at the Imperial University of Warsaw, and received a medical degree in 1905. In years 1907-1910 he worked in Munich
Munich
under Alois Alzheimer, studying neuropathological changes in dementia. During World War II he emigrated to Palestine. He discovered granulovacuolar degeneration (of Simchowicz), observed in hippocampal pyramidal cells in Alzheimer's disease. Bibliography[edit]Polski Słownik Biograficzny Tom XXXVII Warszawa-Kraków 1996-1997, s. 505-506 ISBN 83-86301-01-5.Authority controlWorldCat Identities VIAF: 300664202This biographical article related to medicine in Poland
Poland
is a stub
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Extracellular
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell". This space is usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid (see extracellular matrix). The term is used in contrast to intracellular (inside the cell). According to the gene ontology database the extracellular space is a cellular component defined as: "That part of a multicellular organism outside the cells proper, usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid. For multicellular organisms, the extracellular space refers to everything outside a cell, but still within the organism (excluding the extracellular matrix). Gene products from a multi-cellular organism that are secreted from a cell into the interstitial fluid or blood can therefore be annotated to this term".[1] The composition of the extracellular space includes metabolites, ions, various proteins and non-protein substances (e.g
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Synapse
In the nervous system, a synapse[1] is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell. Santiago Ramón y Cajal
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
proposed that neurons are not continuous throughout the body, yet still communicate with each other, an idea known as the neuron doctrine.[2] The word "synapse" – from the Greek synapsis (συνάψις), meaning "conjunction", in turn from συνάπτεὶν (συν ("together") and ἅπτειν ("to fasten")) – was introduced in 1897 by the Engli
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Amyloid Precursor Protein
1AAP, 1AMB, 1AMC, 1AML, 1BA4, 1BA6, 1BJB, 1BJC, 1BRC, 1CA0, 1HZ3, 1IYT, 1MWP, 1OWT, 1QCM, 1QWP, 1QXC, 1QYT, 1TAW, 1TKN, 1X11, 1Z0Q, 1ZJD, 2BEG, 2BP4, 2FJZ, 2FK1, 2FK2, 2FK3, 2FKL, 2FMA, 2G47, 2IPU, 2LFM, 2LLM, 2LMN, 2LMO, 2LMP, 2LMQ, 2LOH, 2LP1, 2OTK, 2R0W, 2WK3, 2Y29, 2Y2A, 2Y3J, 2Y3K, 2Y3L, 3AYU, 3DXC, 3DXD, 3DXE, 3GCI, 3IFL, 3IFN, 3IFO, 3IFP, 3JTI, 3KTM, 3L33, 3L81, 3MOQ, 3NYL, 3SV1, 3U0T, 3UMH, 3UMI, 3UMK, 4HIX, 1ZE7, 1ZE9, 2LNQ, 2LZ3, 2LZ4, 2M4J, 2M9R, 2M9S, 2MGT, 2MJ1, 2MPZ, 2MVX, 2MXU, 3BAE, 3BKJ, 3JQ5, 3JQL, 3MXC, 3NYJ, 3OVJ, 3OW9, 4JFN, 4M1C, 4MDR, 4NGE, 4OJF, 4ONF, 4ONG, 4PQD, 4PWQ, 4MVI, 4MVK, 4MVL, 4XXD, 5CSZ, 5AMB, 5AEF, 5AM8, 5BUO, 5HOY, 5HOW, 5HOX, 5KK3, 5C67, 2NAOIdentifiersAliases APP, AAA, ABETA, ABPP, AD1, APPI, CTFgamma, CVAP, PN-II, PN2, amyloid beta precursor protein, preA4External IDs OMIM: 104760 MGI: 88059 HomoloGene: 56379 GeneCards: APP
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Peptide
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds. The covalent chemical bonds are formed when the carboxyl group of one amino acid reacts with the amino group of another. The shortest peptides are dipeptides, consisting of 2 amino acids joined by a single peptide bond, followed by tripeptides, tetrapeptides, etc
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Protease
A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis; protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds. Proteases have evolved multiple times, and different classes of protease can perform the same reaction by completely different catalytic mechanisms
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Light Microscopy
Microscopy
Microscopy
is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye). There are three well-known branches of microscopy: optical, electron, and scanning probe microscopy. Optical microscopy
Optical microscopy
and electron microscopy involve the diffraction, reflection, or refraction of electromagnetic radiation/electron beams interacting with the specimen, and the collection of the scattered radiation or another signal in order to create an image
