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Sefer Yetzirah
SEFER YETZIRAH (Hebrew : ספר יצירה‎ Sēpher Yəṣîrâh, Book of Formation, or Book of Creation) is the title of the earliest extant book on Jewish esotericism , although some early commentators treated it as a treatise on mathematical and linguistic theory as opposed to Kabbalah
Kabbalah
. "Yetzirah" is more literally translated as "Formation"; the word "Briah" is used for "Creation". The book is traditionally ascribed to the patriarch Abraham
Abraham
, although others attribute its writing to Rabbi Akiva . Modern scholars haven't reached consensus on the question of its origins. According to Rabbi
Rabbi
Saadia Gaon , the objective of the book's author was to convey in writing how the things of our universe came into existence
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Panentheism
PANENTHEISM (from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
expression πᾶν ἐν θεῷ, pān en theṓ, literally “all in God” ) is the belief that the divine pervades and interpenetrates every part of the universe and also extends beyond time and space. The term was coined by the German philosopher Karl Krause in 1828 to distinguish the ideas of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770–1831) and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (1775–1854) about the relation of God
God
and the universe from the supposed pantheism of Baruch Spinoza
Baruch Spinoza
. Unlike pantheism , which holds that the divine and the universe are identical , panentheism maintains an ontological distinction between the divine and the non-divine and the significance of both
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Shekhinah
The SHEKHINA(H) (also spelled SHEKINA(H), SCHECHINA(H), or SHECHINA(H)) (Biblical Hebrew : שכינה‎‎) is the English transliteration of a Hebrew word meaning "dwelling" or "settling" and denotes the dwelling or settling of the divine presence of God. The Shekhinah is the feminine aspect of Divinity, also referred to as the Divine Presence. :231 This term does not occur in the Bible, and is from rabbinic literature
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Jewish Angelic Hierarchy
In Judaism
Judaism
an angel (Hebrew : מַלְאָךְ‎‎ malakh, plural malakhim) is a messenger of God, an angelic envoy or an angel in general who appears throughout the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
, Rabbinic literature , and traditional Jewish liturgy . ANGELS IN JUDAISM are categorized in different hierarchies
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Toledano Tradition
Z\'EV BEN SHIMON HALEVI (English name, WARREN KENTON) is an author of books on the Toledano Tradition of Kabbalah
Kabbalah
, a teacher of the discipline, with a worldwide following, and a founder member of the Kabbalah
Kabbalah
Society . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Kabbalistic work * 3 Influence * 4 Bibliography * 5 Criticism * 6 References * 7 External links EARLY LIFE Z'ev ben Shimon Halevi was born, on 8 January 1933, into a Jewish family in London, England, where he continues to live and work, along with his wife, Rebekah . On his father's side of the family, he descends from a rabbinical Sephardi line with roots in Bessarabia which was, at the turn of the 20th century, a province of Russia. On his mother's side, he is descended from a Polish Ashkenazi family
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Shemhamphorasch
The SHEM HAMEPHORASH (Hebrew: שם המפורש, alternatively SHEM HA-MEPHORASH or SCHEMHAMPHORAS), meaning the explicit name, is an originally Tannaitic term describing a hidden name of God
God
in Kabbalah (including Christian and Hermetic variants), and in some more mainstream Jewish discourses. It is composed of either 4, 12, 22, 42, or 72 letters (or triads of letters), the last version being the most common. CONTENTS * 1 12-, 22-, and 42-letter versions * 2 The 72-fold name * 2.1 Angels of the Shem Hamephorash * 3 In LaVeyan Satanism * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links 12-, 22-, AND 42-LETTER VERSIONS Maimonides
Maimonides
thought the Shem ha-Mephorash was used only for the four letter Tetragrammaton
Tetragrammaton

