HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff
[::MainTopicLength::#1500] [::ListTopicLength::#1000] [::ListLength::#15] [::ListAdRepeat::#3]

Semi-presidential System
A SEMI-PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible to the legislature of a state . A semi-presidential system differs from a parliamentary republic in that it has a popularly elected head of state , who is more than a purely ceremonial figurehead , and from the presidential system in that the cabinet , although named by the president, is responsible to the legislature , which may force the cabinet to resign through a motion of no confidence . While the German Weimar Republic (1919–1933) exemplified an early semi-presidential system, the term "semi-presidential" was introduced by a 1959 article by journalist Hubert Beuve-Méry and popularized by a 1978 work by political scientist Maurice Duverger , both of which intended to describe the French Fifth Republic (established in 1958)
[...More...]

"Semi-presidential System" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Foreign Policy
The approaches are strategically employed to interact with other countries. The study of such strategies is called foreign policy analysis . In recent times, due to the deepening level of globalization and transnational activities, the states will also have to interact with non-state actors . The aforementioned interaction is evaluated and monitored in attempts to maximize benefits of multilateral international cooperation. Since the national interests are paramount, foreign policies are designed by the government through high-level decision making processes. National interests accomplishment can occur as a result of peaceful cooperation with other nations, or through exploitation. Usually, creating foreign policy is the job of the head of government and the foreign minister (or equivalent). In some countries the legislature also has considerable effects
[...More...]

"Foreign Policy" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Politics By Country
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to politics and political science: POLITICS – the exercise of power; process by which groups of people make collective decisions . Politics
Politics
is the art or science of running governmental or state affairs (including behavior within civil governments ), institutions, fields, and special interest groups such as the corporate , academic , and religious segments of society. POLITICAL SCIENCE – the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behavior
[...More...]

"Politics By Country" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Monarchy
A MONARCHY is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy ), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch , exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic ), to partial and restricted (constitutional monarchy ), to completely autocratic (absolute monarchy ). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected. Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc
[...More...]

"Monarchy" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

International Relations Theory
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY is the study of international relations (IR) from a theoretical perspective. It attempts to provide a conceptual framework upon which international relations can be analyzed. Ole Holsti describes international relations theories as acting like pairs of coloured sunglasses that allow the wearer to see only salient events relevant to the theory; e.g., an adherent of realism may completely disregard an event that a constructivist might pounce upon as crucial, and vice versa. The three most prominent theories are realism , liberalism and constructivism . International relations
International relations
theories can be divided into "positivist /rationalist " theories which focus on a principally state-level analysis, and "post-positivist /reflectivist " ones which incorporate expanded meanings of security, ranging from class, to gender, to postcolonial security
[...More...]

"International Relations Theory" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Feudalism
FEUDALISM was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour. Although derived from the Latin word feodum or feudum (fief), then in use, the term feudalism and the system it describes were not conceived of as a formal political system by the people living in the Middle Ages. In its classic definition, by François-Louis Ganshof (1944), feudalism describes a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility revolving around the three key concepts of lords , vassals and fiefs
[...More...]

"Feudalism" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Political Science
POLITICAL SCIENCE is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts and political behaviour. It deals extensively with the theory and practice of politics which is commonly thought of as determining of the distribution of power and resources. Political scientists "see themselves engaged in revealing the relationships underlying political events and conditions, and from these revelations they attempt to construct general principles about the way the world of politics works." Political science comprises numerous subfields, including comparative politics , political economy , international relations , political theory , public administration , public policy , and political methodology . Furthermore, political science is related to, and draws upon, the fields of economics , law , sociology , history , philosophy , geography , psychology , and anthropology
[...More...]

"Political Science" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Street-level Bureaucracy
STREET-LEVEL BUREAUCRACY is the subset of a public agency or government institution where the civil servants work who have direct contact with members of the general public. Street-level civil servants carry out and/or enforce the actions required by a government's laws and public policies , in areas ranging from safety and security to education and social services . A few examples include police officers , border guards , social workers and public school teachers . These civil servants have direct contact with members of the general public, in contrast with civil servants who do policy analysis or economic analysis, who do not meet the public. Street-level bureaucrats act as liaisons between government policy-makers and citizens and these civil servants implement policy decisions made by senior officials in the public service and/or by elected officials
[...More...]

