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Sedimentary
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth\'s surface and within bodies of water. Sedimentation
Sedimentation
is the collective name for processes that cause mineral and/or organic particles (detritus ) to settle in place. The particles that form a sedimentary rock by accumulating are called sediment . Before being deposited, the sediment was formed by weathering and erosion from the source area, and then transported to the place of deposition by water , wind , ice , mass movement or glaciers , which are called agents of denudation . Sedimentation
Sedimentation
may also occur as minerals precipitate from water solution or shells of aquatic creatures settle out of suspension
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List Of Academic Disciplines
An ACADEMIC DISCIPLINE or FIELD OF STUDY is a branch of knowledge that is taught and researched as part of higher education . A scholar's discipline is commonly defined and received by the university faculties and learned societies to which he or she belongs and the academic journals in which he or she publishes research . Disciplines vary between well-established ones that exist in almost all universities and have well-defined rosters of journal s and conferences and nascent ones supported by only a few universities and publications. A discipline may have branches, and these are often called sub-disciplines. There is no consensus on how some academic disciplines should be classified, for example whether anthropology and linguistics are discipline of social sciences or fields within the humanities . The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to academic disciplines
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Drinking Water
DRINKING WATER, also known as POTABLE WATER or IMPROVED DRINKING WATER, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation , without risk of health problems. Globally, in 2015, 91% of people had access to water suitable for drinking. Nearly 4.2 billion had access to tap water while another 2.4 billion had access to wells or public taps. 1.8 billion people still use an unsafe drinking water source which may be contaminated by feces . This can result in infectious diarrhea such as cholera and typhoid among others. Water
Water
is essential for life. The amount of drinking water required is variable. It depends on physical activity, age, health issues, and environmental conditions. It is estimated that the average American drinks about one litre of water a day with 95% drinking less than three litres per day. For those working in a hot climate, up to 16 liters a day may be required
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Denudation
In geology , DENUDATION involves the processes that cause the wearing away of the Earth's surface by moving water, by ice, by wind and by waves , leading to a reduction in elevation and in relief of landforms and of landscapes. Endogenous processes such as volcanoes , earthquakes , and plate tectonics uplift and expose continental crust to the exogenous processes of weathering , of erosion , and of mass wasting . CONTENTS * 1 Processes * 2 Rates * 3 Proposed cycles * 4 Volcanic landforms * 5 References PROCESSES Denudation
Denudation
incorporates the mechanical, biological and chemical processes of erosion, weathering and mass wasting. Denudation
Denudation
can involve the removal of both solid particles and dissolved material. These include sub-processes of cryofracture, insolation weathering, slaking , salt weathering, bioturbation and anthropogenic impacts
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Physical Geography
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY (also known as GEOSYSTEMS or PHYSIOGRAPHY) is one of the two major sub-fields of geography . Physical geography
Physical geography
is that branch of natural science which deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere , hydrosphere , biosphere , and geosphere , as opposed to the cultural or built environment , the domain of human geography . CONTENTS * 1 Sub-branches * 2 Journals and literature * 3 Historical evolution of the discipline * 4 Notable physical geographers * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links SUB-BRANCHES A natural arch . Physical Geography
Geography
can be divided into several sub-fields, as follows: * GEOMORPHOLOGY is the field concerned with understanding the surface of the Earth and the processes by which it is shaped, both at the present as well as in the past
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Ice
ICE is water frozen into a solid state. Depending on the presence of impurities such as particles of soil or bubbles of air, it can appear transparent or a more or less opaque bluish-white color. In the Solar System
Solar System
, ice is abundant and occurs naturally from as close to the Sun as Mercury to as far away as the Oort cloud objects. Beyond the Solar System, it occurs as interstellar ice . It is abundant on Earth
Earth
's surface – particularly in the polar regions and above the snow line – and, as a common form of precipitation and deposition , plays a key role in Earth's water cycle and climate . It falls as snowflakes and hail or occurs as frost, icicles or ice spikes . Ice
Ice
molecules can exhibit seventeen or more different phases (packing geometries ) that depend on temperature and pressure
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Mass Wasting
MASS WASTING, also known as SLOPE MOVEMENT or MASS MOVEMENT, is the geomorphic process by which soil , sand , regolith , and rock move downslope typically as a mass, largely under the force of gravity , but frequently affected by water and water content as in submarine environments and mudflows . Types of mass wasting include creep , slides, flows, topples, and falls, each with its own characteristic features, and taking place over timescales from seconds to years. Mass wasting occurs on both terrestrial and submarine slopes, and has been observed on Earth
Earth
, Mars
Mars
, Venus
Venus
, and Jupiter's moon Io . When the gravitational force acting on a slope exceeds its resisting force, slope failure (mass wasting) occurs. The slope material's strength and cohesion and the amount of internal friction between material help maintain the slope's stability and are known collectively as the slope's shear strength
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Triassic
The TRIASSIC ( /traɪˈæsɪk/ ) is a geologic period and system which spans 50.9 million years from the end of the Permian
Permian
Period 251.902 million years ago (Mya ), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period 201.3 Mya . The Triassic
Triassic
is the first period of the Mesozoic Era . Both the start and end of the period are marked by major extinction events . The Triassic
Triassic
began in the wake of the Permian– Triassic
Triassic
