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Seneca The Younger
Seneca the Younger
Seneca the Younger
(c. 4 BC – AD 65), fully Lucius Annaeus Seneca and also known simply as Seneca (/ˈsɛnɪkə/), was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and—in one work—satirist of the Silver Age of Latin
Latin
literature. Seneca was born in Cordoba in Hispania, and raised in Rome, where he was trained in rhetoric and philosophy. He was a tutor and later advisor to emperor Nero. He was forced to take his own life for alleged complicity in the Pisonian conspiracy to assassinate Nero, in which he was likely to have been innocent.[1][2] His father was Seneca the Elder, his elder brother was Lucius Junius Gallio Annaeanus, and his nephew was the poet Lucan. His stoic and calm suicide has become the subject of numerous paintings. As a writer Seneca is known for his philosophical works, and for his plays which are all tragedies
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Double Herm Of Socrates And Seneca
The Double Herm of Socrates
Socrates
and Seneca is an ancient Roman statue from the first half of the third century AD. The herm depicts the Greek philosopher Socrates
Socrates
on one side, and the Roman Stoic Seneca the Younger on the other. It currently belongs to the Antikensammlung Berlin, found in the Pergamonmuseum.[1]Contents1 Description 2 Identification 3 Bibliography 4 ReferencesDescription[edit] The two philosophers are joined together at the back of the head; their chests are in the shape of a herm. Both men have the usual cloak of a philosopher or orator above their left shoulder, although Socrates
Socrates
also wears an undershirt. The bearded Socrates
Socrates
is given a satyr-like form, as in literary descriptions and other portraits. Seneca, on the other hand, is depicted as clean-shaven with a receding hairline. His small, full-lipped mouth is tightly pursed
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Roman Senate
The Roman Senate
Senate
(Latin: Senatus Romanus; Italian: Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome. It was one of the most enduring institutions in Roman history, being established in the first days of the city (traditionally founded in 753 BC). It survived the overthrow of the kings in 509 BC, the fall of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
in the 1st century BC, the division of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 395 AD, the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 476 AD, and the barbarian rule of Rome
Rome
in the 5th, 6th, and 7th centuries. During the days of the kingdom, it was little more than an advisory council to the king
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Miriam Griffin
Miriam Tamara Griffin (née Dressler;[1] born June 6, 1935) is an American classical scholar who has been a tutor of ancient history at Somerville College
Somerville College
at Oxford University since 1967. She specialises in Roman history and has written books about Emperor Nero
Nero
and his tutor, Seneca.Contents1 Education 2 Career 3 Selected bibliography 4 Personal life 5 References 6 Sources 7 External linksEducation[edit] Born in New York,[2] Griffin's alma mater is Barnard College
Barnard College
in New York, from which she holds a BA degree. Additionally, she has an AM degree from Radcliffe College, Massachusetts (now the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study).[3] Her Oxford University alma mater is Somerville College, one of the constituent colleges of the university, where she matriculated in 1957.[4] She graduated with a First in "Greats" in 1960, as did Jasper Griffin
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Papirius Fabianus
Papirius Fabianus was an Ancient Roman
Ancient Roman
rhetorician and philosopher from the gens Papirius in the time of Tiberius
Tiberius
and Caligula, in the first half of the 1st century AD.Contents1 Biography 2 See also 3 Notes 4 ReferencesBiography[edit] Fabianus was the pupil of Arellius Fuscus and of Blandus in rhetoric, and of Quintus Sextius in philosophy. Although much the younger of the two, he instructed Albutius Silas in eloquence.[1] The rhetorical style of Fabianus is described by Seneca the Elder,[1] and he is frequently cited in the third book of Controversiae as well as in the Suasoriae
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School Of The Sextii
The School of the Sextii was the first Roman school of philosophy. It arose around 50 BC, founded by Quintus Sextius the Elder, and later promulgated by his son, Sextius Niger. The school was of small importance and soon became extinct,[1] lasting only until around 19 AD, due to the banishment of foreign cults.[2] It was a philosophy in the Classical sense — a way of life; it emphasized asceticism and moral training.[3] It characterized itself mainly as a philosophical-medical school, blending Pythagorean, Platonic, Cynic, and Stoic elements together.[4] From the school, there are few primary sources, and secondary literature is almost non-existent.[2]Contents1 Philosophy 2 Sources 3 Notable Sextians 4 Influenced by Sextians 5 See also 6 ReferencesPhilosophy[edit] Sextians, like the Hellenistic schools, developed a system toward eudaimonia
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Pythagoreanism
Pythagoreanism
Pythagoreanism
originated in the 6th century BC, based on the teachings and beliefs held by Pythagoras
Pythagoras
and his followers, the Pythagoreans, who were considerably influenced by mathematics and mysticism. Later revivals of Pythagorean doctrines led to what is now called Neopythagoreanism
Neopythagoreanism
or Neoplatonism
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Vegetarian
Vegetarianism
Vegetarianism
/vɛdʒɪˈtɛəriənɪzəm/ is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat (red meat, poultry, seafood, and the flesh of any other animal), and may also include abstention from by-products of animal slaughter.[1][2][3][4] Vegetarianism
Vegetarianism
