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Senegambian Stone Circles
The SENEGAMBIAN STONE CIRCLES lie in The Gambia
Gambia
north of Janjanbureh and in central Senegal
Senegal
. Approximate area: 30,000 km². They are sometimes divided into the Wassu (Gambian) and Sine-Saloum (Senegalese) circles, but this is purely a national division. CONTENTS* 1 Location * 1.1 Wassu * 1.2 Kerbatch * 1.3 Wanar * 2 Sine Ngayene * 3 Locations * 4 Additional stone circles in Senegambia * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 External links * 8 References LOCATIONThe stone circles and other megaliths found in Senegal
Senegal
and Gambia
Gambia
are sometimes divided into four large sites: Sine Ngayene and Wanar in Senegal, and Wassu and Kerbatch in the Central River Region in Gambia. Researchers are not certain when these monuments were built, but the generally accepted range is between the third century B.C. and the sixteenth century AD. Archaeologists have also found pottery sherds, human burials, and some grave goods and metals around the megalithic circles. A small collection of these can be found in the British Museum 's study collection that was donated by the colonial administrator Sir Richmond Palmer . They include an iron bracelet and two spears. Among these four main areas, there are approximately 29,000 stones, 17,000 monuments, and 2,000 individual sites
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World Heritage Site
A WORLD HERITAGE SITE is a landmark or area which has been officially recognized by the United Nations
United Nations
, specifically by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO
UNESCO
). Sites are selected on the basis of having cultural, historical, scientific or some other form of significance, and they are legally protected by international treaties. UNESCO
UNESCO
regards these sites as being important to the collective interests of humanity. More specifically, a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
is an already classified landmark, which by way of being unique in some respect as a geographically and historically identifiable piece is of special cultural or physical significance (such as either due to hosting an ancient ruins or some historical structure, building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, or mountain) and symbolizes a remarkable footprint of extreme human endeavour often coupled with some act of indisputable accomplishment of humanity which then serves as a surviving evidence of its intellectual existence on the planet
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Table Of World Heritage Sites By Country
HERITAGE may refer to: * History , "heritage" refers to events or processes that have a special meaning in group memory * National heritage site , a site having a value that has been registered by a governmental agency as being of national importance to the history of that nation * Historic site an official location where pieces of political, military, cultural, or social history have been preserved due to their historical importance* Cultural heritage , the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society: man-made heritage * World Heritage Site , As a certified by UNESCO * List of des
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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World Heritage Committee
The WORLD HERITAGE COMMITTEE establishes the sites to be listed as UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites . It decides about inscriptions on the World Heritage List and the List of World Heritage in Danger, monitors the state of conservation of the World Heritage properties, defines the use of the World Heritage Fund and allocates financial assistance upon requests from States Parties. It is composed of 21 state parties that are elected by the GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF STATES PARTIES for a four-year term. According to the World Heritage Convention, a committee member's term of office is for six years, however many states parties choose voluntarily to be Members of the Committee for only four years, in order to give other states' parties an opportunity to be on the committee. All members elected at the 15th General Assembly (2005) voluntarily decided to reduce their period of term of office from six to four years. CONTENTS * 1 Sessions * 2 Members * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links SESSIONSThe World Heritage Committee
World Heritage Committee
meets once a year to discuss the management of existing World Heritage Sites, and accept the nominations from countries
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History Of The Gambia
The first written records of the region come from Arab
Arab
traders in the 9th and 10th centuries. In medieval times, the region was dominated by the Trans-Saharan trade and was ruled by the Mali Empire . In the 16th century, the region came to be ruled by the Songhai Empire
Songhai Empire
. The first Europeans to visit the Gambia River were the Portuguese in the 15th century, who attempted to settle on the river banks, but no settlement of significant size was established. Descendants of the Portuguese settlers remained until the 18th century. In the late 16th century, English merchants attempted to begin a trade with the Gambia, reporting that it was "a river of secret trade and riches concealed by the Portuguese." In the early 17th century, the French attempted to settle the Gambia but failed. Further English expeditions from 1618 to 1621, including under Richard Jobson , were attempted but resulted in huge losses. Merchants of the Commonwealth of England sent expeditions to the Gambia in 1651, but their ships were captured by Prince Rupert the following year. In 1651, the Couronian colonisation of the Gambia had also begun, with forts and outposts being erected on several islands. The Courlanders remained dominant until 1659 when their possessions were handed over to the Dutch West India Company
