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Senegambian Stone Circles
The SENEGAMBIAN STONE CIRCLES lie in The Gambia north of Janjanbureh and in central Senegal . Approximate area: 30,000 km². They are sometimes divided into the Wassu (Gambian) and Sine-Saloum (Senegalese) circles, but this is purely a national division. CONTENTS* 1 Location * 1.1 Wassu * 1.2 Kerbatch * 1.3 Wanar * 2 Sine Ngayene * 3 Locations * 4 Additional stone circles in Senegambia * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 External links * 8 References LOCATIONThe stone circles and other megaliths found in Senegal and Gambia are sometimes divided into four large sites: Sine Ngayene and Wanar in Senegal, and Wassu and Kerbatch in the Central River Region in Gambia. Researchers are not certain when these monuments were built, but the generally accepted range is between the third century B.C. and the sixteenth century AD
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Herbert Richmond Palmer
SIR HERBERT RICHMOND PALMER KCMG CBE (25 April 1877 – 22 May 1958) was an English barrister, who became a colonial supervisor for Britain during the inter-World War period. He served as a Lieutenant Governor in Nigeria, Governor and Commander-in-Chief of The Gambia and Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Cyprus. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Colonial Service * 2.1 Nigeria * 2.2 The Gambia * 2.3 Cyprus * 2.4 Honours * 3 Later life * 4 Publications * 5 Family * 6 References * 7 External links EARLY LIFEPalmer was born in 1877 in Lancaster to Robert Palmer of The Bank House, Kirkby Lonsdale and Mary Chippendall, who were married on 11 May 1867 at Lancaster Priory . Mary was the great-granddaughter of John Higgin who was Governor of Lancaster Castle from 1783 to 1833. Palmer was educated at Oundle School in Northamptonshire, being recorded in 1895 as an exceptional batsman. He went up to Trinity Hall, Cambridge in 1896 as a scholar reading Classics
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World Heritage Site
A WORLD HERITAGE SITE is a landmark or area which has been officially recognized by the United Nations
United Nations
, specifically by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO
UNESCO
). Sites are selected on the basis of having cultural, historical, scientific or some other form of significance, and they are legally protected by international treaties. UNESCO
UNESCO
regards these sites as being important to the collective interests of humanity
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Archaeologists
ARCHAEOLOGY, or ARCHEOLOGY, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture . The archaeological record consists of artifacts , architecture , biofacts or ecofacts, and cultural landscapes . Archaeology
Archaeology
can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities . In North America
North America
, archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology , while in Europe
Europe
archaeology is often viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history , from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa
Africa
3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology
Archaeology
as a field is distinct from the discipline of palaeontology , the study of fossil remains
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Megaliths
A MEGALITH is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. The word "MEGALITHIC" describes structures made of such large stones without the use of mortar or concrete, representing periods of prehistory characterised by such constructions. For later periods, the term monolith , with an overlapping meaning, is more likely to be used. The word "megalith" comes from the Ancient Greek "μέγας" (transl. megas meaning "great") and "λίθος" (transl. lithos meaning "stone"). Megalith also denotes an item consisting of rock(s) hewn in definite shapes for special purposes. It has been used to describe buildings built by people from many parts of the world living in many different periods
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Senegal
Coordinates : 14°N 14°W / 14°N 14°W / 14; -14 Republic of Senegal République du Sénégal (French ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Un Peuple, Un But, Une Foi" (French ) "One People, One Goal, One Faith" ANTHEM: Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons Everyone strum your koras , strike the balafons Location of Senegal
Senegal
(dark blue) in the
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Sine-Saloum
Coordinates : 14°11′N 16°15′W / 14.183°N 16.250°W / 14.183; -16.250 SINE-SALOUM is a region in Senegal
Senegal
located north of the Gambia and south of the Petite Côte . It encompasses an area of 24,000 square kilometers , about 12% of Senegal, with a population in the 1990s of 1,060,000. The western portion contains the Saloum Delta
Saloum Delta
, a river delta at the junction of the Saloum
Saloum
and the North Atlantic. It is in this region that the Saloum Delta
Saloum Delta
National Park is located. 145,811 hectares of the Delta were designated a UNESCO Heritage Site
UNESCO Heritage Site
in 2011. Because it flows so slowly, this delta allows saltwater to travel deep inland. Long ago, the Serer kingdoms of Sine and Saloum
Saloum
were rivals
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History Of Senegal
The HISTORY OF SENEGAL is commonly divided into a number of periods, encompassing the prehistoric era, the precolonial period, colonialism, and the contemporary era
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Saloum Delta National Park
SALOUM DELTA NATIONAL PARK or PARC NATIONAL DU DELTA DU SALOUM in Senegal , is a 76,000-hectare (190,000-acre) national park. Established in 1976, it is situated within the Saloum Delta at the juncture of the Saloum River and the North Atlantic. The park, which forms part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a Ramsar Convention site, lies within a 180,000 ha (440,000-acre) biosphere reserve. Water comprises 61,000 ha (150,000 acres) of the park, intertidal mangroves and saltwater vegetation cover 7,000 ha (17,000 acres), and savannah and forest cover 8,000 ha (20,000 acres). It lies on the East Atlantic Flyway . The bird species that breed or winter in the area include royal tern , greater flamingo , Eurasian spoonbill , curlew sandpiper , ruddy turnstone , and little stint
