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Senegal
Coordinates : 14°N 14°W / 14°N 14°W / 14; -14 Republic of Senegal _République du Sénégal_ (French ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Un Peuple, Un But, Une Foi" (French ) "One People, One Goal, One Faith" ANTHEM: _ Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons _ _Everyone strum your koras , strike the balafons _ Location of Senegal (dark blue) in the African Union (light blue) Capital and largest city
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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French Language
Phonological history * Oaths of Strasbourg * Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts * Anglo-Norman GRAMMAR * Adverbs * Articles and determiners * Pronouns (personal )* Verbs * (conjugation * morphology ) ORTHOGRAPHY * Alphabet * Reforms * Circumflex * Braille PHONOLOGY * Elision * Liaison * Aspirated h * Help:IPA for French * v * t * e FRENCH (_le français_ (_ listen ) or la langue française_ ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family . It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire , as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d\'oïl —languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French ( Francien ) has largely supplanted
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Flag Of Senegal
The FLAG OF SENEGAL (French : le drapeau du Sénégal) is a tricolour consisting of three vertical green, yellow and red bands charged with a five-pointed green star at the centre. Adopted in 1960 to replace the flag of the Mali Federation
Mali Federation
, it has been the flag of the Republic of Senegal
Senegal
since the country gained independence that year. The present and previous flags were inspired by French Tricolour , which flew over Senegal
Senegal
until 1960. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Design * 2.1 Symbolism * 3 Historical flags * 4 Similar colours * 5 References HISTORY Flag of the Mali Federation
Mali Federation
(1959–1960)
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Coat Of Arms Of Senegal
The COAT OF ARMS OF SENEGAL is the heraldic device consisting of a shield charged with a lion on the left half and a baobab tree on the right, flanked by palm branches and topped with a five-pointed green star at the top. Adopted five years after Senegal
Senegal
gained independence, it has been the coat of arms of the Republic of Senegal since 1965. Both symbols on the shield had featured previously on earlier Senegalese emblems. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Design * 2.1 Symbolism * 2.2 Similarities * 3 See also * 4 References HISTORY Senegal
Senegal
gained independence on 20 August 1960, when it separated from the Mali Federation
Mali Federation
and became an independent country on its own. It took approximately five years to before Senegal
Senegal
adopted its own coat of arms. It was designed by Suzanne Gauthier, a French heraldist from Paris, in 1965
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Pincez Tous Vos Koras, Frappez Les Balafons
"PINCEZ TOUS VOS KORAS, FRAPPEZ LES BALAFONS" known also as "LE LION ROUGE" is the national anthem of Senegal
Senegal
. It was adopted in 1960. CONTENTS * 1 Development * 2 Lyrics * 3 References * 4 External links DEVELOPMENTThe lyrics were written by Léopold Sédar Senghor
Léopold Sédar Senghor
, who became Senegal's first president. The music is by Herbert Pepper, who also wrote the national anthem of the Central African Republic
Central African Republic
, "La Renaissance ". The kora (a type of harp) and balafon (wooden xylophone) are Senegalese musical instruments. LYRICS FRENCH LYRICS ENGLISH TRANSLATION Pincez tous vos koras, frappez les balafons. Le lion rouge a rugi. Le dompteur de la brousse D'un bond s'est élancé, Dissipant les ténèbres. Soleil sur nos terreurs, soleil sur notre espoir. Debout, frères, voici l'Afrique rassemblée Refrain : Fibres de mon cœur vert
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Kora (instrument)
The KORA is a 21-string lute -bridge -harp used extensively in West Africa. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 History * 3 Scores * 4 Bibliography * 5 Selected discography * 5.1 African composers (oral tradition) * 5.2 Western composers (written music) * 6 Notable kora players * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links DESCRIPTIONA kora is a mandink harp built from a large calabash cut in half and covered with cow skin to make a resonator with a long hardwood neck. The skin is supported by two handles that run under it. It supports a notched double free-standing bridge . It doesn't fit into any one category of musical instruments, but rather several, and must be classified as a "double-bridge-harp-lute". The strings run in two divided ranks, making it a double harp. They do not end in a soundboard but are held in notches on a bridge, making it a bridge harp
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Balafon
The BALAFON is a kind of wooden xylophone or percussion idiophone which plays melodic tunes, and usually has between 16 and 27 keys. It has been played in Africa since the 14th century; it originated in Mali, according to the Manding history narrated by the griots . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Etymology * 2 Construction * 3 Regional traditions * 3.1 Gyil
Gyil
* 3.2 Cameroon
Cameroon
* 3.3 Guinea
Guinea
* 3.3.1 The Sosso
Sosso
Bala * 3.4 Senegal
Senegal
* 3.5 Mali
Mali
* 4 Famous players and ensembles * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links HISTORYBelieved to have been developed independently of the Southern African and South American instruments now called the marimba , oral histories of the balafon date it to at least the rise of the Mali Empire
Mali Empire
in the 12th century CE
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African Union