extinction event , which left the earth's biosphere impoverished; it would take well into the middle of this period for life to recover its former diversity. Therapsids and archosaurs were the chief terrestrial vertebrates during this time. A specialized subgroup of archosaurs, called dinosaurs , first appeared in the Late Triassic but did not become dominant until the succeeding Jurassic
Jurassic
Period
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Civil Engineering
CIVIL ENGINEERING is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams, and buildings. Civil engineering
Civil engineering
is traditionally broken into a number of sub-disciplines. It is the second-oldest engineering discipline after military engineering , and it is defined to distinguish non-military engineering from military engineering. Civil engineering
Civil engineering
takes place in the public sector from municipal through to national governments, and in the private sector from individual homeowners through to international companies
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Canal
CANALS and NAVIGATIONS are human-made channels for water conveyance (supply), or to service water transport vehicles . In the vernacular, both are referred to as 'canals', and in most cases, the engineered works will have a series of dams and locks that create areas of low speed current flow. These areas are referred to as 'slack water levels', often just called 'levels'. The main difference between them is that a navigation parallels a river and shares part of its waters, its drainage basin and leverages its resources by building dams and locks to increase and lengthen its long stretches of deep enough slack water levels while staying in its valley . In contrast, a canal cuts across a drainage divide atop a ridge (however humble), generally requiring an external water source above the highest elevation . Many canals have been built at elevations towering over valleys and others water ways crossing far below
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Natural Resource
NATURAL RESOURCES are resources that exist without actions of humankind. This includes all valued characteristics such as magnetic, gravitational, and electrical properties and forces. On earth it includes: sunlight , atmosphere , water , land (includes all minerals) along with all vegetation and animal life that naturally subsists upon or within the heretofore identified characteristics and substances. Particular areas such as the rainforest in Fatu-Hiva are often characterized by the biodiversity and geodiversity existent in their ecosystems. Natural resources may be further classified in different ways. Natural resources are materials and components (something that can be used) that can be found within the environment. Every man-made product is composed of natural resources (at its fundamental level)
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Tunnel
A TUNNEL is an underground passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at each end. A pipeline is not a tunnel, though some recent tunnels have used immersed tube construction techniques rather than traditional tunnel boring methods. A tunnel may be for foot or vehicular road traffic , for rail traffic, or for a canal . The central portions of a rapid transit network are usually in tunnel. Some tunnels are aqueducts to supply water for consumption or for hydroelectric stations or are sewers . Utility tunnels are used for routing steam, chilled water, electrical power or telecommunication cables, as well as connecting buildings for convenient passage of people and equipment. Secret tunnels are built for military purposes, or by civilians for smuggling of weapons , contraband , or people . Special tunnels, such as wildlife crossings , are built to allow wildlife to cross human-made barriers safely
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House
A HOUSE is a building that functions as a home , ranging from simple dwellings such as rudimentary huts of nomadic tribes and the improvised shacks in shantytowns to complex, fixed structures of wood, brick, concrete or other materials containing plumbing, ventilation and electrical systems. Houses use a range of different roofing systems to keep precipitation such as rain from getting into the dwelling space. Houses may have doors or locks to secure the dwelling space and protect its inhabitants and contents from burglars or other trespassers. Most conventional modern houses in Western cultures will contain one or more bedrooms and bathrooms , a kitchen or cooking area, and a living room . A house may have a separate dining room , or the eating area may be integrated into another room. Some large houses in North America have a recreation room
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Road
A ROAD is a thoroughfare , route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle , cart, bicycle, or horse. Roads consist of one or two roadways ( British English
British English
: carriageways), each with one or more lanes and any associated sidewalks (British English: pavement) and road verges . Roads that are available for use by the public may be referred to as parkways, avenues, freeways, interstates, highways, or primary, secondary, and tertiary local roads
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Wind
WIND is the flow of gases on a large scale. On the surface of the Earth, wind consists of the bulk movement of air. In outer space , solar wind is the movement of gases or charged particles from the Sun through space, while planetary wind is the outgassing of light chemical elements from a planet's atmosphere into space. Winds are commonly classified by their spatial scale , their speed , the types of forces that cause them, the regions in which they occur, and their effect. The strongest observed winds on a planet in the Solar System occur on Neptune
Neptune
and Saturn
Saturn
. Winds have various aspects, an important one being its velocity (wind speed ); another the density of the gas involved; another its energy content or wind energy . In meteorology , winds are often referred to according to their strength, and the direction from which the wind is blowing. Short bursts of high speed wind are termed gusts
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Earth Science
EARTH SCIENCE or GEOSCIENCE is a widely embraced term for the fields of science related to the planet Earth
Earth
. It is the branch of science dealing with the physical constitution of the earth and its atmosphere. Earth
Earth
science is the study of our planet’s physical characteristics, from earthquakes to raindrops, and floods to fossils. Earth
Earth
science can be considered to be a branch of planetary science , but with a much older history. “ Earth
Earth
science” is a broad term that encompasses four main branches of study, each of which is further broken down into more specialized fields. There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth sciences. It is also the study of the Earth
Earth
and its neighbors in space
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