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Alois Alzheimer
Aloysius Alzheimer (also known as Alois Alzheimer; /ˈɑːltshaɪmər, ˈælts-, ˈɔːlts-/;[1] German: [ˈaːlɔɪs ˈaltshaɪmɐ]; 14 June 1864 – 19 December 1915) was a German psychiatrist and neuropathologist and a colleague of Emil Kraepelin
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Silver Stain
Silver
Silver
staining is the use of silver to selectively alter the appearance of a target in microscopy of histological sections; in temperature gradient gel electrophoresis; and in polyacrylamide gels.Contents1 History 2 Chemistry 3 Applications3.1 Histological characterisation 3.2 Diagnostic microbiology 3.3 Karyotype
Karyotype
analysis 3.4 Genomic and proteomic analysis 3.5 In art4 Variations4.1 Methenamine
Methenamine
silver stains5 Gallery 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] Camillo Golgi
Camillo Golgi
perfected silver staining for the study of the nervous system
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Congo Red
Congo red
Congo red
is an organic compound, the sodium salt of 3,3′-([1,1′-biphenyl]-4,4′-diyl)bis(4-aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid. It is an azo dye. Congo red
Congo red
is water-soluble, yielding a red colloidal solution; its solubility is greater in organic solvents. However, the use of Congo red
Congo red
has long been abandoned, primarily because of its carcinogenic properties.[1]Contents1 History 2 Behavior in solution 3 Diagnostic use 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] Congo red
Congo red
was first synthesized in 1883 by Paul Böttiger, who had been employed at Friedrich Bayer
Bayer
Company in Elberfeld, Germany. He was looking for textile dyes that did not require a mordant step
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Cresyl Violet
Cresyl violet
Cresyl violet
is an organic compound with the chemical formula C19H18ClN3O. It is a basic dye and is used as a common stain in histology. Cresyl violet
Cresyl violet
stain[edit]c. 0.1% Cresyl violet
Cresyl violet
in H2O. d. 1% Cresyl violet
Cresyl violet
in H2O.It is used in biology and medicine as a histological stain. Cresyl violet is an effective and reliable stain used for light microscopy sections. Initially, tissue sections are "defatted" by passing through graded dilutions of ethanol. Then, rehydrated by passing back through decreasing concentrations of ethanol. Lastly, back into water. The ethanol solutions act to differentiate the stain, causing myelin and other components to lose color whereas perikarya retain the color. It is also used to find Helicobacter pylori.[1] Intestinal mucins also take up the stain although not as strongly as campylobacter-like organisms
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Periodic Acid-Schiff
Periodic acid–Schiff (PAS) is a staining method used to detect polysaccharides such as glycogen, and mucosubstances such as glycoproteins, glycolipids and mucins in tissues. The reaction of periodic acid oxidizes the vicinal diols in these sugars, usually breaking up the bond between two adjacent carbons not involved in the glycosidic linkage or ring closure in the ring of the monosaccharide units that are parts of the long polysaccharides, and creating a pair of aldehydes at the two free tips of each broken monosaccharide ring. The oxidation condition has to be sufficiently regulated so as to not oxidize the aldehydes further. These aldehydes then react with the Schiff reagent
Schiff reagent
to give a purple-magenta color. A suitable basic stain is often used as a counterstain. PAS diastase stain
PAS diastase stain
(PAS-D) is PAS stain used in combination with diastase, an enzyme that breaks down glycogen
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Immunofluorescence
Immunofluorescence
Immunofluorescence
is a technique used for light microscopy with a fluorescence microscope and is used primarily on microbiological samples. This technique uses the specificity of antibodies to their antigen to target fluorescent dyes to specific biomolecule targets within a cell, and therefore allows visualization of the distribution of the target molecule through the sample
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