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Senegambian Stone Circles
The SENEGAMBIAN STONE CIRCLES lie in The Gambia
Gambia
north of Janjanbureh and in central Senegal
Senegal
. Approximate area: 30,000 km². They are sometimes divided into the Wassu (Gambian) and Sine-Saloum (Senegalese) circles, but this is purely a national division. CONTENTS* 1 Location * 1.1 Wassu * 1.2 Kerbatch * 1.3 Wanar * 2 Sine Ngayene * 3 Locations * 4 Additional stone circles in Senegambia * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 External links * 8 References LOCATIONThe stone circles and other megaliths found in Senegal
Senegal
and Gambia
Gambia
are sometimes divided into four large sites: Sine Ngayene and Wanar in Senegal, and Wassu and Kerbatch in the Central River Region in Gambia. Researchers are not certain when these monuments were built, but the generally accepted range is between the third century B.C. and the sixteenth century AD
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World Heritage Site
A WORLD HERITAGE SITE is a landmark or area which has been officially recognized by the United Nations
United Nations
, specifically by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO
UNESCO
). Sites are selected on the basis of having cultural, historical, scientific or some other form of significance, and they are legally protected by international treaties. UNESCO
UNESCO
regards these sites as being important to the collective interests of humanity
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Table Of World Heritage Sites By Country
HERITAGE may refer to: * History , "heritage" refers to events or processes that have a special meaning in group memory * National heritage site , a site having a value that has been registered by a governmental agency as being of national importance to the history of that nation * Historic site an official location where pieces of political, military, cultural, or social history have been preserved due to their historical importance*
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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World Heritage Committee
The WORLD HERITAGE COMMITTEE establishes the sites to be listed as UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites . It decides about inscriptions on the World Heritage List and the List of World Heritage in Danger, monitors the state of conservation of the World Heritage properties, defines the use of the World Heritage Fund and allocates financial assistance upon requests from States Parties. It is composed of 21 state parties that are elected by the GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF STATES PARTIES for a four-year term. According to the World Heritage Convention, a committee member's term of office is for six years, however many states parties choose voluntarily to be Members of the Committee for only four years, in order to give other states' parties an opportunity to be on the committee. All members elected at the 15th General Assembly (2005) voluntarily decided to reduce their period of term of office from six to four years
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History Of The Gambia
The first written records of the region come from Arab
Arab
traders in the 9th and 10th centuries. In medieval times, the region was dominated by the Trans-Saharan trade and was ruled by the Mali Empire . In the 16th century, the region came to be ruled by the Songhai Empire
Songhai Empire
. The first Europeans to visit the Gambia River were the Portuguese in the 15th century, who attempted to settle on the river banks, but no settlement of significant size was established. Descendants of the Portuguese settlers remained until the 18th century. In the late 16th century, English merchants attempted to begin a trade with the Gambia, reporting that it was "a river of secret trade and riches concealed by the Portuguese." In the early 17th century, the French attempted to settle the Gambia but failed
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Takrur
( Serer religion
Serer religion
) GOVERNMENT Monarchy
Monarchy
KING • 1030s War Jabi HISTORICAL ERA
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Mali Empire
The MALI EMPIRE (Manding : _Nyeni_ or _Niani_; also historically referred to as the MANDEN KURUFABA, sometimes shortened to MANDEN) was an empire in West Africa from c. 1230 to 1670. The empire was founded by Sundiata Keita and became renowned for the wealth of its rulers, especially Musa Keita . The Manding languages were spoken in the empire. It was the largest empire in West Africa and profoundly influenced the culture of West Africa through the spread of its language, laws and customs. Much of the recorded information about the Mali Empire comes from 14th century North African Arab historian Ibn Khaldun , 14th century Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta and 16th century Moroccan traveller Leo Africanus . The other major source of information is Mandinka oral tradition , through storytellers known as griots
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Songhai Empire
The SONGHAI EMPIRE (also transliterated as SONGHAY) was a state that dominated the western Sahel
Sahel