"Street-level Bureaucracy" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Adhocracy
ADHOCRACY is a flexible, adaptable and informal form of organization that is defined by a lack of formal structure. It operates in an opposite fashion to a bureaucracy . The term was coined by Warren Bennis in his 1968 book The Temporary Society, later popularized in 1970 by Alvin Toffler
Alvin Toffler
in Future Shock , and has since become often used in the theory of management of organizations (particularly online organizations). The concept has been further developed by academics such as Henry Mintzberg . Adhocracy is characterized by an adaptive, creative and flexible integrative behavior based on non-permanence and spontaneity. It is believed that these characteristics allow adhocracy to respond faster than traditional bureaucratic organizations while being more open to new ideas
[...More...]

"Adhocracy" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Bureaucracy
BUREAUCRACY (/bjuːˈrɒkrəsi/ ) is a term that refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group. Historically, a bureaucracy was a government administration managed by departments staffed with non-elected officials. Today, bureaucracy is the administrative system governing any large institution. The public administration in many countries is an example of a bureaucracy. Since being coined, the word bureaucracy has developed negative connotations. Bureaucracies have been criticized as being inefficient, convoluted, or too inflexible to individuals. The dehumanizing effects of excessive bureaucracy became a major theme in the work of German-language writer Franz Kafka and are central to his novels The Trial and The Castle . The elimination of unnecessary bureaucracy is a key concept in modern managerial theory and has been an issue in some political campaigns
[...More...]

"Bureaucracy" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

List Of Political Scientists
This is a list of NOTABLE POLITICAL SCIENTISTS. See the list of political theorists for those who study political theory. See also political science . This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries
[...More...]

"List Of Political Scientists" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

International Relations
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS (IR) or INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS, depending on academic institution, is either a field of political science , an interdisciplinary academic field similar to global studies , or an entirely independent academic discipline in which students take a variety of internationally focused courses in social science and humanities disciplines. In both cases, the field studies relationships between political entities (polities ) such as states , sovereign states , empires , inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), international non-governmental organizations (INs), other non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs), and the wider world-systems produced by this interaction. International relations
International relations
is an academic and a public policy field, and so can be positive and normative , because it analyses and formulates the foreign policy of a given state
[...More...]

"International Relations" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Policy
A POLICY is a deliberate system of principles to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes. A policy is a statement of intent, and is implemented as a procedure or protocol. Policies are generally adopted by the board of directors or senior governance body within an organization, where procedures or protocols are developed and adopted by senior executive officers . Policies can assist in both subjective and objective decision making . Policies to assist in subjective decision making usually assist senior management with decisions that must be based on the relative merits of a number of factors, and as a result are often hard to test objectively, e.g. work-life balance policy. In contrast policies to assist in objective decision making are usually operational in nature and can be objectively tested, e.g. password policy. The term may apply to government, private sector organizations and groups, as well as individuals
[...More...]

"Policy" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Comparative Politics
COMPARATIVE POLITICS is a field in political science , characterized by an empirical approach based on the comparative method . In other words, comparative politics is the study of the domestic politics, political institutions, and conflicts of countries. It often involves comparisons among countries and through time within single countries, emphasizing key patterns of similarity and difference. Arend Lijphart argues that comparative politics does not have a substantive focus in itself, but rather a methodological one: it focuses on "the how but does not specify the what of the analysis." In other words, comparative politics is not defined by the object of its study, but rather by the method it applies to study political phenomena
[...More...]

"Comparative Politics" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Public Administration
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service. As a "field of inquiry with a diverse scope" its "fundamental goal... is to advance management and policies so that government can function." Some of the various definitions which have been offered for the term are: "the management of public programs"; the "translation of politics into the reality that citizens see every day"; and "the study of government decision making, the analysis of the policies themselves, the various inputs that have produced them, and the inputs necessary to produce alternative policies." Public administration is "centrally concerned with the organization of government policies and programmes as well as the behavior of officials (usually non-elected) formally responsible for their conduct"
[...More...]

"Public Administration" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Public Policy Doctrine
In private international law , the PUBLIC POLICY DOCTRINE or ORDRE PUBLIC concerns the body of principles that underpin the operation of legal systems in each state . This addresses the social, moral and economic values that tie a society together: values that vary in different cultures and change over time. Law
Law
regulates behaviour either to reinforce existing social expectations or to encourage constructive change, and laws are most likely to be effective when they are consistent with the most generally accepted societal norms and reflect the collective morality of the society . In performing this function, Cappalli has suggested that the critical values of any legal system include impartiality, neutrality, certainty, equality, openness, flexibility, and growth. This assumes that a state's courts function as dispute resolution systems, which avoid the violence that often otherwise accompanies private resolution of disputes
[...More...]

"Public Policy Doctrine" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
.