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Sedan (car)
A SEDAN /sᵻˈdæn/ (American , Canadian , Australian , and New Zealand English ) or SALOON (British , Irish and Indian English
Indian English
) is a passenger car in a three-box configuration with A, B max-width:224px"> 1962 Rambler Classic
Rambler Classic
2- and 4-door sedans The primary purpose of the sedan is to transport people and their baggage on ordinary roads. Sedan versions of the automobile body style have a central pillar (B-pillar) that supports the roof and come in two- and four-door versions. Sedans usually have a two-box or three-box body. In the U.S., the term sedan has been used to denote a car with fixed window frames, as opposed to the hardtop style without a "B" pillar and where the sash or window frame, if any, winds down with the glass. Popular in the U.S. from the 1950s through the 1970s, true hardtop body designs have become increasingly rare. The shape and position of the automobile greenhouse on both two- and four-door sedans may be identical, with only the center B-pillar positioned further back to accommodate the longer doors on the two-door versions. For example, 1962 Rambler Classic
Rambler Classic
sedans feature identical windshield, A-pillar, roof, C-pillar, and rear window
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Pillar (car)
PILLARS are the vertical or near vertical supports of a car 's window area or greenhouse —designated respectively as the A, B, C or (in larger cars) D-pillar, moving from the front to rear, in profile view. The consistent alphabetical designation of a car's pillars provides a common reference for design discussion and critical communication. As an example, rescue teams employ pillar nomenclature to facilitate communication when cutting wrecked vehicles, as when using the jaws of life . The B pillars are sometimes referred to as "posts" (two-door or four-door post sedan). CONTENTS * 1 Design * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links DESIGNIn the case of the B (or center) pillar on four-door sedans, the pillar is typically a closed steel structure welded at the bottom to the car's rocker panel and floorpan , as well as on the top to the roof rail or panel. This pillar provides structural support for the vehicle's roof panel and is designed for latching the front door and mounting the hinges for the rear doors. As the most costly body components to develop or re-tool, a vehicle's roof and door design are a major factor in meeting safety and crash standards. Some designs employ slimmer, chamfered windscreen pillars, A pillars, to help improve driver vision (thus reducing blind spots ) through the use of stronger alloy steel in these components
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Three-box Styling
THREE-BOX DESIGN is a broad automotive styling term describing a coupé , sedan , notchback or hatchback where—when viewed in profile—principal volumes are articulated into three separate compartments or boxes: engine, passenger and cargo. Three-box designs are highly variable. The Renault Dauphineis a three-box that carries its engine in the rear and its cargo up front. The styling of the Škoda Octaviaintegrates a hatchback with the articulation of a three-box. This style was later used by its larger Škoda Superb , which marketed as the TwinDoor, within the liftgate operable as a trunk lid or as a full hatchback. As with the third generation European Ford Escort (also a hatchback), the third box may be vestigial. And three-box styling need not be boxy: Car Design News calls the fluid and rounded Fiat Lineaa three-box design —and most examples of the markedly bulbous styling of the ponton genre are three-box designs
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Station Wagon
A STATION WAGON, also called an ESTATE CAR, ESTATE WAGON, or simply WAGON or ESTATE, is an automotive body-style variant of a sedan/saloon with its roof extended rearward over a shared passenger/cargo volume with access at the back via a third or fifth door (the liftgate or tailgate ), instead of a trunk lid. The body style transforms a standard three-box design into a two-box design — to include an A, B, and C-pillar , as well as a D-pillar. Station wagons can flexibly reconfigure their interior volume via fold-down rear seats to prioritize either passenger or cargo volume. The American Heritage Dictionary defines a station wagon as "an automobile with one or more rows of folding or removable seats behind the driver and no luggage compartment but an area behind the seats into which suitcases, parcels, etc., can be loaded through a tailgate." When a model range includes multiple body styles, such as sedan, hatchback and station wagon, the models typically share their platform , drivetrain and bodywork forward of the A-pillar. In 1969, Popular Mechanics said, "Station wagon-style ... follows that of the production sedan of which it is the counterpart. Most are on the same wheelbase, offer the same transmission and engine options, and the same comfort and convenience options." Station wagons have evolved from their early use as specialized vehicles to carry people and luggage to and from a train station, and have been marketed worldwide
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Hatchback
A HATCHBACK is a car body configuration with a rear door that swings upward to provide access to a cargo area. Hatchbacks may feature fold-down second row seating, where the interior can be flexibly reconfigured to prioritize passenger vs. cargo volume. Hatchbacks may feature two- or three-box design. While early examples of the body configuration can be traced to the 1930s, the Merriam-Webster dictionary dates the term itself to 1970. The hatchback body style has been marketed worldwide on cars ranging in size from superminis to small family cars , as well as executive cars . CONTENTS* 1 Overview * 1.1 Hatchback
Hatchback
vs. station wagon * 1.2 Liftback
Liftback
* 2 Early examples * 3 Worldwide * 3.1 Europe
Europe
* 3.2 North America * 3.3 Japan * 3.4 USSR * 3.5 India * 3.6 Other regions * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 External links OVERVIEW Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Polo Mk 1 hatchback Hatchbacks may be described as three-door (two entry doors and the hatch) or five-door (four entry doors and the hatch) cars. A model range may include multiple configurations, as with the 2001–2007 Ford Focus which offered sedan (ZX4), wagon (ZXW), and three or five-door hatchback (ZX3 and ZX5) models