in the 15th and 16th century. At its peak, it was one of the largest states in African history . The state is known by its historiographical name, derived from its leading ethnic group and ruling elite, the Songhai . Sonni Ali established Gao as the capital of the empire, although a Songhai state had existed in and around Gao since the 11th century. Other important cities in the empire were Timbuktu
Timbuktu
and Djenné , conquered in 1468 and 1475 respectively, where urban-centered trade flourished. Initially, the empire was ruled by the Sonni dynasty (c. 1464–1493), but it was later replaced by the Askiya dynasty (1493–1591)
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Couronian Colonization
COURONIAN COLONIZATION refers to the colonization efforts of the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia , a vassal of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth . Small but wealthy, it took a modest part in the European domination and settlement of West Africa
West Africa
and the Caribbean
Caribbean
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Former colonies * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYLike Brandenburg
Brandenburg
, that had far larger German colonizing power before the formation of the German Empire
German Empire
, the Polish-Lithuanian fief of Courland had a European crusading, hence expansionist, past. The colonies were established under Jakob, Duke of Courland and Semigallia , and were indirect colonies of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth . During his reign, the duchy established trading relations with all of the major European powers
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Albreda
ALBREDA is a historic settlement in the Gambia on the north bank of the Gambia River , variously described as a 'trading post' or a 'slave fort'. It is located near Jufureh in the North Bank Division and an arch stands on the beach connecting the two places. As of 2008, it has an estimated population of 1,776. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Roots * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORY Albreda
Albreda
today According to Wolof oral tradition, Musa Gaye, a Wolof marabout founded it sometime between 1520 and 1681. Wolof traders called the island Draga, while the Mandinkas called it Albadar. In 1681, a local ruler, Niumi Mansa (the Niumi District takes its name from this man), gave the land to the French because his people depended on trade with Europeans
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Gambia Colony And Protectorate
The GAMBIA COLONY AND PROTECTORATE was part of the British Empire
British Empire
in the New Imperialism era. The colony was the immediate area surrounding Bathurst , and the protectorate the inland territory situated around the Gambia River , which was declared in 1894. The foundation of the colony was Fort James and Bathurst, where British presence was established in 1815 and 1816, respectively. For various periods in its existence it was subordinate to the Sierra Leone Colony , however by 1888 it was a colony in its own right with a permanently appointed Governor . The boundaries of the territory were an issue of contention between the British and French authorities due to the proximity to French Senegal
Senegal
. Additionally, on numerous occasions the British government had attempted to exchange it with France for other territories, such as on the upper Niger River
Niger River

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Gambia Independence Act 1964
The GAMBIA INDEPENDENCE ACT 1964 (1964 c. 93) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that gave independence to the Gambia with effect from 18 February 1965. The Act also provided for the continued right of appeal from the Gambian courts to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council , which was abolished in 1998 when Yahya Jammeh
Yahya Jammeh
decided to reorganise the Gambian judiciary under the 1997 Constitution of the Gambia
Constitution of the Gambia
, which replaced the 1970 Constitution of The Gambia that had been suspended after the 1994
1994
Gambian coup d\'etat on 22 July 1994
1994
. REFERENCES * Text of the Gambia Independence Act 1964
Gambia Independence Act 1964
as in force today (including any amendments) within the United Kingdom, from legislation.gov.uk * Whitaker's Almanack: for the year 1966, complete edition, p. 321. J
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Senegambia Confederation
SENEGAMBIA, officially the SENEGAMBIA CONFEDERATION, was a loose confederation in the late 20th century between the West African countries of Senegal
Senegal
and its neighbour The Gambia , which is almost completely surrounded by Senegal. The confederation was founded on 1 February 1982 following an agreement between the two countries signed on 12 December 1981. It was intended to promote cooperation between the two countries, but was dissolved by Senegal
Senegal
on 30 September 1989 after The Gambia refused to move closer toward union. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Problems with Senegambia\'s border * 3 Birth of the Confederation
Confederation
* 4 End of the Confederation
Confederation
* 5 References HISTORYAs a political unit, Senegambia was created by dueling French and English colonial forces in the region
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1994 Gambian Coup D'état
Coup attempt succeeds. * Dawda Jawara is overthrown. BELLIGERENTS Government of the Gambia Military faction COMMANDERS AND LEADERS Dawda Jawara Yahya Jammeh