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Semi-presidential System
A SEMI-PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible to the legislature of a state . A semi-presidential system differs from a parliamentary republic in that it has a popularly elected head of state , who is more than a purely ceremonial figurehead , and from the presidential system in that the cabinet , although named by the president, is responsible to the legislature , which may force the cabinet to resign through a motion of no confidence . While the German Weimar Republic
Republic
(1919–1933) exemplified an early semi-presidential system, the term "semi-presidential" was introduced by a 1959 article by journalist Hubert Beuve-Méry and popularized by a 1978 work by political scientist Maurice Duverger , both of which intended to describe the French Fifth Republic
Republic
(established in 1958). CONTENTS * 1 Subtypes * 2 Division of powers * 3 Cohabitation * 4 Republics with a semi-presidential system of government * 5 See also * 6 Notes and references * 7 External links SUBTYPESThere are two separate subtypes of semi-presidentialism: premier-presidentialism and president-parliamentarism. Under the PREMIER-PRESIDENTIAL system, the prime minister and cabinet are exclusively accountable to parliament
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Talk
TALK may refer to: * Conversation , interactive communication between two or more people * Speech , the production of a spoken language * Interaction , face to face conversations * Compulsive talking , beyond the bounds of what is considered to be a socially acceptable amount of talking * Communication , the encoding and decoding of exchanged messages between peopleCONTENTS * 1 Software * 2 Books * 3 Film and TV * 4 Music * 4.1 Albums * 4.2 Songs SOFTWARE * Google Talk , a Windows- and web-based instant messaging program * talk (software) , a Unix messaging program * AppleTalk , an early networking protocol designed by Apple for their Macintosh computersBOOKS * _Talk_ (play) , a play by Carl Hancock Rux * _Talk_ (magazine) , an American magazineFILM AND TV * _Talk_ (film) , a 1994 Australian film * Talk show , a broadcast program format * Talk radio , a radio formatMUSIC * Talk Talk , a British rock group active from 1981 to 1991ALBUMS * _Talk_ (Yes album) , 1994 * _Talk_ (Paul Kelly album) , 1981SONGS * "Talk" (Coldplay song) * "Talk" (DJ Snake song) * "Talk", by Kreesha Turner on the album _Passion _ * "Talk", by Tracy Bonham on the album _ The Liverpool Sessions _ * "Talk", by M.I.A
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Republic
A REPUBLIC (Latin : _res publica _) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter" – not the private concern or property of the rulers – and where offices of state are elected or appointed, rather than inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch . In American English, the definition of a republic can also refer specifically to a government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body, known elsewhere as a representative democracy (a democratic republic ), and exercise power according to the rule of law (a constitutional republic). As of 2017 , 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names; not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor do all nations with elected governments use the word "republic" in their names. Both modern and ancient republics vary widely in their ideology, composition, and practicality. In the classical and medieval period of Europe, many states were fashioned on the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, which referred to the governance of the city of Rome, between it having kings and emperors. The Italian medieval and Renaissance
Renaissance
political tradition, today referred to as "civic humanism ", is sometimes considered to derive directly from Roman republicans such as Sallust and Tacitus
Tacitus

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Presidential System
A PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch . This head of government is in most cases also the head of state , which is called _president _. In presidential countries, the executive is elected and is not responsible to the legislature, which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. Such dismissal is possible, however, in uncommon cases, often through impeachment . The title "president " has persisted from a time when such person personally presided over the governing body, as with the President of the Continental Congress in the early United States , prior to the executive function being split into a separate branch of government. A presidential system contrasts with a parliamentary system , where the head of government is elected to power through the legislative . There is an intermediary system called semi-presidentialism . Countries that feature a presidential or semi-presidential system of government are not the exclusive users of the title of president. Heads of state of parliamentary republics , largely ceremonial in most cases, are called presidents. Dictators or leaders of one-party states , popularly elected or not, are also often called presidents
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Parliamentary Republic
A PARLIAMENTARY REPUBLIC is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament). There are a number of variations of parliamentary republics. Most have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state , with the head of government holding real power, much like constitutional monarchies . Some have combined the roles of head of state and head of government, much like presidential systems , but with a dependency upon parliamentary power. For the first case mentioned above, the form of executive-branch arrangement is distinct from most other parliamentary and semi-presidential republics that separate the head of state (usually designated as the "president ") from the head of government (usually designated as "prime minister ", "premier " or "chancellor ") and subject the latter to the confidence of parliament and a lenient tenure in office while the head of state lacks dependency and investing either office with the majority of executive power
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Parliamentary System
A PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEM is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament , and is also held accountable to that parliament. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a different person from the head of government . This is in contrast to a presidential system , where the head of state often is also the head of government and, most importantly, the executive branch does not derive its democratic legitimacy from the legislature. Countries with parliamentary systems may be constitutional monarchies , where a monarch is the head of state while the head of government is almost always a member of parliament (such as the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, Denmark
Denmark
, Sweden
Sweden
and Japan
Japan
), or parliamentary republics , where a mostly ceremonial president is the head of state while the head of government is regularly from the legislature (such as Ireland , Germany
Germany
, India
India
and Italy
Italy
)
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Monarchy
A MONARCHY is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty , embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch , exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic ), to partial and restricted (_constitutional_ monarchy ), to completely autocratic (_absolute_ monarchy ). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected. Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc. Occasionally this might create a situation of rival claimants whose legitimacy is subject to effective election. There have been cases where the term of a monarch's reign is either fixed in years or continues until certain goals are achieved: an invasion being repulsed, for instance. Richard I of England being anointed during his coronation in Westminster Abbey , from a 13th-century chronicle. Monarchic rule was the most common form of government until the 19th century
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Constitutional Monarchy
A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises their authorities in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution . Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
differs from absolute monarchy (in which a monarch holds absolute power), in that constitutional monarchs are bound to exercise their powers and authorities within the limits prescribed within an established legal framework. Constitutional monarchies range from countries such as Morocco
Morocco
, where the constitution grants substantial discretionary powers to the sovereign, to countries such as Sweden
Sweden
or Denmark
Denmark
where the monarch retains very few formal authorities. A constitutional monarchy may refer to a system in which the monarch acts as a non-party political head of state under the constitution , whether written or unwritten . While most monarchs may hold formal authority and the government may legally operate in the monarch's name, in the form typical in Europe the monarch no longer personally sets public policy or chooses political leaders. Political scientist Vernon Bogdanor , paraphrasing Thomas Macaulay , has defined a constitutional monarch as "a sovereign who reigns but does not rule"
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Absolute Monarchy
ABSOLUTE MONARCHY, or DESPOTIC MONARCHY, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature , or customs. These are often, but not always, hereditary monarchies . In contrast, in constitutional monarchies , the head of state 's authority derives from and is legally bounded or restricted by a constitution or legislature . Some monarchies have weak or symbolic legislatures and other governmental bodies the monarch can alter or dissolve at will. Countries where monarchs still maintain absolute power are: Brunei , Oman , Saudi Arabia , Swaziland , Vatican City and the individual emirates composing the United Arab Emirates , which itself is a free association of such monarchies – a federal monarchy . CONTENTS* 1 Historical examples * 1.1 Outside Europe * 1.2 Europe * 1.2.1 France * 1.2.2 Denmark-Norway * 1.2.3 Prussia * 1.2.4 Russia * 1.2.5 Sweden * 2 Contemporary monarchies * 2.1 Current absolute monarchies * 2.1.1 Saudi Arabia * 3 Scholarship * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading HISTORICAL EXAMPLESOUTSIDE EUROPEIn Ancient Egypt , the Pharaoh wielded absolute power over the country and was considered a living god by his people
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Military Dictatorship
A MILITARY DICTATORSHIP (also known as a MILITARY JUNTA ) is a form of government different from civilian dictatorship for a number of reasons: their motivations for seizing power, the institutions through which they organize their rule, and the ways in which they leave power. Often viewing itself as saving the nation from the corrupt or myopic civilian politicians, a military dictatorship justifies its position as “neutral” arbiters on the basis of their membership within the armed forces. For example, many juntas adopt titles, such as “National Redemption Council", “Committee of National Restoration", or “National Liberation Committee". Military leaders often rule as a junta, selecting one of them as the head. CONTENTS * 1 Types * 2 Creation and evolution * 3 Justification * 4 Current cases * 5 Past cases * 5.1 Africa * 5.2 North America * 5.3 South America * 5.4 Asia * 5.5 Europe * 5.6 Oceania * 6 See also * 7 References TYPES _ This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (April 2016)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_Since 1945 Latin America, Africa, Southern Europe , and the Middle East have been common areas for all military dictatorships
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One-party State