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Temurah (Kabbalah)
TEMURAH is one of the three ancient methods used by Kabbalists
Kabbalists
to rearrange words and sentences in the Bible, in the belief that by this method they can derive the esoteric substratum and deeper spiritual meaning of the words. (The others are Gematria
Gematria
and Notarikon .) Temurah may be used to change letters in certain words to create a new meaning for a Biblical statement. The Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
is an Abjad
Abjad
or consonantary alphabet. Techniques that applied to English will mostly transform sense into a nonsensical series of letters are more feasible in Hebrew. There are three simple forms of Temurah: * Atbash : Replacing the first letter with the last letter of the Hebrew alphabet, the second with the next-to-last, and so on. a=z, b=y, c=x, etc
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Tannaim
TANNAIM (Hebrew : תנאים‎ , singular Hebrew : תנא‎ , Tanna "repeaters", "teachers" ) were the Rabbinic sages whose views are recorded in the Mishnah
Mishnah
, from approximately 10-220 CE. The period of the Tannaim, also referred to as the Mishnaic period, lasted about 210 years. It came after the period of the Zugot ("pairs"), and was immediately followed by the period of the Amoraim ("interpreters"). The root tanna (אתנא‎) is the Talmudic Aramaic equivalent for the Hebrew root shanah (שנה‎), which also is the root-word of Mishnah. The verb shanah (שנה‎) literally means "to repeat " and is used to mean "to learn". The Mishnaic period is commonly divided up into five periods according to generations. There are approximately 120 known Tannaim. The Tannaim lived in several areas of the Land of Israel
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Safed
SAFED ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: צְפַת‎ Tsfat, Ashkenazi : Tzfas, Biblical : Ṣ'fath; Arabic : صفد‎‎, Ṣafad) is a city in the Northern District of Israel. Located at an elevation of 900 metres (2,953 ft), Safed
Safed
is the highest city in the Galilee
Galilee
and in Israel. Due to its high elevation, Safed
Safed
experiences warm summers and cold, often snowy, winters. Since the 16th century, Safed
Safed
has been considered one of Judaism
Judaism
's Four Holy Cities , along with Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, Hebron
Hebron
and Tiberias
Tiberias
; since that time, the city has remained a center of Kabbalah
Kabbalah
and Jewish mysticism
Jewish mysticism

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Notarikon
NOTARIKON (Hebrew : נוטריקון‎ Noṭariqōn) is a method of deriving a word, by using each of its initial (Hebrew: ראשי תיבות‎) or final letters (סופי תיבות‎) to stand for another, to form a sentence or idea out of the words. Another variation uses the first and last letters, or the two middle letters of a word, in order to form another word. The word "notarikon" is borrowed from the Greek language (νοταρικόν)), and was derived from the Latin word "notarius" meaning "shorthand writer." Notarikon is one of the three ancient methods used by the Kabbalists (the other two are gematria and temurah ) to rearrange words and sentences. These methods were used in order to derive the esoteric substratum and deeper spiritual meaning of the words in the Bible. Notarikon was also used in alchemy
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Old Yishuv
The OLD YISHUV (Hebrew : היישוב הישן‎‎, ha-Yishuv ha-Yashan) were the Jewish communities of the southern Syrian provinces in the Ottoman period, up to the onset of Zionist aliyah and the consolidation of the New Yishuv by the end of World War I. As opposed to the later Zionist aliyah and the New Yishuv, which came into being with the First Aliyah
Aliyah
(of 1882) and was more based on a socialist and/or secular ideology emphasizing labor and self-sufficiency, the Old Yishuv, whose members had continuously resided in or had come to Eretz Yisrael in the earlier centuries, were largely ultra-orthodox Jews dependent on external donations ( Halukka ) for living. The Old Yishuv developed after a period of severe decline in Jewish communities of the Southern Levant during the early Middle Ages, and was composed of three clusters