The AFRICAN UNION (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent. It was established on 26 May 2001 in Addis Ababa , Ethiopia , and launched on 9 July 2002 in South Africa , with the aim of replacing the Organisation of African Unity (OAU). The most important decisions of the AU are made by the Assembly of the African Union , a semi-annual meeting of the heads of state and government of its member states. The AU's secretariat, the African Union Commission , is based in Addis Ababa
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Dakar
DAKAR (English: /dɑːˈkɑːr, ˈdækər/ ; French: ) is the capital and largest city of Senegal . It is located on the Cap-Vert peninsula on the Atlantic coast and is the westernmost city in the Old World as well as on the African mainland. The city of Dakar proper has a population of 1,030,594, whereas the population of the Dakar metropolitan area is estimated at 2.45 million. The area around Dakar was settled in the 15th century. The Portuguese established a presence on the island of Gorée off the coast of Cap-Vert and used it as a base for the Atlantic slave trade . France took over the island in 1677. Following the abolition of the slave trade and French annexation of the mainland area in the 19th century, Dakar grew into a major regional port and a major city of the French colonial empire
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National Language
A NATIONAL LANGUAGE is a language (or language variant , e.g. dialect ) that has some connection—de facto or de jure —with people and the territory they occupy. There is little consistency in the use of this term. One or more languages spoken as first languages in the territory of a country may be referred to informally or designated in legislation as national languages of the country. National or official languages are mentioned in over 150 world constitutions. C.M.B
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Balanta-Ganja Language
BALANTA (or BALANT) is a group of two closely related Bak languages of West Africa
West Africa
spoken by the Balanta people
Balanta people
. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Balanta-Kentohe * 3 Balanta-Ganja * 4 Grammar * 5 Writing * 6 References * 7 External links DESCRIPTIONBalanta is now generally divided into two distinct languages; Balanta-Kentohe and Balanta-Ganja. BALANTA-KENTOHEThe Balanta-Kentohe language is spoken by a total of 423,000 people on the north central and central coast of Guinea-Bissau
Guinea-Bissau
(where as of 2006 it is spoken by 397,000 people, many of which can be found in the Oio Region ) as well as in the Gambia . Films and portions of the Bible
Bible
have been produced in Balanta-Kentohe
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Hassaniya Arabic
HASSāNīYA ( Arabic
Arabic
: حسانية‎‎ Ḥassānīya; also known as Hassaniyya, Klem El Bithan, Hasanya, Hassani, Hassaniya) is a variety of Maghrebi Arabic . It was spoken by the Beni Ḥassān Bedouin tribes, who extended their authority over most of Mauritania
Mauritania
and Morocco
Morocco
's southeastern and Western Sahara
Western Sahara
between the 15th and 17th centuries. Hassaniya Arabic
Arabic
was the language spoken in the pre-modern region around Chinguetti
Chinguetti
. The language has now almost completely replaced the Berber languages that were originally spoken in this region. Although clearly a western dialect, Hassānīya is relatively distant from other Maghrebi variants of Arabic. Its geographical location exposed it to influence from Zenaga-Berber and Wolof
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Jola-Fonyi Language
JOLA (French : Diola; Jola: Joola), also called JOLA-FONYI (French : Diola-Fogny), is a language spoken by half a million people in the Casamance region of Senegal
Senegal
, and neighboring countries. Jola-Fonyi is one of several closely related Jola languages spoken in the area. SEE ALSO * Category:Diola-language films REFERENCES * ^ Jola-Fonyi at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Jola-Fonyi". Glottolog 2.7 . Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * Hopkins, Bradley L. 1995. Contribution à une etude de la syntaxe Diola-Fogny. Cahiers de Recherche Linguistique, 4. Dakar: Société Internationale de Linguistique. * Hopkins, Bradley and Elizabeth Hopkins. 1992. Apprentissage de la langue Diola-Fogny: Un cours pratique
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Mandinka Language
The MANDINKA LANGUAGE (_Mandi'nka kango_), or MANDINGO, is a Mandé language spoken by the Mandinka people of the Casamance region of Senegal, the Gambia , and northern Guinea-Bissau . It is the principal language of the Gambia. Mandinka belongs to the Manding branch of Mandé, and is thus similar to Bambara and Maninka/Malinké . In a majority of areas, it is a tonal language with two tones: low and high, although the particular variety spoken in the Gambia and Senegal borders on a pitch accent due to its proximity with non-tonal neighboring languages like Wolof . CONTENTS* 1 Phonology * 1.1 Tone * 1.2 Vowels * 1.3 Consonants * 2 Orthography * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Bibliography * 6 External links PHONOLOGYMandinka is here represented by the variety spoken in Casamance. There is little dialectical diversity. TONEMandinka has two tones, high and low
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Mandjak Language
MANDJAK (Manjack) is a Bak language of Guinea-Bissau
Guinea-Bissau
and Senegal
Senegal
. Other spellings are Mandjaque, Mandyak, Manjaca, Manjaco, Manjaku, Manjiak, Mendyako, and Ndyak; another name is Kanyop. Dialects are distinct enough that some might be considered separate languages. They are: * Bok (Babok, Sarar, Teixeira Pinto, Tsaam) * Likes-Utsia (Baraa, Kalkus) * Cur (Churo) * Lund * Yu (Pecixe, Siis, Pulhilh) * Unhate (Binhante, Bissau)REFERENCES * ^ Mandjak at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Mandjak". Glottolog 2.7 . Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History
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