may be adopted for various reasons. Many people object to eating meat out of respect for sentient life. Such ethical motivations have been codified under various religious beliefs, as well as animal rights advocacy. Other motivations for vegetarianism are health-related, political, environmental, cultural, aesthetic, economic, or personal preference. There are variations of the diet as well: an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet includes both eggs and dairy products, an ovo-vegetarian diet includes eggs but not dairy products, and a lacto-vegetarian diet includes dairy products but not eggs
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Asthma
Asthma
Asthma
is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.[3] It is characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and bronchospasm.[10] Symptoms include episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.[2] These episodes may occur a few times a day or a few times per week.[3] Depending on the person, they may become worse at night or with exercise.[3] Asthma
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Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
(TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
(MTB).[1] Tuberculosis
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Egypt (Roman Province)
The Roman province
Roman province
of Egypt
Egypt
(Latin: Aegyptus, pronounced [ae̯ˈɡʏptʊs]; Greek: Αἴγυπτος Aigyptos [ɛ́ːɡyptos]) was established in 30 BC after Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed Queen Cleopatra VII, and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom
Ptolemaic Kingdom
of Egypt
Egypt
to the Roman Empire. The province encompassed most of modern-day Egypt
Egypt
except for the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
(which would later be conquered by Trajan). Aegyptus was bordered by the provinces of Creta et Cyrenaica to the West and Iudaea (later Arabia Petraea) to the East. The province came to serve as a major producer of grain for the empire and had a highly developed urban economy
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Prefect Of Egypt
During the Classical Roman Empire, the governor of Roman Egypt (praefectus Aegypti) was a prefect who administered the Roman province of Egypt with the delegated authority (imperium) of the emperor. Egypt was established as a Roman province in consequence of the Battle of Actium, where Cleopatra as the last independent ruler of Egypt and her Roman ally Mark Antony were defeated by Octavian, the adopted heir of the assassinated Roman dictator Julius Caesar. Octavian then rose to supreme power with the title Augustus, ending the era of the Roman Republic and installing himself as princeps, the so-called "leading citizen" of Rome who in fact acted as an autocratic ruler. Although senators continued to serve as governors of most other provinces (the senatorial provinces), especially those annexed under the Republic, the role of Egypt during the civil war with Antony and its strategic and economic importance prompted Augustus to ensure that no rival could secure Aegyptus as an asset
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Quaestor
A quaestor (UK: /ˈkwiːstər/, US: /ˈkwɛstər/, Latin for investigator)[1] was a public official in Ancient Rome. The position served different functions depending on the period. In the Roman Kingdom, quaestores parricidii (quaestors with judicial powers) were appointed by the king to investigate and handle murders. In the Roman Republic, quaestors (Lat. quaestores) were elected officials that supervised the state treasury and conducted audits. It was the lowest ranking position in the cursus honorum (course of offices). However, this means that in the political environment of Rome, it was quite common for many aspiring politicians to take the position of quaestor as an early rung on the political ladder
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Dio Cassius
Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius[note 2] (/ˈkæʃəs ˈdiːoʊ/; c. 155–235)[note 3] was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek origin. He published 80 volumes of history on Ancient Rome, beginning with the arrival of Aeneas
Aeneas
in Italy. The volumes documented the subsequent founding of Rome (753 BC), the formation of the Republic (509 BC), and the creation of the Empire (31 BC), up until 229 AD. Written in Ancient Greek over 22 years, Dio's work covers approximately 1,000 years of history. Many of his 80 books have survived intact, or as fragments, providing modern scholars with a detailed perspective on Roman history.Contents1 Biography 2 Roman History 3 Literary style 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksBiography[edit] Lucius Cassius Dio was the son of Cassius Apronianus, a Roman senator, who was born and raised at Nicaea
Nicaea
in Bithynia
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Hispania Baetica
Hispania
Hispania
Baetica, often abbreviated Baetica, was one of three Roman provinces in Hispania
Hispania
(the Iberian Peninsula). Baetica was bordered to the west by Lusitania, and to the northeast by Hispania
Hispania
Tarraconensis. Baetica remained one of the basic divisions of Hispania
Hispania
under the Visigoths
Visigoths
down to 711. Baetica (Spanish: Bética) was part of Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
under the Moors
Moors
in the 8th century and approximately corresponds to modern Andalucia.Contents1 History 2 Governors 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] Before Romanization, the mountainous area that was to become Baetica was occupied by several settled Iberian tribal groups
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Caligula
Caligula
Caligula
(/kəˈlɪɡjʊlə/;[1] Latin: Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 31 August 12 – 24 January 41 AD), was Roman emperor
Roman emperor
from AD 37 to AD 41. The son of Germanicus, a popular Roman general, and Agrippina the Elder, the granddaughter of Augustus, Caligula
Caligula
was born into the first ruling family of the Roman Empire, conventionally known as the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Two years after Caligula's birth, Germanicus' uncle and adoptive father, Tiberius, succeeded Augustus
Augustus
as emperor of Rome
Rome
in AD 14. Although he was born Gaius Caesar, after Julius
Julius
Caesar, he acquired the nickname "Caligula" (meaning "little soldier's boot", the diminutive form of caliga) from his father's soldiers during their campaign in Germania
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