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Sediment
Sediment
Sediment
is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles. For example, sand and silt can be carried in suspension in river water and on reaching the sea be deposited by sedimentation and if buried, may eventually become sandstone and siltstone (sedimentary rocks). Sediments are most often transported by water (fluvial processes), but also wind (aeolian processes) and glaciers. Beach sands and river channel deposits are examples of fluvial transport and deposition, though sediment also often settles out of slow-moving or standing water in lakes and oceans. Desert sand dunes and loess are examples of aeolian transport and deposition
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Chemical
A chemical substance[1], also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that has constant chemical composition and characteristic properties.[2] It cannot be separated into components by physical separation methods, i.e., without breaking chemical bonds.[3] Chemical substances can be chemical elements, chemical compounds, ions or alloys. Chemical substances are often called 'pure' to set them apart from mixtures. A common example of a chemical substance is pure water; it has the same properties and the same ratio of hydrogen to oxygen whether it is isolated from a river or made in a laboratory. Other chemical substances commonly encountered in pure form are diamond (carbon), gold, table salt (sodium chloride) and refined sugar (sucrose)
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Mineral
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound,[1] usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes. A mineral has one specific chemical composition, whereas a rock can be an aggregate of different minerals or mineraloids. The study of minerals is called mineralogy. As of March 2018[update], there are more than 5,500 known mineral species;[2] 5,312 of these have been approved by the International Mineralogical Association (IMA).[3] Minerals are distinguished by various chemical and physical properties. Differences in chemical composition and crystal structure distinguish the various species, which were determined by the mineral's geological environment when formed. Changes in the temperature, pressure, or bulk composition of a rock mass cause changes in its minerals
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Lake Geneva
Lake
Lake
Geneva
Geneva
(French: le lac Léman or le Léman[1] [lə (lak) lemɑ̃], sometimes le lac de Genève [lə lak də ʒ(ə)nɛːv], German: Genfersee [ˈɡɛnfərˌzeː]) is a lake on the north side of the Alps, shared between Switzerland
Switzerland
and France. It is one of the largest lakes in Western Europe and the largest on the course of the Rhône. 59.53% (345.31 km2 [133.32 sq mi]) of it comes under the jurisdiction of Switzerland
Switzerland
(cantons of Vaud, Geneva, and Valais), and 40.47% (234.71 km2 [90.62 sq mi]) under France
France
(department of Haute-Savoie). Lake
Lake
Geneva
Geneva
has been explored by four submarines: the Auguste Piccard and the F.-A
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Land Degradation
Land
Land
degradation is a process in which the value of the biophysical environment is affected by a combination of human-induced processes acting upon the land.[1] It is viewed as any change or disturbance to the land perceived to be deleterious or undesirable.[2] Natural hazards are excluded as a cause; however human activities can indirectly affect phenomena such as floods and bush fires. This is considered to be an important topic of the 21st century
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Soil Texture
Soil
Soil
texture is a classification instrument used both in the field and laboratory to determine soil classes based on their physical texture. Soil
Soil
texture can be determined using qualitative methods such as texture by feel, and quantitative methods such as the hydrometer method. Soil
Soil
texture has agricultural applications such as determining crop suitability and to predict the response of the soil to environmental and management conditions such as drought or calcium (lime) requirements. Soil
Soil
texture focuses on the particles that are less than two millimeters in diameter which include sand, silt, and clay
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River Rhône
The Rhône
Rhône
(/roʊn/; French: Le Rhône
Rhône
[ʁon]; German: Rhone [ˈroːnə]; Walliser German: Rotten [ˈrotən]; Italian: Rodano [ˈrɔːdano]; Arpitan: Rôno [ˈʁono]; Occitan: Ròse [ˈrrɔze (ˈrɔze, ˈʀɔze)]) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire
Loire
(which is the longest French river), rising in the Rhône Glacier
Rhône Glacier
in the Swiss Alps
Swiss Alps
at the far eastern end of the Swiss canton
Swiss canton
of Valais, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France. At Arles, near its mouth on the Mediterranean Sea, the river divides into two branches, known as the Great Rhône
Rhône
(French: Le Grand Rhône) and the Little Rhône
Rhône
(Le Petit Rhône)
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Micrometre
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures;[1] SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling 6994100000000000000♠1×10−6 metre (SI standard prefix "micro-" = 10−6); that is, one millionth of a metre (or one thousandth of a millimetre, 0.001 mm, or about 0.000039 inch).[1] The micrometre is a common unit of measurement for wavelengths of infrared radiation as well as sizes of biological cells and bacteria,[1] and for grading wool by the diameter of the fibres.[2] The width of a single human hair ranges from approximately 10 to 200 μm
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Gravity
