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Semitic People
Semites, Semitic people
Semitic people
or Semitic cultures
Semitic cultures
(from the biblical "Shem", Hebrew: שם‎) was a term for an ethnic, cultural or racial group who speak or spoke the Semitic languages.[2][3][4][5] First used in the 1770s by members of the Göttingen School of History, the terminology was derived from Shem, one of the three sons of Noah in the Book of Genesis,[6] together with the parallel terms Hamites
Hamites
and Japhetites
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Moritz Steinschneider
Moritz Steinschneider
Moritz Steinschneider
(30 March 1816, Prostějov, Moravia, Austria – 24 January 1907, Berlin) was a Bohemian bibliographer and Orientalist. He received his early instruction in Hebrew from his father, Jacob Steinschneider (b. 1782; d. March 1856), who was not only an expert Talmudist, but was also well versed in secular science
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Scientific Racism
Scientific
Scientific
racism, sometimes referred to as race biology,[1][2] is a pseudoscientific belief that empirical evidence exists to support or justify racism (racial discrimination), racial inferiority, or racial superiority.[3][4][5] Historically, scientific racism received credence throughout the scientific community, but it is no longer considered scientific.[4][5] Scientific
Scientific
racism employs anthropology (notably physical anthropology), anthropometry, craniometry, and other disciplines or pseudo-disciplines, in proposing anthropological typologies supporting the classification of human populations into physically discrete human races, that might be asserted to be superior or inferior. Scientific racism was common during the period from 1600s to the end of World War II
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Y Chromosome
The Y chromosome
Y chromosome
is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals. The other is the X chromosome. Y is the sex-determining chromosome in many species, since it is the presence or absence of Y that determines the male or female sex of offspring produced in sexual reproduction. In mammals, the Y chromosome contains the gene SRY, which triggers testis development. The DNA
DNA
in the human Y chromosome
Y chromosome
is composed of about 59 million base pairs.[5] The Y chromosome
Y chromosome
is passed only from father to son
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Mandaeans
Mandaeans
Mandaeans
(Arabic: الصابئة المندائيون‎, translit. aṣ-Ṣābi'a al-Mandā'iyūn) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and are followers of Mandaeism, a Gnostic
Gnostic
religion. The Mandaeans
Mandaeans
were originally native speakers of Mandaic, a Semitic language
Semitic language
that evolved from Eastern Middle Aramaic, before many switched to colloquial Iraqi Arabic
Arabic
and Modern Persian. Mandaic is mainly preserved as a liturgical language. In the aftermath of the Iraq
Iraq
War of 2003, the indigenous Mandaic community of Iraq, which used to number 60–70,000 persons, collapsed; most of the community relocated to nearby Iran, Syria
Syria
and Jordan, or formed diaspora communities beyond the Middle East
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Cultural Studies
Cultural studies is a field of theoretically, politically, and empirically engaged cultural analysis that concentrates upon the political dynamics of contemporary culture, its historical foundations, defining traits, conflicts, and contingencies. Cultural studies researchers generally investigate how cultural practices relate to wider systems of power associated with or operating through social phenomena, such as ideology, class structures, national formations, ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender, and generation. Cultural studies views cultures not as fixed, bounded, stable, and discrete entities, but rather as constantly interacting and changing sets of practices and processes.[1] The field of cultural studies encompasses a range of theoretical and methodological perspectives and practices
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Kartvelian Languages
The Kartvelian languages
Kartvelian languages
(Georgian: ქართველური ენები, Kartveluri enebi) (also known as Iberian[2] and formerly[3] South Caucasian[4]) are a language family indigenous to the Caucasus
Caucasus
and spoken primarily in Georgia, with large groups of native speakers in Russia, Iran, the United States, the European Union, Israel,[5] and northeastern parts of Turkey.[6] There are approximately 5.2 million speakers of Kartvelian languages
Kartvelian languages
worldwide. The Kartvelian family is not known to be related to any other language family, making it one of the world's primary language families.[7] The first literary source in a Kartvelian language is the Georgian language inscriptions of Bir el Qutt, written in ancient Georgian Asomtavruli
Asomtavruli
script at the Georgian monastery near Bethlehem,[8] which dates back to c
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Northwest Caucasian Languages
The Northwest Caucasian languages,[2] also called West Caucasian, Abkhazo-Adyghean, Circassic, or sometimes Pontic (as opposed to Caspian for the Northeast Caucasian languages), are a group of languages spoken in the northwestern Caucasus
