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Semi-presidential System
A SEMI-PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible to the legislature of a state . A semi-presidential system differs from a parliamentary republic in that it has a popularly elected head of state , who is more than a purely ceremonial figurehead , and from the presidential system in that the cabinet , although named by the president, is responsible to the legislature , which may force the cabinet to resign through a motion of no confidence . While the German Weimar Republic
Republic
(1919–1933) exemplified an early semi-presidential system, the term "semi-presidential" was introduced by a 1959 article by journalist Hubert Beuve-Méry and popularized by a 1978 work by political scientist Maurice Duverger , both of which intended to describe the French Fifth Republic
Republic
(established in 1958)
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Talk
TALK may refer to: * Conversation , interactive communication between two or more people * Speech , the production of a spoken language * Interaction , face to face conversations * Compulsive talking , beyond the bounds of what is considered to be a socially acceptable amount of talking * Communication<
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Republic
A REPUBLIC (Latin : _res publica _) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter" – not the private concern or property of the rulers – and where offices of state are elected or appointed, rather than inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch . In American English, the definition of a republic can also refer specifically to a government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body, known elsewhere as a representative democracy (a democratic republic ), and exercise power according to the rule of law (a constitutional republic). As of 2017 , 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names; not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor do all nations with elected governments use the word "republic" in their names
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Presidential System
A PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch . This head of government is in most cases also the head of state , which is called _president _. In presidential countries, the executive is elected and is not responsible to the legislature, which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. Such dismissal is possible, however, in uncommon cases, often through impeachment . The title "president " has persisted from a time when such person personally presided over the governing body, as with the President of the Continental Congress in the early United States , prior to the executive function being split into a separate branch of government
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Parliamentary Republic
A PARLIAMENTARY REPUBLIC is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament). There are a number of variations of parliamentary republics. Most have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state , with the head of government holding real power, much like constitutional monarchies
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Parliamentary System
A PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEM is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament , and is also held accountable to that parliament. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a different person from the head of government . This is in contrast to a presidential system , where the head of state often is also the head of government and, most importantly, the executive branch does not derive its democratic legitimacy from the legislature
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Monarchy
A MONARCHY is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty , embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch , exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic ), to partial and restricted (_constitutional_ monarchy ), to completely autocratic (_absolute_ monarchy ). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected. Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc. Occasionally this might create a situation of rival claimants whose legitimacy is subject to effective election
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Constitutional Monarchy
A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises their authorities in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution . Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
differs from absolute monarchy (in which a monarch holds absolute power), in that constitutional monarchs are bound to exercise their powers and authorities within the limits prescribed within an established legal framework. Constitutional monarchies range from countries such as Morocco
Morocco
, where the constitution grants substantial discretionary powers to the sovereign, to countries such as Sweden
Sweden
or Denmark
Denmark
where the monarch retains very few formal authorities. A constitutional monarchy may refer to a system in which the monarch acts as a non-party political head of state under the constitution , whether written or unwritten
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Absolute Monarchy
ABSOLUTE MONARCHY, or DESPOTIC MONARCHY, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature , or customs. These are often, but not always, hereditary monarchies . In contrast, in constitutional monarchies , the head of state 's authority derives from and is legally bounded or restricted by a constitution or legislature . Some monarchies have weak or symbolic legislatures and other governmental bodies the monarch can alter or dissolve at will. Countries where monarchs still maintain absolute power are: Brunei , Oman , Saudi Arabia , Swaziland , Vatican City and the individual emirates composing the United Arab Emirates , which itself is a free association of such monarchies – a federal monarchy
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Military Dictatorship
A MILITARY DICTATORSHIP (also known as a MILITARY JUNTA ) is a form of government different from civilian dictatorship for a number of reasons: their motivations for seizing power, the institutions through which they organize their rule, and the ways in which they leave power. Often viewing itself as saving the nation from the corrupt or myopic civilian politicians, a military dictatorship justifies its position as “neutral” arbiters on the basis of their membership within the armed forces. For example, many juntas adopt titles, such as “National Redemption Council", “Committee of National Restoration", or “National Liberation Committee". Military leaders often rule as a junta, selecting one of them as the head
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One-party State
A ONE-PARTY STATE, SINGLE-PARTY STATE, ONE-PARTY SYSTEM, SINGLE-PARTY SYSTEM is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution. All other parties are either outlawed or allowed to take only a limited and controlled participation in elections. Sometimes the term _DE FACTO_ ONE-PARTY STATE is used to describe a dominant-party system that, unlike the one-party state, allows (at least nominally) democratic multiparty elections, but the existing practices or balance of political power effectively prevent the opposition from winning the elections
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Politics
POLITICS (from Greek: Politiká: _Politika_, definition "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions applying to all members of each group. More narrowly, it refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance — organized control over a human community, particularly a state . Furthermore, politics is the study or practice of the distribution of power and resources within a given community (this is usually a hierarchically organized population) as well as the interrelationship(s) between communities. A variety of methods are deployed in politics, which include promoting or forcing one's own political views among people, negotiation with other political subjects, making laws , and exercising force , including warfare against adversaries
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Index Of Politics Articles
This is a list of political topics, including political science terms, political philosophies, political issues, etc. POLITICS is the process by which groups of people make decisions. Although the term is generally applied to behavior within civil governments , politics is observed in all human group interactions, including corporate , academic , and religious institutions. Politics consists of "social relations involving authority or power" and refers to the regulation of a political unit, and to the methods and tactics used to formulate and apply policy . POLITICAL SCIENCE (also known as political studies) is the study of political behavior and examines the acquisition and application of power . Related areas of study include political philosophy , which seeks a rationale for politics and an ethic of public behavior, and public administration , which examines the practices of governance
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Politics By Country
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to politics and political science: POLITICS – the exercise of power; process by which groups of people make collective decisions . Politics is the art or science of running governmental or state affairs (including behavior within civil governments ), institutions, fields, and special interest groups such as the corporate , academic , and religious segments of society. POLITICAL SCIENCE – the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behavior
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Politics Of Country Subdivisions
This list summarises the country subdivisions which have a separate article on their politics. Countries where significant powers delegated to federal units or to devolved governments and where the political system is multi-party democracy are more likely to have articles on the politics of their subdivisions. Entities listed in the article List of countries are shows in the article Politics of present-day nations and states <