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another, including objects ranging from atoms and photons, to planets and stars. Since energy and mass are equivalent, all forms of energy (including light) cause gravitation and are under the influence of it. On Earth, gravity gives weight to physical objects, and the Moon's gravity causes the ocean tides. The gravitational attraction of the original gaseous matter present in the Universe
Universe
caused it to begin coalescing, forming stars – and for the stars to group together into galaxies – so gravity is responsible for many of the large scale structures in the Universe
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Sand
Sand
Sand
is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles. It is defined by size, being finer than gravel and coarser than silt. Sand
Sand
can also refer to a textural class of soil or soil type; i.e., a soil containing more than 85 percent sand-sized particles by mass.[1] The composition of sand varies, depending on the local rock sources and conditions, but the most common constituent of sand in inland continental settings and non-tropical coastal settings is silica (silicon dioxide, or SiO2), usually in the form of quartz. The second most common type of sand is calcium carbonate, for example, aragonite, which has mostly been created, over the past half billion years, by various forms of life, like coral and shellfish
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Glacial
A glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances. Interglacials, on the other hand, are periods of warmer climate between glacial periods. The last glacial period ended about 15,000 years ago.[1] The Holocene
Holocene
epoch is the current interglacial. A time when there are no glaciers on Earth is considered a greenhouse climate state.[2][3][4]Look up glaciation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.Contents1 Quaternary ice age 2 Last glacial period 3 Next glacial period 4 See also 5 ReferencesQuaternary ice age[edit] Main articles: Quaternary glaciation
Quaternary glaciation
and timeline of glaciationGlacial and interglacial cycles as represented by atmospheric CO2, measured from ice core samples going back 800,000 years. The stage names are part of the North American and the European Alpine subdivisions
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Mud
Mud
Mud
is a liquid or semi-liquid mixture of water and any combination of different kinds of soil (loam, silt, and clay). It usually forms after rainfall or near water sources. Ancient mud deposits harden over geological time to form sedimentary rock such as shale or mudstone (generally called lutites)
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Von Kármán Constant
In fluid dynamics, the von Kármán constant (or Kármán's constant), named for Theodore von Kármán, is a dimensionless constant involved in the logarithmic law describing the distribution of the longitudinal velocity in the wall-normal direction of a turbulent fluid flow near a boundary with a no-slip condition. The equation for such boundary layer flow profiles is: u = u ⋆ κ ln ⁡ z z 0 , displaystyle u= frac u_ star kappa ln frac z z_ 0 , where u is the mean flow velocity at height z above the boundary. The roughness height (also known as roughness length) z0 is where u displaystyle u appears to go to zero
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Terminal Velocity
Terminal velocity
Terminal velocity
is the highest velocity attainable by an object as it falls through a fluid (air is the most common example). It occurs when the sum of the drag force (Fd) and the buoyancy is equal to the downward force of gravity (FG) acting on the object. Since the net force on the object is zero, the object has zero acceleration.[1] In fluid dynamics, an object is moving at its terminal velocity if its speed is constant due to the restraining force exerted by the fluid through which it is moving. As the speed of an object increases, so does the drag force acting on it, which also depends on the substance it is passing through (for example air or water). At some speed, the drag or force of resistance will equal the gravitational pull on the object (buoyancy is considered below). At this point the object ceases to accelerate and continues falling at a constant speed called the terminal velocity (also called settling velocity)
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Stream Channel
A stream is a body of water[1] with surface water flowing within the bed and banks of a channel. The stream encompasses surface and groundwater fluxes that respond to geological, geomorphological, hydrological and biotic controls[2]. Depending on its location or certain characteristics, a stream may be referred to by a variety of local or regional names. Streams are important as conduits in the water cycle, instruments in groundwater recharge, and corridors for fish and wildlife migration. The biological habitat in the immediate vicinity of a stream is called a riparian zone. Given the status of the ongoing Holocene extinction, streams play an important corridor role in connecting fragmented habitats and thus in conserving biodiversity
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Glacier
A glacier (US: /ˈɡleɪʃər/ or UK: /ˈɡlæsiə/) is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries. Glaciers slowly deform and flow due to stresses induced by their weight, creating crevasses, seracs, and other distinguishing features. They also abrade rock and debris from their substrate to create landforms such as cirques and moraines. Glaciers form only on land and are distinct from the much thinner sea ice and lake ice that form on the surface of bodies of water. On Earth, 99% of glacial ice is contained within vast ice sheets in the polar regions, but glaciers may be found in mountain ranges on every continent including Oceania's high-latitude oceanic islands such as New Zealand
New Zealand
and Papua New Guinea
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