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Lithuanian Jews
LITHUANIAN JEWS or LITVAKS are Jews
Jews
with roots in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
(present-day Lithuania
Lithuania
, Belarus
Belarus
, Ukraine
Ukraine
, Latvia
Latvia
and the northeastern Suwałki (Suvalkai) region of Poland
Poland
). The term is sometimes used to cover all Orthodox Jews
Jews
who follow a "Lithuanian" (Ashkenazic and non- Hasidic ) style of life and learning, whatever their ethnic background. The area where Lithuanian Jews
Jews
lived is referred to in Yiddish
Yiddish
as "Líta", hence the Hebrew
Hebrew
term Lita'im
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Hasidic Dynasties
A HASIDIC DYNASTY is a dynasty led by Hasidic Jewish spiritual leaders known as rebbes , and usually has some or all of the following characteristics: * Each leader of the dynasty is often known as an ADMOR (abbreviation for ADoneinu MOreinu Rabeinu - "our master, our teacher and our rabbi") or simply as Rebbe (or "the Rebbe"), and at times called the "Rav" ("rabbi"), and sometimes referred to in English as a "Grand Rabbi"; * The dynasty continues beyond the initial leader's lifetime by succession (usually by a family descendant); * The dynasty is usually named after a key town in Eastern Europe where the founder may have been born or lived, or where the group began to grow and flourish; * The dynasty has (or once had) followers who, through time, continue following successive leaders (rebbes) or may even continue as a group without a
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Abraham Isaac Kook
ABRAHAM ISAAC KOOK ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: אברהם יצחק הכהן קוק Abraham Yitshak ha- Kohen
Kohen
Kuk;8 September 1865–11 September 1935) was the first Ashkenazi chief rabbi of British Mandatory Palestine
Mandatory Palestine
, the founder of Yeshiva
Yeshiva
Mercaz HaRav Kook (The Central Universal Yeshiva), Jewish thinker , Halakhist , Kabbalist and a renowned Torah
Torah
scholar. He is known in Hebrew
Hebrew
as הרב אברהם יצחק הכהן קוק HaRav Avraham Yitzchak HaCohen Kook, and by the acronym הראיה (HaRaAYaH), or simply as "HaRav." He was one of the most celebrated and influential rabbis of the 20th century
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Hasidic Philosophy
HASIDIC PHILOSOPHY or HASIDUS (Hebrew: חסידות), alternatively transliterated as HASSIDISM, CHASSIDISM, CHASSIDUT etc. is the teachings, interpretations, and practice of Judaism
Judaism
as articulated by the Hasidic movement. Thus, Hasidus is a framing term for the teachings of the Hasidic masters, expressed in its range from Torah (the Five books of Moses) to Kabbalah
Kabbalah
( Jewish
Jewish
mysticisim). Hasidus deals with a range of spiritual concepts such as God
God
, the soul , and the Torah
Torah
, and gives them understandable, applicable and practical expressions. It also discusses the charismatic religious elements of the movement, but mainly Hasidus describes the structured thought and philosophy of Hasidim. In other words, it speaks of the "soul of Torah", as Hasidus is often referred to by that very name
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Tzadikim Nistarim
The TZADIKIM NISTARIM (Hebrew : צַדִיקִים נִסתָּרים‎, "hidden righteous ones") or LAMED VAV TZADIKIM (Hebrew : ל"ו צַדִיקִים‎,x"36 righteous ones"), often abbreviated to Lamed Vav(niks), refers to 36 RIGHTEOUS PEOPLE, a notion rooted within the more mystical dimensions of Judaism
Judaism
. The singular form is TZADIK NISTAR (Hebrew : צַדִיק נִסתָר‎). CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Their purpose * 3 Lamedvavniks * 4 Notes * 5 In popular culture * 6 References * 7 External links ORIGINSThe source is the Talmud
Talmud
itself, explained as follows: As a mystical concept, the number 36 is even more intriguing. It is said that at all times there are 36 special people in the world, and that were it not for them, all of them, if even one of them was missing, the world would come to an end. The two Hebrew letters for 36 are the lamed, which is 30, and the vav, which is 6
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