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Semitic Languages
The SEMITIC LANGUAGES are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East . Semitic languages are spoken by more than 330 million people across much of Western Asia , North Africa and the Horn of Africa , as well as in often large expatriate communities in North America and Europe , with smaller communities in the Caucasus and Central Asia . The terminology was first used in the 1780s by members of the Göttingen School of History , who derived the name from Shem , one of the three sons of Noah in the Book of Genesis
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North America
NORTH AMERICA is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas
Americas
. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
, and to the southeast by South America
South America
and the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
. North America
North America
covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface
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Europe
EUROPE is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere
Eastern Hemisphere
. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia
Eurasia
. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains , the Ural River , the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits . Though the term "continent" implies physical geography defines it, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Western Asia
WESTERN ASIA, WEST ASIA, SOUTHWESTERN ASIA or SOUTHWEST ASIA is the westernmost subregion of Asia
Asia
. The concept is in limited use, as it significantly overlaps with the Middle East
Middle East
(or the Near East
Near East
), the main difference usually being the exclusion of Egypt
Egypt
(which would be counted as part of North Africa
North Africa
). The term is sometimes used for the purposes of grouping countries in statistics . The total population of Western Asia
Asia
is an estimated 300 million as of 2015. In an unrelated context, the term is also used in ancient history and archaeology to divide the Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
into the "Asiatic" or "Western Asian" cultures as opposed to ancient Egypt
Egypt

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Amarna
AMARNA (Arabic : العمارنة‎, translit. al-‘amārnah) is an extensive Egyptian archaeological site that represents the remains of the capital city newly established and built by the Pharaoh Akhenaten of the late Eighteenth Dynasty , and abandoned shortly after his death (1332 BC). The name for the city employed by the ancient Egyptians is written as AKHETATEN (or AKHETATON—transliterations vary) in English transliteration. Akhetaten means "Horizon of the Aten ". The area is located on the east bank of the Nile River in the modern Egyptian province of Minya , some 58 km (36 mi) south of the city of al-Minya , 312 km (194 mi) south of the Egyptian capital Cairo and 402 km (250 mi) north of Luxor . The city of Deir Mawas lies directly west across from the site of Amarna
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Glottolog
GLOTTOLOG is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig
Leipzig
, Germany, and since 2015 at the new Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena
Jena
, Germany. In addition to the languoid catalogue (the catalog of the world's languages and language families), Glottolog provides a comprehensive bibliography on the world's smaller languages
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Caucasus
Russia
Russia
* Adygea * Chechnya
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Central Asia
CENTRAL ASIA stretches from the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
in the west to China
China
in the east and from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in the south to Russia
Russia
in the north. It is also colloquially referred to as "the stans" as the countries generally considered to be within the region all have names ending with the Persian suffix " -stan ", meaning "land of". Central Asia
Asia
is sometimes referred to as Turkestan
Turkestan
. Central Asia
Asia
has a population of about 70 million, consisting of five republics: Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(pop
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Levant
Cyprus
Cyprus
Israel
Israel
Iraq
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Language Isolate
A LANGUAGE ISOLATE, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language. Language isolates are in effect language families consisting of a single language. Commonly cited examples include Ainu , Basque , Korean , Sumerian , and Elamite , though in each case a minority of linguists claim to have demonstrated a relationship with other languages. Some sources use the term "language isolate" to indicate a branch of a larger family with only one surviving daughter. For instance, Albanian , Armenian and Greek are commonly called Indo-European isolates. While part of the Indo-European family , they do not belong to any established branch (such as the Romance , Celtic or Germanic branches), but instead form independent branches. Similarly, within the Romance languages, Sardinian is a relative isolate
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First Language
A FIRST LANGUAGE, NATIVE LANGUAGE or MOTHER TONGUE (also known as FATHER TONGUE, ARTERIAL LANGUAGE or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period . In some countries, the term native language or mother tongue refers to the language of one's ethnic group rather than one's first language. Children brought up speaking more than one language can have more than one native language, and be bilingual or multilingual . By contrast, a second language is any language that one speaks other than one's first language. CONTENTS* 1 Terminology * 1.1 Mother tongue * 2 Significance * 3 Multilingualism
Multilingualism
* 3.1 Defining native language * 3.2 Defining "native speaker" * 4 See also * 5 References TERMINOLOGY A lesson at Kituwah Academy on the Qualla Boundary
Qualla Boundary
in North Carolina
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Book Of Genesis
The BOOK OF GENESIS (from the Latin Vulgate , in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek γένεσις, meaning "Coming into Being"; Hebrew : בְּרֵאשִׁית‎, Bərēšīṯ, "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
(the Tanakh ) and the Christian Old Testament . The basic narrative expresses the central theme: God creates the world (along with creating the first man and woman ) and appoints man as his regent, but man proves disobedient and God exiles Adam
Adam
and Eve from the garden of Eden. Then God destroys the world through the Flood . The new post-Flood world is also corrupt. God does not destroy it, instead calling one man, Abraham
Abraham
, to be the seed of its salvation
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Göttingen School Of History
The GöTTINGEN SCHOOL OF HISTORY was a school of thought established at the University of Göttingen
University of Göttingen
in the late 18th century
18th century
. It was the original centre of the "Historical Science" ("Geschichtswissenschaft") academic discipline. The historians sought to write a universal history by combining the critical methods of Jean Mabillon with that of the philosophical historians such as Voltaire and Edward Gibbon
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ISO 639-5
ISO 639-5:2008 "Codes for the representation of names of languages—Part 5: Alpha-3 code for language families and groups" is a highly incomplete international standard published by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO). It was developed by ISO Technical Committee 37, Subcommittee 2, and first published on May 15, 2008. It is part of the ISO 639 series of standards. CONTENTS * 1 Collective codes * 2 Relationship to other parts of ISO 639 * 3 History * 4 Deficiencies * 5 References * 6 External links COLLECTIVE CODES ISO 639-5 defines alpha-3 (3-letter) codes, called "collective codes," that identify language families and groups
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Expatriate
An EXPATRIATE (often shortened to EXPAT) is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country other than that of their citizenship. In common usage, the term often refers to professionals or skilled workers sent abroad by their employers, who can be companies, governments, or non-governmental organisations . Effectively migrant workers, they usually earn more than they would at home, and more than local employees. However, the term 'expatriate' is also used for retirees and others who have chosen to live outside their native country. Historically, it has also referred to exiles . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Business expatriates * 3.1 Recent trends * 4 Literary and screen portrayals * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word expatriate comes from the Latin terms ex ("out of") and patria ("native country, fatherland")
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Malta
Coordinates : 35°53′N 14°30′E / 35.883°N 14.500°E / 35.883; 14.500 MALTA (/ˈmɒltə/ ( listen ); Maltese: ), officially known as the REPUBLIC OF MALTA (Maltese : Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea . It lies 80 km (50 mi) south of Italy , 284 km (176 mi) east of Tunisia , and 333 km (207 mi) north of Libya . The country covers just over 316 km2 (122 sq mi), with a population of just under 450,000, making it one of the world's smallest and most densely populated countries. The capital of Malta is Valletta , which at 0.8 km2, is the smallest national capital in the European Union by area. Malta has one national language , which is Maltese , and English as an official language
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