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Takrur
( Serer religion ) GOVERNMENT Monarchy
Monarchy
KING • 1030s War Jabi HISTORICAL ERA Middle Ages
Middle Ages
• Established 800s • Islam
Islam
1030s • Conquered by Mali Empire 1285 PRECEDED BY SUCCEEDED BY Serer people Fula people Toucouleur people Kaniaga Mali Empire PART OF A SERIES ON THE History of the Gambia CHRONOLOGICAL * Senegambian stone circles * Takrur * Mali Empire * Songhai Empire * Couronian colonization * Albreda
Albreda
* Gambia Colony and Protectorate
Gambia Colony and Protectorate
* Gambia Independence Act 1964 * Senegambia Confederation * 1994 Gambian coup d\'état * 2014 Gambian coup d\'état attempt Gambia portal * v * t * e TAKRUR, TEKRUR or TEKROUR (c. 800 – c. 1285) was an ancient state of West Africa
West Africa
, which flourished roughly parallel to the Ghana Empire
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Mali Empire
The MALI EMPIRE (Manding : _Nyeni_ or _Niani_; also historically referred to as the MANDEN KURUFABA, sometimes shortened to MANDEN) was an empire in West Africa from c. 1230 to 1670. The empire was founded by Sundiata Keita and became renowned for the wealth of its rulers, especially Musa Keita . The Manding languages were spoken in the empire. It was the largest empire in West Africa and profoundly influenced the culture of West Africa through the spread of its language, laws and customs. Much of the recorded information about the Mali Empire comes from 14th century North African Arab historian Ibn Khaldun , 14th century Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta and 16th century Moroccan traveller Leo Africanus . The other major source of information is Mandinka oral tradition , through storytellers known as griots . The empire began as a small Mandinka kingdom at the upper reaches of the Niger River , centred around the town of Niani (the empire's namesake in Manding). During the 11th and 12th centuries it began to develop as an empire following the decline of the Ghana Empire to the north. During this period, trade routes shifted southward to the savanna, stimulating the growth of states
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Songhai Empire
The SONGHAI EMPIRE (also transliterated as SONGHAY) was a state that dominated the western Sahel in the 15th and 16th century. At its peak, it was one of the largest states in African history . The state is known by its historiographical name, derived from its leading ethnic group and ruling elite, the Songhai . Sonni Ali established Gao
Gao
as the capital of the empire, although a Songhai state had existed in and around Gao
Gao
since the 11th century. Other important cities in the empire were Timbuktu
Timbuktu
and Djenné , conquered in 1468 and 1475 respectively, where urban-centered trade flourished. Initially, the empire was ruled by the Sonni dynasty (c. 1464–1493), but it was later replaced by the Askiya dynasty (1493–1591). During the second half of the 13th century, Mao
Mao
and the surrounding region had grown into an important trading center and attracted the interest of the expanding Mali
Mali
Empire
Empire
. Mali
Mali
conquered Mao
Mao
towards the end of the 13th century; Gao
Gao
would remain under Malian hegemony until the late 14th century. But as the Mali
Mali
Empire
Empire
started to disintegrate, the Songhai reasserted control of Mao
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Couronian Colonization
COURONIAN COLONIZATION refers to the colonization efforts of the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia , a vassal of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth . Small but wealthy, it took a modest part in the European domination and settlement of West Africa
West Africa
and the Caribbean
Caribbean
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Former colonies * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYLike Brandenburg
Brandenburg
, that had far larger German colonizing power before the formation of the German Empire
German Empire
, the Polish-Lithuanian fief of Courland had a European crusading, hence expansionist, past. The colonies were established under Jakob, Duke of Courland and Semigallia , and were indirect colonies of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth . During his reign, the duchy established trading relations with all of the major European powers. Jakob established one of the largest merchant fleets in Europe, with its main harbors in Windau (today Ventspils), and Libau (today Liepāja). His fleet made voyages to the West Indies
West Indies
as early as 1637 when the settlers on the ship established the first colony on Tobago
Tobago
. The first colony was a failure, but it was refounded in 1639. In 1651, the Duchy
Duchy
gained a colony in Africa on St
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Albreda
ALBREDA is a historic settlement in the Gambia on the north bank of the Gambia River , variously described as a 'trading post' or a 'slave fort'. It is located near Jufureh in the North Bank Division and an arch stands on the beach connecting the two places. As of 2008, it has an estimated population of 1,776. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Roots * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORY Albreda
Albreda
today According to Wolof oral tradition, Musa Gaye, a Wolof marabout founded it sometime between 1520 and 1681. Wolof traders called the island Draga, while the Mandinkas called it Albadar. In 1681, a local ruler, Niumi Mansa (the Niumi District takes its name from this man), gave the land to the French because his people depended on trade with Europeans. The French exclave was never very large (never more than one factory) but its location was inconvenient for the British, who otherwise had a monopoly on trade on the Gambia River . The British also possessed Fort James on James Island , which was less than two miles away on the opposite bank, and which fulfilled a similar function. There was constant tension and occasional skirmishes between the two powers, with Fort James changing hands between them several times, until remaining definitively under British control in 1702. Albreda