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Model Range
An AUTOMOBILE MODEL (or CAR MODEL or MODEL OF CAR, and typically abbreviated to just "model") is a particular brand of vehicle sold under a marque by a manufacturer, usually within a range of models, usually of different sizes or capabilities. From an engineering point of view, a particular car model is usually defined and/or constrained by the use of a particular car chassis /bodywork combination or the same monocoque , although sometimes this is not the case, and the model represents a marketing segment. A model may also be referred to as a NAMEPLATE , specifically when referring to the product from the point of view of the manufacturer, especially a model over time. For example, the Chevrolet Suburban is the oldest automobile nameplate in continuous production, dating to 1934 (1935 model year), while the Chrysler New Yorker was (until its demise in 1996) the oldest North American car nameplate. "Nameplate" is also sometimes used more loosely, however, to refer to a brand or division of larger company (e.g., GMC), rather than a specific model. This engineering frame may have derivatives, giving rise to more than one body style for a particular car model. For example, the same model can be offered as a four-door sedan (saloon), a two-door coupé , a station wagon (estate), or even as a folding-roof convertible, all derived from essentially the same engineering frame. An example of this is the BMW 3-series
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American English
AMERICAN ENGLISH (AME, AE, AMENG, USENG, EN-US ), sometimes called UNITED STATES ENGLISH or U.S. ENGLISH, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States . English is the most widely spoken language in the United States and is the common language used by the federal government, considered the _de facto _ language of the country because of its widespread use. English has been given official status by 32 of the 50 state governments. As an example, while both Spanish and English have equivalent status in the local courts of Puerto Rico , under federal law, English is the official language for any matters being referred to the United States district court for the territory. The use of English in the United States is a result of British colonization of the Americas . The first wave of English-speaking settlers arrived in North America during the 17th century, followed by further migrations in the 18th and 19th centuries. Since then, American English has developed into new dialects, in some cases under the influence of West African and Native American languages , German , Dutch , Irish , Spanish , and other languages of successive waves of immigrants to the United States
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Canadian English
CANADIAN ENGLISH (CANE, CE, EN-CA ) is the set of varieties of the English language
English language
native to Canada
Canada
. According to the 2011 census, English was the first language of approximately 19 million Canadians
Canadians
, or 57% of the population; the remainder of the population were native speakers of Canadian French
Canadian French
(22%) or other languages (allophones , 21%). A larger number, 28 million people, reported using English as their dominant language. 82% of Canadians
Canadians
outside the province of Quebec
Quebec
reported speaking English natively, but within Quebec
Quebec
the figure was just 7.7% as most of its residents are native speakers of Quebec
Quebec
French . Canadian English
Canadian English
contains elements of British English and American English , as well as many Canadianisms (meaning 2): elements "distinctively characteristic of Canadian usage". While, broadly speaking, Canadian English
Canadian English
varieties tend to be close to American English varieties in terms of linguistic distance, the precise influence of American English, British English and other unique sources on Canadian English
Canadian English
varieties has been the ongoing focus of systematic studies since the 1950s
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Australian English
AUSTRALIAN ENGLISH (AUE, EN-AU ) is a major variety of the English language , used throughout Australia
Australia
. Although English has no official status in the Constitution , Australian English is the country's national and _de facto _ official language as it is the first language of the majority of the population . Australian English began to diverge from British English after the founding of the Colony of New South Wales in 1788 and was recognised as being different from British English by 1820. It arose from the intermingling of early settlers from a great variety of mutually intelligible dialectal regions of the British Isles and quickly developed into a distinct variety of English. As a distinct dialect, Australian English differs considerably from other varieties of English in vocabulary , accent , pronunciation , register , grammar and spelling
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New Zealand English
NEW ZEALAND ENGLISH (NZE) is the variant of the English language spoken by most English-speaking New Zealanders . Its language code in ISO and Internet standards is EN-NZ. English is one of New Zealand's three official languages (along with New Zealand Sign Language and the Māori language ) and is the first language of the majority of the population. The English language was established in New Zealand by colonists during the 19th century. It is one of "the newest native-speaker variet of the English language in existence, a variety which has developed and become distinctive only in the last 150 years". The most distinctive influences on New Zealand English have come from Australian English , English in southern England , Irish English , Scottish English , the prestige Received Pronunciation (RP), and Māori. New Zealand English is most similar to Australian English in pronunciation, with some key differences
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British English
