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Senegal
Coordinates : 14°N 14°W / 14°N 14°W / 14; -14 Republic of Senegal _République du Sénégal_ (French ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Un Peuple, Un But, Une Foi" (French ) "One People, One Goal, One Faith" ANTHEM: _ Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons _ _Everyone strum your koras , strike the balafons _ Location of Senegal (dark blue) in the African Union (light blue) Capital and largest city Dakar 14°40′N 17°25′W / 14.667°N 17.417°W / 14.667; -17.417 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES French NATIONAL LANGUAGES * Balanta-Ganja * Hassaniya Arabic * Jola-Fonyi * Mandinka * Mandjak * Mankanya * Noon *
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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French Language
Phonological history * Oaths of Strasbourg * Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts * Anglo-Norman GRAMMAR * Adverbs * Articles and determiners * Pronouns (personal )* Verbs * (conjugation * morphology ) ORTHOGRAPHY * Alphabet * Reforms * Circumflex * Braille PHONOLOGY * Elision * Liaison * Aspirated h * Help:IPA for French * v * t * e FRENCH (_le français_ (_ listen ) or la langue française_ ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family . It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire , as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d\'oïl —languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French ( Francien ) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic ) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages , most notably Haitian Creole . A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as "FRANCOPHONE" in both English and French
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Flag Of Senegal
The FLAG OF SENEGAL (French : _le drapeau du Sénégal_) is a tricolour consisting of three vertical green, yellow and red bands charged with a five-pointed green star at the centre. Adopted in 1960 to replace the flag of the Mali Federation , it has been the flag of the Republic of Senegal since the country gained independence that year. The present and previous flags were inspired by French Tricolour , which flew over Senegal until 1960. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Design * 2.1 Symbolism * 3 Historical flags * 4 Similar colours * 5 References HISTORY Flag of the Mali Federation (1959–1960). Under French colonial rule over Senegal , the authorities forbade the colony from using its own distinctive colonial flag because they were worried that this could increase nationalistic sentiment and lead to calls for independence. With the rise of the decolonization movement in Africa , the French were obliged to grant limited autonomy to Senegal as a self-governing republic within the French Community . Senegal was combined with French Soudan on April 4, 1959, to form the Mali Federation . That day, a new flag was adopted: a vertical green, yellow and red tricolour with a stylized depiction of a human being (referred to as a _kanaga_) on the centre band
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Coat Of Arms Of Senegal
The COAT OF ARMS OF SENEGAL is the heraldic device consisting of a shield charged with a lion on the left half and a baobab tree on the right, flanked by palm branches and topped with a five-pointed green star at the top. Adopted five years after Senegal gained independence, it has been the coat of arms of the Republic of Senegal since 1965. Both symbols on the shield had featured previously on earlier Senegalese emblems. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Design * 2.1 Symbolism * 2.2 Similarities * 3 See also * 4 References HISTORY Senegal gained independence on 20 August 1960, when it separated from the Mali Federation and became an independent country on its own. It took approximately five years to before Senegal adopted its own coat of arms. It was designed by Suzanne Gauthier, a French heraldist from Paris, in 1965. It incorporated the lion and the baobab tree - both symbols were previously utilised on earlier Senegalese emblems. DESIGNSYMBOLISMThe colours and objects on the coat of arms carry cultural, political, and regional meanings. The green star at the crest is identical to the one on Senegal\'s flag . It alludes to Islam , the religion practiced by 94% of Senegal\'s population . The dexter (i.e. proper right ) of the escutcheon features a lion
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Pincez Tous Vos Koras, Frappez Les Balafons
"PINCEZ TOUS VOS KORAS, FRAPPEZ LES BALAFONS" known also as "LE LION ROUGE" is the national anthem of Senegal
Senegal
. It was adopted in 1960. CONTENTS * 1 Development * 2 Lyrics * 3 References * 4 External links DEVELOPMENTThe lyrics were written by Léopold Sédar Senghor , who became Senegal's first president. The music is by Herbert Pepper, who also wrote the national anthem of the Central African Republic
Central African Republic