A ONE-PARTY STATE, SINGLE-PARTY STATE, ONE-PARTY SYSTEM, SINGLE-PARTY SYSTEM is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution. All other parties are either outlawed or allowed to take only a limited and controlled participation in elections. Sometimes the term _DE FACTO_ ONE-PARTY STATE is used to describe a dominant-party system that, unlike the one-party state, allows (at least nominally) democratic multiparty elections, but the existing practices or balance of political power effectively prevent the opposition from winning the elections. CONTENTS * 1 Concept * 2 Examples * 2.1 Current one-party states * 2.2 Former one-party states * 2.2.1 Former big tent one-party states * 2.2.2 Former left-wing one-party states * 2.2.2.1 Former Marxist-Leninist one-party states * 2.2.3 Former right-wing one-party states * 2.2.3.1 Former fascist or nationalist one-party states * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links CONCEPTOne-party states explain themselves through various methods. Most often, proponents of a one-party state argue that the existence of separate parties runs counter to national unity. Others argue that the one party is the vanguard of the people, and therefore its right to rule cannot be legitimately questioned
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Politics
POLITICS (from Greek: Politiká: _Politika_, definition "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions applying to all members of each group. More narrowly, it refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance — organized control over a human community, particularly a state . Furthermore, politics is the study or practice of the distribution of power and resources within a given community (this is usually a hierarchically organized population) as well as the interrelationship(s) between communities. A variety of methods are deployed in politics, which include promoting or forcing one's own political views among people, negotiation with other political subjects, making laws , and exercising force , including warfare against adversaries. Politics is exercised on a wide range of social levels, from clans and tribes of traditional societies, through modern local governments , companies and institutions up to sovereign states , to the international level . It is very often said that politics is about power. A political system is a framework which defines acceptable political methods within a given society. History of political thought can be traced back to early antiquity, with seminal works such as Plato 's _Republic _, Aristotle 's _ Politics _ and the works of Confucius
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Index Of Politics Articles
This is a list of political topics, including political science terms, political philosophies, political issues, etc. POLITICS is the process by which groups of people make decisions. Although the term is generally applied to behavior within civil governments , politics is observed in all human group interactions, including corporate , academic , and religious institutions. Politics consists of "social relations involving authority or power" and refers to the regulation of a political unit, and to the methods and tactics used to formulate and apply policy . POLITICAL SCIENCE (also known as political studies) is the study of political behavior and examines the acquisition and application of power . Related areas of study include political philosophy , which seeks a rationale for politics and an ethic of public behavior, and public administration , which examines the practices of governance
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Politics By Country
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to politics and political science: POLITICS – the exercise of power; process by which groups of people make collective decisions . Politics is the art or science of running governmental or state affairs (including behavior within civil governments ), institutions, fields, and special interest groups such as the corporate , academic , and religious segments of society. POLITICAL SCIENCE – the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behavior. CONTENTS * 1 Fields of study of political science * 2 Related disciplines * 3 Political theory * 4 Elections * 5 Political parties * 6 Political strategies and tactics * 7 Political corruption * 8 Government * 9 Political philosophies * 10 Governments of the world * 11 Political issues * 12 Politics by region * 12.1 Foreign relations by region * 12.2 Political parties by region * 13 History of politics * 14 Political scholars * 15 Influential literature * 16 See also * 17 Further reading * 18 References * 19 External links FIELDS OF STUDY OF POLITICAL SCIENCE * Area studies * Coalition studies * Comparative politics * Development studies * Domestic politics (e.g
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Politics Of Country Subdivisions
This list summarises the country subdivisions which have a separate article on their politics. Countries where significant powers delegated to federal units or to devolved governments and where the political system is multi-party democracy are more likely to have articles on the politics of their subdivisions. Entities listed in the article List of countries are shows in the article Politics of present-day nations and states
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Political Economy
POLITICAL ECONOMY is a term used for studying production and trade , and their relations with law, custom , and government, as well as with the distribution of national income and wealth . _Political economy_ originated in moral philosophy . It was developed in the 18th century as the study of the economies of states, or _polities _, hence the term _political_ economy. In the late 19th century, the term _economics _ came to replace _political economy_, coinciding with the publication of an influential textbook by Alfred Marshall in 1890. Earlier, William Stanley Jevons , a proponent of mathematical methods applied to the subject, advocated _economics_ for brevity and with the hope of the term becoming "the recognised name of a science." Today, _political economy_, where it is not used as a synonym for economics, may refer to very different things, including Marxian analysis, applied public choice approaches emanating from the Chicago school and the Virginia school , or simply the advice given by economists to the government or public on general economic policy or on specific proposals. A rapidly growing mainstream literature from the 1970s has expanded beyond the model of economic policy in which planners maximize utility of a representative individual toward examining how political forces affect the choice of economic policies , especially as to distributional conflicts and political institutions
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