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Palor People
The PALORS also known as SERER-PALOR, (or WARO in their own language ) among other names, are an ethnic group found in Senegal around the west central, west southwest of Thiès . They are a sub-group of the Serer ethnic group found in Senegal, the Gambia and Mauritania . Although ethnically Serers, they do not speak the Serer language but one of the Cangin languages . Their language is Palor . CONTENTS * 1 Other names * 2 History * 3 Culture * 4 Religion * 5 See also * 5.1 Related peoples * 6 References * 7 Bibliography OTHER NAMESOther names for the Palor people include WARO (the name for themselves), Palors-Sile, Waro-Waro, Falor, Sili, SILI-SILI (the name they use for their language ). The word Sili is a Palor word for Serer
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Junjung
JUNJUNG (various spellings, including Jung-jung, gungun also dyoung-dyoung etc.) is the name for the royal war drum of the Serer people in Senegal and the Gambia . It was played on the way to the battlefield, on special State occasions as well as on Serer religious ceremonies. It is also the progenitor of the music of the same name found in the Caribbean . SEE ALSO * Dunun * Serer religion portal * Serer people portal * Senegal portal * Gambia portal * Religion portal * history portal * Music portal * War portal NOTES * ^ Léopold Sédar Senghor , À l'appel de la race de Saba (1936) : « Ma tête bourdonnant au galop guerrier des dyoungs-dyoungs, au grand galop de mon sang de pur sang » * ^ Louis Diène Faye. Mort et naissance: le monde Sereer, p56. Nouvelles Éditions africaines, 1983 ISBN 2723608689 * ^ Pathé Diagne, Tarana ou l'Amérique précolombienne : un continent africain, Harmattan, 2010, p
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Serer-Noon
The SERER-NOON also called NOON (sometimes spelt Non or None) are an ethnic people who occupy western Senegal . They are part of the Serer people though they do not speak the Serer-Sine language natively. CONTENTS * 1 Territory * 2 Population * 3 History * 4 Culture * 4.1 Language * 5 Religion * 6 See also * 6.1 Related peoples * 7 Notes * 8 Bibliography * 8.1 External reading TERRITORYThey are found primarily in Senegal in the region of Thiès in areas like Fandène , Peykouk , Silman, Diankhène and Dioung . As well as being present in Senegal, they are also found in the Gambia . POPULATIONIn the Thies area alone, their population is 32,900. Collectively, the Serer people make-up the third largest ethnic group in Senegal
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Niominka People
The NIOMINKA PEOPLE (also called NIUMINKA or NYOMINKA) are an ethnic group in Senegal living on the islands of the Saloum River delta. They are currently classified as a subgroup of the Serer . CONTENTS * 1 Population * 2 History * 3 Filmography * 4 References * 5 Bibliography * 6 External links POPULATIONThe territory of the Niominka is called the Gandoul . Most of the Niominka live in its eleven large villages, which include Niodior , Dionewar , and Falia . They represent a little less than 1% of the population of Senegal. Being island-dwellers, they participate in both agriculture and aquaculture. The primary agricultural produce is made up of rice , millet , and peanuts . As for the aquaculture, the men fish and the women gather shellfish, although environmental problems have become an aquacultural threat. The Niominka are also beginning to look into tourism
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Serer People
Senegal
Senegal
(1.84 million), Gambia
Gambia
(31,900), Mauritania
Mauritania
and expats. LANGUAGES Serer proper , Cangin languages , Wolof French ( Senegal
Senegal
and Mauritania), English (Gambia), RELIGION Senegal
Senegal
2002: 90% Islam
Islam
, 9% Christianity
Christianity
and Serer religion (ƭat Roog) RELATED ETHNIC GROUPS Wolof people , Toucouleur people and Lebou people The SERER PEOPLE are a West African ethnoreligious group . They are the third largest ethnic group in Senegal
Senegal
making up 15% of the Senegalese population. They are also found in northern Gambia
Gambia
and southern Mauritania
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Serer-Laalaa
The SERER-LAALAA or LAALAA are part of the Serer ethnic group of Senegambia (Senegal and the Gambia ). They live in Laa (var : Lâ), the Léhar Region , which comprises eighteen villages north of Thies and whose inhabitants are Serer-Laalaa. Although the people are ethnically Serer, their language Laalaa (or Lehar) is not a dialect of the Serer-Sine language , but—like Saafi , Noon , Ndut and Palor , one of the Cangin languages . CONTENTS * 1 Other names * 2 Culture * 3 Population * 4 History * 5 Religion * 6 See also * 6.1 Related peoples * 7 Notes * 7.1 Bibliography OTHER NAMESSerer-Lehar, Serer-Lehaar, Serer-Laalaa, Serer-Laal, Serer-Lala, LAALAA or just Serer. CULTURE Main article: Lehar language Their language, Laalaa or Lehar , is one of the Cangin languages , closely related to the Noon and Saafi languages, and more distantly related to Serer proper
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Janjanbureh
JANJANBUREH or JANGJANGBUREH is a town, founded in 1832, on Janjanbureh Island in the Gambia River in eastern Gambia . It was formerly known as GEORGETOWN and was the second largest in the country. It is now the capital of the Central River Division and is best known as home to Gambia's main prison . The Wassu stone circles lie 22 km northwest of Lamin Koto, on the north bank across from Janjanbureh. It is also noted for being the site of the first church in Gambia and the first high school, according to one expatriate who was born there. It is the hometown of the Yale academic Lamin Sanneh . The island is known locally as McCarthy Island, and is located in what used to be called McCarthy Island Division. The island is accessed by bridge from the south bank, and small boat ferries or government ferry on the north bank
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