, "La Renaissance ". The kora (a type of harp) and balafon (wooden xylophone) are Senegalese musical instruments. LYRICS FRENCH LYRICS ENGLISH TRANSLATION Pincez tous vos koras, frappez les balafons. Le lion rouge a rugi. Le dompteur de la brousse D'un bond s'est élancé, Dissipant les ténèbres. Soleil sur nos terreurs, soleil sur notre espoir. Debout, frères, voici l'Afrique rassemblée Refrain : Fibres de mon cœur vert. Épaule contre épaule, mes plus que frères, O Sénégalais, debout ! Unissons la mer et les sources, unissons la steppe et la forêt ! Salut Afrique mère, salut Afrique mère. Sénégal toi le fils de l'écume du lion, Toi surgi de la nuit au galop des chevaux, Rend-nous, oh ! rends-nous l'honneur de nos ancêtres, Splendides comme ébène et forts comme le muscle Nous disons droits – l'épée n'a pas une bavure
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Kora (instrument)
The KORA is a 21-string lute -bridge -harp used extensively in West Africa. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 History * 3 Scores * 4 Bibliography * 5 Selected discography * 5.1 African composers (oral tradition) * 5.2 Western composers (written music) * 6 Notable kora players * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links DESCRIPTIONA kora is a mandinka harp built from a large calabash cut in half and covered with cow skin to make a resonator with a long hardwood neck. The skin is supported by two handles that run under it. It supports a notched double free-standing bridge . It doesn't fit into any one category of musical instruments, but rather several, and must be classified as a "double-bridge-harp-lute". The strings run in two divided ranks, making it a double harp. They do not end in a soundboard but are held in notches on a bridge, making it a bridge harp. They originate from a string arm or neck and cross a bridge directly supported by a resonating chamber, making it a lute too. The sound of a kora resembles that of a harp, though when played in the traditional style, it bears a closer resemblance to flamenco and delta blues guitar techniques. The player uses only the thumb and index finger of both hands to pluck the strings in polyrhythmic patterns (using the remaining fingers to secure the instrument by holding the hand posts on either side of the strings)
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Balafon
The BALAFON is a kind of wooden xylophone or percussion idiophone which plays melodic tunes, and usually has between 16 and 27 keys. It has been played in Africa since the 14th century; it originated in Mali, according to the Manding history narrated by the griots . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Etymology * 2 Construction * 3 Regional traditions * 3.1 Gyil * 3.2 Cameroon * 3.3 Guinea * 3.3.1 The Sosso Bala * 3.4 Senegal * 3.5 Mali * 4 Famous players and ensembles * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links HISTORYBelieved to have been developed independently of the Southern African and South American instruments now called the marimba , oral histories of the balafon date it to at least the rise of the Mali Empire in the 12th century CE. Balafon is a Manding name, but variations exist across West Africa, including the _balangi_ in Sierra Leone and the gyil of the Dagara , Lobi and Gurunsi from Ghana , Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast . Similar instruments are played in parts of Central Africa , with the ancient Kingdom of Kongo denoting the instrument as _palaku_. Records of the balafon go back to at least the 12th century CE
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African Union
The AFRICAN UNION (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent. It was established on 26 May 2001 in Addis Ababa , Ethiopia , and launched on 9 July 2002 in South Africa , with the aim of replacing the Organisation of African Unity (OAU). The most important decisions of the AU are made by the Assembly of the African Union , a semi-annual meeting of the heads of state and government of its member states. The AU's secretariat, the African Union Commission , is based in Addis Ababa
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Dakar
DAKAR (English: /dɑːˈkɑːr, ˈdækər/ ; French: ) is the capital and largest city of Senegal . It is located on the Cap-Vert peninsula on the Atlantic coast and is the westernmost city in the Old World as well as on the African mainland. The city of Dakar proper has a population of 1,030,594, whereas the population of the Dakar metropolitan area is estimated at 2.45 million. The area around Dakar was settled in the 15th century. The Portuguese established a presence on the island of Gorée off the coast of Cap-Vert and used it as a base for the Atlantic slave trade . France took over the island in 1677. Following the abolition of the slave trade and French annexation of the mainland area in the 19th century, Dakar grew into a major regional port and a major city of the French colonial empire . In 1902, Dakar replaced Saint-Louis as the capital of French West Africa . From 1959 to 1960, Dakar was the capital of the short-lived Mali Federation . In 1960, it became the capital of the independent Republic of Senegal. Dakar is home to multiple national and regional banks as well as numerous international organizations. From 1978 to 2007, it was also the traditional finishing point of the Dakar Rally