Albreda
was transferred from French control to the British empire in 1857
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Gambia Colony And Protectorate
The GAMBIA COLONY AND PROTECTORATE was part of the British Empire
British Empire
in the New Imperialism era. The colony was the immediate area surrounding Bathurst , and the protectorate the inland territory situated around the Gambia River , which was declared in 1894. The foundation of the colony was Fort James and Bathurst, where British presence was established in 1815 and 1816, respectively. For various periods in its existence it was subordinate to the Sierra Leone Colony , however by 1888 it was a colony in its own right with a permanently appointed Governor . The boundaries of the territory were an issue of contention between the British and French authorities due to the proximity to French Senegal
Senegal
. Additionally, on numerous occasions the British government had attempted to exchange it with France for other territories, such as on the upper Niger River . France and Britain agreed in 1889 in principle to set the boundary at six miles north and south of the river and east to Yarbutenda , the furthest navigable point on the river Gambia
Gambia
. This should have been followed by the dispatchment of a joint Anglo-French Boundary Commission to map the actual border. Yet, at its arrival on place in 1891, the boundary commission was met with resistance by local leaders whose territories they were coming to divide
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Gambia Independence Act 1964
The GAMBIA INDEPENDENCE ACT 1964 (1964 c. 93) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that gave independence to the Gambia with effect from 18 February 1965. The Act also provided for the continued right of appeal from the Gambian courts to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council . REFERENCES * Text of the Gambia Independence Act 1964
Gambia Independence Act 1964
as in force today (including any amendments) within the United Kingdom, from legislation.gov.uk * Whitaker's Almanack: for the year 1966, complete edition, p. 321. J. Whitaker HMSO, London. 1993. ISBN 0-11-840331-1 This legislation article is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gambia_Independence_Act_1964 additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Senegambia Confederation
SENEGAMBIA, officially the SENEGAMBIA CONFEDERATION, was a loose confederation in the late 20th century between the West African countries of Senegal
Senegal
and its neighbour The Gambia
The Gambia
, which is almost completely surrounded by Senegal. The confederation was founded on 1 February 1982 following an agreement between the two countries signed on 12 December 1981. It was intended to promote cooperation between the two countries, but was dissolved by Senegal
Senegal
on 30 September 1989 after The Gambia
The Gambia
refused to move closer toward union. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Problems with Senegambia\'s border * 3 Birth of the Confederation
Confederation
* 4 End of the Confederation
Confederation
* 5 References HISTORYAs a political unit, Senegambia was created by dueling French and English colonial forces in the region. Competition between the French and the English began in the 16th century when both started to establish trading centers. Although there was some overlap in their areas of influence, French trade centered on the Senegal
Senegal
River and in the Cap-Vert region and English trade on the Gambia River
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1994 Gambian Coup D'état
Coup attempt succeeds. * Dawda Jawara
Dawda Jawara
is overthrown. BELLIGERENTS Government of the Gambia
Government of the Gambia
Military faction COMMANDERS AND LEADERS Dawda Jawara
Dawda Jawara
Yahya Jammeh
Yahya Jammeh
PART OF A SERIES ON THE History of the Gambia CHRONOLOGICAL * Senegambian stone circles * Takrur * Mali Empire * Songhai Empire
Songhai Empire
* Couronian colonization * Albreda * Gambia Colony and Protectorate * Gambia Independence Act 1964 * Senegambia Confederation * 1994 Gambian coup d'état * 2014 Gambian coup d\'état attempt Gambia portal * v * t * e In the 1994 GAMBIAN COUP D\'éTAT, a group of soldiers led by then 29-year-old Lieutenant Yahya Jammeh
Yahya Jammeh
seized power in a bloodless coup d\'état on 22 July, ousting Dawda Jawara
Dawda Jawara
who had been President of the Gambia since 1970. SEE ALSO * Arch 22
Arch 22
REFERENCES * ^ In Gambia, New Coup Follows Old PatternFURTHER READING * Saine, Abdoulaye S.M. (1996). "The Coup d\'Etat in The Gambia, 1994: The End of the First Republic". Armed Forces & Society. 23 (1): 97–111
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2014 Gambian Coup D'état Attempt
Gambian Government * Military of the Gambia
Military of the Gambia
Faction of the Presidential Guard COMMANDERS AND LEADERS President Yahya Jammeh
Yahya Jammeh
Lt. Col. Lamin Sanneh † CASUALTIES AND LOSSES 4 deaths, several wounded PART OF A SERIES ON THE History of the Gambia CHRONOLOGICAL * Senegambian stone circles
Senegambian stone circles
* Takrur * Mali Empire * Songhai Empire
Songhai Empire
* Couronian colonization
Couronian colonization
* Albreda * Gambia Colony and Protectorate * Gambia Independence Act 1964
Gambia Independence Act 1964
* Senegambia Confederation * 1994 Gambian coup d\'état * 2014 Gambian coup d'état attempt Gambia portal * v * t * e The 2014 GAMBIAN COUP D\'éTAT ATTEMPT broke out during the night of 30 December 2014, when gunfire erupted in the Gambian capital of Banjul
Banjul