BRITISH ENGLISH is the English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom . Variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. For example, the adjective _wee_ is almost exclusively used in parts of Scotland and Ireland , and occasionally Yorkshire , whereas _little_ is predominant elsewhere. Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described by the term British English. The forms of spoken English, however, vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken, so a uniform concept of British English is more difficult to apply to the spoken language. According to Tom McArthur in the _Oxford Guide to World English_, British English shares "all the ambiguities and tensions in the word 'British ' and as a result can be used and interpreted in two ways, more broadly or more narrowly, within a range of blurring and ambiguity". When distinguished from American English , the term "British English" is sometimes used broadly as a synonym for the various varieties of English spoken in some member states of the Commonwealth of Nations
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Irish English
HIBERNO‐ENGLISH (from Latin _ Hibernia
Hibernia
_: "Ireland") or IRISH ENGLISH is the set of English dialects natively written and spoken within the island of Ireland
Ireland
(including both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland
Ireland
). English was brought to Ireland
Ireland
as a result of the Norman invasion of Ireland
Ireland
of the late 12th century. Initially, it was mainly spoken in an area known as the Pale around Dublin
Dublin
, with mostly Irish spoken throughout the rest of the country. By the Tudor period , Irish culture and language had regained most of the territory lost to the colonists: even in the Pale, "all the common folk… for the most part are of Irish birth, Irish habit, and of Irish language". However, the Tudor conquest and colonisation of Ireland
Ireland
in the 16th century marked a revival in the use of English. By the mid-19th century, English was the majority language spoken in the country. It has retained this status to the present day, with even those whose first language is Irish being fluent in English as well
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Indian English
INDIAN ENGLISH is any of the forms of English characteristic of India . English is a _lingua franca _ of India. CONTENTS * 1 English proficiency * 2 Court language * 3 Features of the dialect * 4 History * 5 Phonology * 5.1 Vowels * 5.2 Consonants * 5.3 Spelling pronunciation * 5.4 Supra-segmental features * 6 Morphology and syntax * 7 Numbering system * 8 Vocabulary * 9 Spelling and national differences * 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 References * 13 Further reading * 14 External links ENGLISH PROFICIENCYThough English is one of the two official languages of the Union Government of India, only a few hundred thousand Indians have English as their first language. According to 2001 Census , English is known to 12.6% Indians in the 2001 census. An analysis of the 2001 Census of India, concluded that approximately 86 million Indians reported English as their second language, and another 39 million reported it as their third language. No data was available whether these individuals were English speakers or users. According to the 2005 India
India
Human Development Survey , of the 41,554 surveyed households reported that 72 percent of men (29,918) did not speak any English, 28 percent (11,635) spoke at least some English, and 5 percent (2,077, roughly 17.9% of those who spoke at least some English) spoke fluent English
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Automobile
A CAR (or AUTOMOBILE) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation . Most definitions of _car_ say they run primarily on roads, seat one to eight people, have four tires , and mainly transport people rather than goods. Cars came into global use during the 20th century, and developed economies depend on them. The year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car, when German inventor Karl Benz built his Benz Patent-Motorwagen . Cars did not become widely available until the early 20th century. One of the first cars that was accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T , an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company . Cars were rapidly adopted in the US, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world. Cars have controls for driving, parking, passenger comfort and safety, and controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, making them progressively more complex. Examples include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning , navigation systems , and in car entertainment . Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by an internal combustion engine , fueled by the combustion of fossil fuels . This causes air pollution and are also blamed for contributing to climate change and global warming
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Trunk (automobile)
The TRUNK ( American English ) or BOOT ( British English ) of a car is the vehicle's main storage compartment. CONTENTS * 1 Designs * 2 Openings * 2.1 Door * 2.2 Lid * 2.3 Design history * 2.4 Locks * 3 Etymology * 4 Classification * 5 Safety * 5.1 Active safety by luggage retention * 5.2 Passive safety by luggage retention * 5.3 Barrier nets/grids * 5.4 Inside trunk release * 5.5 Riding in the trunk * 6 Additional functions * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links DESIGNS A trunk in the rear will often contain a spare tire Front storage compartment on a Volkswagen Beetle An open trunk lid on a 1955 Hudson Rambler The trunk or luggage compartment is most often located at the rear of the vehicle. Early designs included an exterior rack mounted on the rear of the vehicle to which it was possible to attach a real luggage trunk . Later designs integrated the storage area into the vehicle's body and evolved to provide a streamlined appearance. The main storage compartment is normally provided at the end of the vehicle opposite to which the engine is located. Some mid-engined or electric cars have luggage compartments both in the front and in the rear of the vehicle
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Rear-engine Design
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