HOME  TheInfoList.com 
Secondorder Logic Secondorder generally indicates an extended or higher complexity. Specific uses of the term include: in mathematics and logic Secondorder approximation, an approximation that includes quadratic terms Secondorder arithmetic, an axiomatization allowing quantification of sets of numbers Se [...More...]  "Secondorder Logic" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Secondorder Differential Equation A differential equation is a mathematical equation that relates some function with its derivatives. In applications, the functions usually represent physical quantities, the derivatives represent their rates of change, and the equation defines a relationship between the two. Because such relations are extremely common, differential equations play a prominent role in many disciplines including engineering, physics, economics, and biology. In pure mathematics, differential equations are studied from several different perspectives, mostly concerned with their solutions—the set of functions that satisfy the equation. Only the simplest differential equations are solvable by explicit formulas; however, some properties of solutions of a given differential equation may be determined without finding their exact form. If a selfcontained formula for the solution is not available, the solution may be numerically approximated using computers [...More...]  "Secondorder Differential Equation" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Perturbation Theory Perturbation theory comprises mathematical methods for finding an approximate solution to a problem, by starting from the exact solution of a related, simpler problem. A critical feature of the technique is a middle step that breaks the problem into "solvable" and "perturbation" parts.[1] Perturbation theory is applicable if the problem at hand cannot be solved exactly, but can be formulated by adding a "small" term to the mathematical description of the exactly solvable problem. Perturbation theory leads to an expression for the desired solution in terms of a formal power series in some "small" parameter – known as a perturbation series – that quantifies the deviation from the exactly solvable problem. The leading term in this power series is the solution of the exactly solvable problem, while further terms describe the deviation in the solution, due to the deviation from the initial problem [...More...]  "Perturbation Theory" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Secondorder Fluid A secondorder fluid is a fluid where the stress tensor is the sum of all tensors that can be formed from the velocity field with up to two derivatives, much as a Newtonian fluid is formed from derivatives up to first order. This model may be obtained from a retarded motion expansion[1] truncated at the secondorder [...More...]  "Secondorder Fluid" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Fresnel Lens A Fresnel lens Fresnel lens (/freɪˈnɛl/ frayNEL or /ˈfrɛznəl/ FREZnəl) is a type of compact lens originally developed by French physicist AugustinJean Fresnel AugustinJean Fresnel for lighthouses.[1] The design allows the construction of lenses of large aperture and short focal length without the mass and volume of material that would be required by a lens of conventional design. A Fresnel lens Fresnel lens can be made much thinner than a comparable conventional lens, in some cases taking the form of a flat sheet [...More...]  "Fresnel Lens" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Secondorder Reaction In chemical kinetics, the order of reaction with respect to a given substance (such as reactant, catalyst or product) is defined as the index, or exponent, to which its concentration term in the rate equation is raised.[1] For the typical rate equation of form r = k [ A ] x [ B ] y . . . displaystyle r;=;k[mathrm A ]^ x [mathrm B ]^ y ... , where [A], [B], ... are concentrations, the reaction orders (or partial reaction orders) are x for substance A and y for substance B, etc. The overall reaction order is the sum x + y + ... [...More...]  "Secondorder Reaction" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Secondorder Conditioning In classical conditioning, secondorder conditioning or higherorder conditioning is a form of learning in which a stimulus is first made meaningful or consequential for an organism through an initial step of learning, and then that stimulus is used as a basis for learning about some new stimulus. For example, an animal might first learn to associate a bell with food (firstorder conditioning), but then learn to associate a light with the bell (secondorder conditioning). Honeybees show secondorder conditioning during proboscis extension reflex conditioning.[1]Contents1 Three phases in secondorder conditioning 2 Models of secondorder conditioning 3 In fear conditioning 4 ReferencesThree phases in secondorder conditioning[edit] In the SOC procedure, there are three phases. In the first training phase, a conditioned stimulus, (CS1) is followed by an unconditioned stimulus (US). In the second phase, a secondorder conditioned stimulus (CS2) is presented along with CS1 [...More...]  "Secondorder Conditioning" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Higherorder Volition Higherorder volitions (or higherorder desire), as opposed to actiondetermining volitions, are volitions about volitions. Higherorder volitions are potentially more often guided by longterm convictions and reasoning. A firstorder volition is a desire about anything else, such as to own a new car, to meet the pope, or to drink alcohol. Secondorder volition are desires about desires, or to desire to change the process, the how, of desiring. Examples would be to desire to want to own[clarify] a new car; meeting the pope; or to desire to quit drinking alcohol permanently [...More...]  "Higherorder Volition" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Secondorder Simulacra Part of the three order simulacra, the secondorder simulacra, a term coined by Jean Baudrillard, are symbols of a non faithful representation to the original. Here, signs and images do not faithfully show us reality, but might hint at the existence of something real which the sign itself is incapable of encapsulating.[1] While the firstorder simulacra is a faithful copy to the original and the third order are symbols that have become without referents, that is, symbols with no real object to represent but pretends to be a faithful copy of an original. Simply put, a thirdorder simulacra are symbols in themselves taken for reality and further layer of symbolism is added [...More...]  "Secondorder Simulacra" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Secondorder Stimulus A secondorder stimulus is a form of visual stimulus used in psychophysics in which objects are delineated from their backgrounds by differences of contrast or texture. On the contrary, a stimulus defined by differences in luminance is known as a firstorder stimulus. See also[edit]Julesz conjectureThis neuroscience article is a stub [...More...]  "Secondorder Stimulus" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Second Order (religious) When referring to Roman Catholic religious orders, the term Second Order refers to those Orders of cloistered nuns which are a part of the mendicant Orders that developed in the Middle Ages.Contents1 History1.1 St. Dominic 1.2 St. Francis 1.3 Later groups2 See alsoHistory[edit] St. Dominic[edit] In early 13th century, St. Dominic Guzman Dominic Guzman was a canon regular at the Cathedral of Osma in Spain. He accompanied his bishop on a trip to Denmark Denmark to arrange a marriage between the son of the King of Castile and a member of the Danish royal family. On the return trip, Dominic encountered the followers of the Duke Duke of Albi Albi in southern France. The Duke Duke was a leading Cathar, which embraced a gnostic form of Christianity [...More...]  "Second Order (religious)" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Special Special Special or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special Special (album), a 1992 [...More...]  "Special" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Secondorder Logic Secondorder generally indicates an extended or higher complexity. Specific uses of the term include: in mathematics and logic Secondorder approximation, an approximation that includes quadratic terms Secondorder arithmetic, an axiomatization allowing quantification of sets of numbers Se [...More...]  "Secondorder Logic" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Secondorder Secondorder generally indicates an extended or higher complexity. Specific uses of the term include: in mathematics and logic Secondorder approximation, an approximation that includes quadratic terms Secondorder arithmetic, an axiomatization allowing quantification of sets of numbers Se [...More...]  "Secondorder" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Secondorder Arithmetic In mathematical logic, secondorder arithmetic is a collection of axiomatic systems that formalize the natural numbers and their subsets. It is an alternative to axiomatic set theory as a foundation for much, but not all, of mathematics. It was introduced by David Hilbert and Paul Bernays Paul Bernays in their book Grundlagen der Mathematik. The standard axiomatization of secondorder arithmetic is denoted Z2. Secondorder arithmetic includes, but is significantly stronger than, its firstorder counterpart Peano arithmetic. Unlike Peano arithmetic, secondorder arithmetic allows quantification over sets of natural numbers as well as numbers themselves. Because real numbers can be represented as (infinite) sets of natural numbers in wellknown ways, and because second order arithmetic allows quantification over such sets, it is possible to formalize the real numbers in secondorder arithmetic [...More...]  "Secondorder Arithmetic" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 