Caucasus
region,[3] chiefly in three Russian republics (Adygea, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay–Cherkessia), the disputed territory of Abkhazia
Abkhazia
(whose sovereignty is claimed by Georgia), and Turkey, with smaller communities scattered throughout the Middle East
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Indo-European Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordi
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Ethnology
Ethnology
Ethnology
(from the Greek: ἔθνος, ethnos meaning "nation")[1] is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyzes the characteristics of different peoples and the relationships between them (compare cultural, social, or sociocultural anthropology).[2]Contents1 Scientific discipline 2 Scholars 3 See also 4 References 5 Bibliography 6 External linksScientific discipline[edit] Further information: Ethnicity Compared to ethnography, the study of single groups through direct contact with the cu
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Racialism
Racialism
Racialism
is the belief that the human species is naturally divided into races, that are ostensibly distinct biological categories. Most dictionaries define the term racialism as synonymous with racism.[1]Contents1 Definitions and differences 2 Identity politics 3 See also 4 References 5 Further readingDefinitions and differences[edit]W. E. B. Du Bois, 1918In 1903, W. E. B. Du Bois
W. E. B. Du Bois
said that racialism is the philosophical position that races existed, and that collective differences existed among such categories, the races.[citation needed] He further stated that racism required advancing the argument that one race is superior to other races of human beings
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Ham, Son Of Noah
Ham (Hebrew: חָם‬, Modern H̱am, Tiberian Ḥām; Greek Χαμ, Kham; Arabic: حام, Ḥām), according to the Table of Nations in the Book of Genesis, was a son of Noah
Noah
and the father of Cush, Mizraim, Phut
Phut
and Canaan.[1][2] Ham's descendants are interpreted by Moses, Flavius Josephus
Josephus
and others as having populated Africa and adjoining parts of Asia
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Assyrian People
250,000-400,000 (1.4 million - 2 million Pre- Iraq
Iraq
War)[7][8][5] Iran 20,000-50,000[9][10] Turkey 15,000–65,000[9][11][8]Diaspora: Numbers can vary Sweden 120,000[12] Germany 70,000-100,000[13][14] United States 80,000-400,000[15] [16] Australia 46,217[17] Jordan 44,000-60,000[18][5] Lebanon 39,000-200,000[19][20][5] Netherlands 20,000[21] France 16,000[22] Belgium 15,000[21] Russia 15,000[23] Canada 10,810[24] Denmark 10,000[21] Brazil 10,0
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Etymologiae
Etymologiae
Etymologiae
( Latin
Latin
for "The Etymologies"), also known as the Origines ("Origins") and usually abbreviated Orig., is an etymological encyclopedia compiled by Isidore of Seville
Isidore of Seville
(c. 560–636) towards the end of his life. Isidore was encouraged to write the book by his friend Braulio, Bishop of Saragossa. The Etymologies summarized and organized a wealth of knowledge from hundreds of classical sources; three of its books are derived largely from Pliny the Elder's Natural History. Isidore acknowledges Pliny, but not his other principal sources, namely Cassiodorus, Servius
Servius
and Solinus. The work contains whatever Isidore, an influential Christian
Christian
bishop, thought worth keeping
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Isidore Of Seville
Saint
Saint
Isidore of Seville
Seville
(/ˈɪzɪˌdɔːr/; Latin: Isidorus Hispalensis; c. 560 – 4 April 636), a scholar and, for over three decades, Archbishop
Archbishop
of Seville, is widely regarded as the last of the Fathers of the Church, as the 19th-century historian Montalembert put it in an oft-quoted phrase, "The last scholar of the ancient world."[1] At a time of disintegration of classical culture,[2] and aristocratic violence and illiteracy, he was involved in the conversion of the Arian Visigothic kings to Catholicism, both assisting his brother Leander of Seville, and continuing after his brother's death. He was influential in the inner circle of Sisebut, Visigothic king of Hispania. Like Leander, he played a prominent role in the Councils of Toledo and Seville
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T And O Map
A T and O map
T and O map
or O-T or T-O map (orbis terrarum, orb or circle of the lands; with the letter T inside an O), is a type of medieval world map, sometimes also called a Beatine map or a Beatus map
Beatus map
because one of the earliest known representations of this sort is attributed to Beatus of Liébana, an 8th-century Spanish monk. The map appeared in the prologue to his twelve books of commentaries on the Apocalypse.Contents1 History and description 2 Gallery 3 See also 4 References 5 Further readingHistory and description[edit] The T-O map represents the physical world as first described by the 7th-century scholar Isidore of Seville
Isidore of Seville
in his Etymologiae
Etymologiae
(chapter 14, de terra et partibus):Latin: Orbis a rotunditate circuli dictus, quia sicut rota est [...] Undique enim Oceanus circumfluens eius in circulo ambit fines
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