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National Language
A NATIONAL LANGUAGE is a language (or language variant , e.g. dialect ) that has some connection—de facto or de jure —with people and the territory they occupy. There is little consistency in the use of this term. One or more languages spoken as first languages in the territory of a country may be referred to informally or designated in legislation as national languages of the country. National or official languages are mentioned in over 150 world constitutions. C.M.B. Brann , with particular reference to Africa, suggests that there are "four quite distinctive meanings" for national language in a polity: * "Territorial language" (_chthonolect_, sometimes known as _chtonolect_ ) of a particular people * " Regional language " (_choralect_) * "Language-in-common or community language" (_demolect_) used throughout a country * "Central language" (_politolect_) used by government and perhaps having a symbolic value.The last is usually given the title of official language . Standard languages , such as Standard German , Standard French , and Standard Spanish , may serve as national (language-in-common), regional, and international languages
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Balanta-Ganja Language
BALANTA (or BALANT) is a group of two closely related Bak languages of West Africa spoken by the Balanta people . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Balanta-Kentohe * 3 Balanta-Ganja * 4 Grammar * 5 Writing * 6 References * 7 External links DESCRIPTIONBalanta is now generally divided into two distinct languages; Balanta-Kentohe and Balanta-Ganja. BALANTA-KENTOHEThe Balanta-Kentohe language is spoken by a total of 423,000 people on the north central and central coast of Guinea-Bissau (where as of 2006 it is spoken by 397,000 people, many of which can be found in the Oio Region ) as well as in the Gambia . Films and portions of the Bible have been produced in Balanta-Kentohe. Ethnologue lists alternative names as Alante, Balanda, Balant, Balanta, Balante, Ballante, Belante, Brassa, Bulanda, Frase, Fora, Kantohe (Kentohe, Queuthoe), Naga and Mane. The Naga, Mane and Kantohe dialects may be separate languages. BALANTA-GANJABalanta-Ganja is spoken by 86,000 people (as of 2006) in the southwest corner of and the south of Senegal . Literacy is less than 1% for Balanta-Ganja. In September 2000, Balanta-Ganja was granted the status of a national language in Senegal, and as of then can now be taught in elementary school
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Hassaniya Arabic
HASSāNīYA ( Arabic : حسانية‎‎ _Ḥassānīya_; also known as _Hassaniyya_, _Klem El Bithan_, _Hasanya_, _Hassani_, _Hassaniya_) is a variety of Maghrebi Arabic . It was spoken by the Beni Ḥassān Bedouin tribes, who extended their authority over most of Mauritania and Morocco 's southeastern and Western Sahara between the 15th and 17th centuries. It was the language spoken in the pre-modern region around Chinguetti . The language has now almost completely replaced the Berber languages that were originally spoken in this region. Although clearly a western dialect, Hassānīya is relatively distant from other Maghrebi variants of Arabic. Its geographical location exposed it to influence from Zenaga-Berber and Wolof . There are several dialects of Hassānīya which differ primarily phonetically. Today, Hassānīya is spoken in Algeria , Libya , Morocco , Mauritania , Mali , Niger , Senegal and the Western Sahara . CONTENTS * 1 Phonology * 2 Speakers distribution * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links PHONOLOGYThe phonological system of Hassānīya is both very innovative and very conservative. All phonemes of Classical Arabic are represented in the dialect, but there are also many new phonemes
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Jola-Fonyi Language
JOLA (French : _Diola_; Jola: _Joola_), also called JOLA-FONYI (French : _Diola-Fogny_), is a language spoken by half a million people in the Casamance region of Senegal , and neighboring countries. Jola-Fonyi is one of several closely related Jola languages spoken in the area. SEE ALSO * Category:Diola-language films REFERENCES * ^ Jola-Fonyi at _ Ethnologue _ (18th ed., 2015) * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Jola-Fonyi". _ Glottolog 2.7 _. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * Hopkins, Bradley L. 1995. Contribution à une etude de la syntaxe Diola-Fogny. _Cahiers de Recherche Linguistique_, 4. Dakar: Société Internationale de Linguistique. * Hopkins, Bradley and Elizabeth Hopkins. 1992. _Apprentissage de la langue Diola-Fogny: Un cours pratique_
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Mandinka Language
The MANDINKA LANGUAGE (_Mandi'nka kango_), or MANDINGO, is a Mandé language spoken by the Mandinka people of the Casamance region of Senegal, the Gambia , and northern