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Second-order Logic
Second-order generally indicates an extended or higher complexity. Specific uses of the term include: in mathematics and logic Second-order approximation, an approximation that includes quadratic terms Second-order arithmetic, an axiomatization allowing quantification of sets of numbers Se
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Second-order Differential Equation
A differential equation is a mathematical equation that relates some function with its derivatives. In applications, the functions usually represent physical quantities, the derivatives represent their rates of change, and the equation defines a relationship between the two. Because such relations are extremely common, differential equations play a prominent role in many disciplines including engineering, physics, economics, and biology. In pure mathematics, differential equations are studied from several different perspectives, mostly concerned with their solutions—the set of functions that satisfy the equation. Only the simplest differential equations are solvable by explicit formulas; however, some properties of solutions of a given differential equation may be determined without finding their exact form. If a self-contained formula for the solution is not available, the solution may be numerically approximated using computers
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Perturbation Theory
Perturbation theory comprises mathematical methods for finding an approximate solution to a problem, by starting from the exact solution of a related, simpler problem. A critical feature of the technique is a middle step that breaks the problem into "solvable" and "perturbation" parts.[1] Perturbation theory is applicable if the problem at hand cannot be solved exactly, but can be formulated by adding a "small" term to the mathematical description of the exactly solvable problem. Perturbation theory leads to an expression for the desired solution in terms of a formal power series in some "small" parameter – known as a perturbation series – that quantifies the deviation from the exactly solvable problem. The leading term in this power series is the solution of the exactly solvable problem, while further terms describe the deviation in the solution, due to the deviation from the initial problem
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Second-order Fluid
A second-order fluid is a fluid where the stress tensor is the sum of all tensors that can be formed from the velocity field with up to two derivatives, much as a Newtonian fluid is formed from derivatives up to first order. This model may be obtained from a retarded motion expansion[1] truncated at the second-order
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Fresnel Lens
A Fresnel lens
Fresnel lens
(/freɪˈnɛl/ fray-NEL or /ˈfrɛznəl/ FREZ-nəl) is a type of compact lens originally developed by French physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel
Augustin-Jean Fresnel
for lighthouses.[1] The design allows the construction of lenses of large aperture and short focal length without the mass and volume of material that would be required by a lens of conventional design. A Fresnel lens
Fresnel lens
can be made much thinner than a comparable conventional lens, in some cases taking the form of a flat sheet
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Second-order Reaction
In chemical kinetics, the order of reaction with respect to a given substance (such as reactant, catalyst or product) is defined as the index, or exponent, to which its concentration term in the rate equation is raised.[1] For the typical rate equation of form r = k [ A ] x [ B ] y . . . displaystyle r;=;k[mathrm A ]^ x [mathrm B ]^ y ... , where [A], [B], ... are concentrations, the reaction orders (or partial reaction orders) are x for substance A and y for substance B, etc. The overall reaction order is the sum x + y + ...
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Second-order Conditioning
In classical conditioning, second-order conditioning or higher-order conditioning is a form of learning in which a stimulus is first made meaningful or consequential for an organism through an initial step of learning, and then that stimulus is used as a basis for learning about some new stimulus. For example, an animal might first learn to associate a bell with food (first-order conditioning), but then learn to associate a light with the bell (second-order conditioning). Honeybees show second-order conditioning during proboscis extension reflex conditioning.[1]Contents1 Three phases in second-order conditioning 2 Models of second-order conditioning 3 In fear conditioning 4 ReferencesThree phases in second-order conditioning[edit] In the SOC procedure, there are three phases. In the first training phase, a conditioned stimulus, (CS1) is followed by an unconditioned stimulus (US). In the second phase, a second-order conditioned stimulus (CS2) is presented along with CS1
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Higher-order Volition
Higher-order volitions (or higher-order desire), as opposed to action-determining volitions, are volitions about volitions. Higher-order volitions are potentially more often guided by long-term convictions and reasoning. A first-order volition is a desire about anything else, such as to own a new car, to meet the pope, or to drink alcohol. Second-order volition are desires about desires, or to desire to change the process, the how, of desiring. Examples would be to desire to want to own[clarify] a new car; meeting the pope; or to desire to quit drinking alcohol permanently
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Second-order Simulacra
Part of the three order simulacra, the second-order simulacra, a term coined by Jean Baudrillard, are symbols of a non faithful representation to the original. Here, signs and images do not faithfully show us reality, but might hint at the existence of something real which the sign itself is incapable of encapsulating.[1] While the first-order simulacra is a faithful copy to the original and the third order are symbols that have become without referents, that is, symbols with no real object to represent but pretends to be a faithful copy of an original. Simply put, a third-order simulacra are symbols in themselves taken for reality and further layer of symbolism is added
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Second-order Stimulus
A second-order stimulus is a form of visual stimulus used in psychophysics in which objects are delineated from their backgrounds by differences of contrast or texture. On the contrary, a stimulus defined by differences in luminance is known as a first-order stimulus. See also[edit]Julesz conjectureThis neuroscience article is a stub
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Second Order (religious)
When referring to Roman Catholic religious orders, the term Second Order refers to those Orders of cloistered nuns which are a part of the mendicant Orders that developed in the Middle Ages.Contents1 History1.1 St. Dominic 1.2 St. Francis 1.3 Later groups2 See alsoHistory[edit] St. Dominic[edit] In early 13th century, St. Dominic Guzman
Dominic Guzman
was a canon regular at the Cathedral of Osma in Spain. He accompanied his bishop on a trip to Denmark
Denmark
to arrange a marriage between the son of the King of Castile and a member of the Danish royal family. On the return trip, Dominic encountered the followers of the Duke
Duke
of Albi
Albi
in southern France. The Duke
Duke
was a leading Cathar, which embraced a gnostic form of Christianity
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Second-order Logic
Second-order generally indicates an extended or higher complexity. Specific uses of the term include: in mathematics and logic Second-order approximation, an approximation that includes quadratic terms Second-order arithmetic, an axiomatization allowing quantification of sets of numbers Se
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Second-order
Second-order generally indicates an extended or higher complexity. Specific uses of the term include: in mathematics and logic Second-order approximation, an approximation that includes quadratic terms Second-order arithmetic, an axiomatization allowing quantification of sets of numbers Se
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Second-order Arithmetic
In mathematical logic, second-order arithmetic is a collection of axiomatic systems that formalize the natural numbers and their subsets. It is an alternative to axiomatic set theory as a foundation for much, but not all, of mathematics. It was introduced by David Hilbert and Paul Bernays
Paul Bernays
in their book Grundlagen der Mathematik. The standard axiomatization of second-order arithmetic is denoted Z2. Second-order arithmetic includes, but is significantly stronger than, its first-order counterpart Peano arithmetic. Unlike Peano arithmetic, second-order arithmetic allows quantification over sets of natural numbers as well as numbers themselves. Because real numbers can be represented as (infinite) sets of natural numbers in well-known ways, and because second order arithmetic allows quantification over such sets, it is possible to formalize the real numbers in second-order arithmetic
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